2525 Gen. xxxii. 31. L. R. V. Penuel. Comp. Mt. xix. 4.
2626 Ib. 30. The words are Jacob’s, but they are attributed to Moses as author.
2727 Gen. xxxix. 23.
2828 Gen. xlvi. 3, Gen. xlvi. 4.
2929 Ex. xi. and Ex. xii.
3030 Prov. iii. 5, Prov. iii. 6.
3131 Ps. v. 8.
3232 Prov. xvi. 3.
3333 2 Cor. ii. 16.
3434 2 Cor. iii. 4–6.
3535 2 Cor. iv. 7.
3636 2 Cor. x. 17, 2 Cor. x. 18.
3737 2 Cor. xii. 11.
3838 S. Luke v. 8.
3939 S. John xv. 5.
4040 S. John vi. 44.
4141 Esther vi. i.
4242 Ps. lxxxix. 48.
4343 Ezek. xviii. 4.
4444 S. Matt. viii. 25.
4545 S. Matt. v. 8.
4646 Ps. cxix. 1.
4747 Gen. xvii. 1, Gen. xvii. 2.
4848 1 Cor. xiii. 9, 1 Cor. xiii. 10.
4949 S. Matt. vii. 11.
5050 Gen. xvii. 1 sq.
5151 Ex. xxxiii. 20.
5252 1 Tim. i. 17, 1 Tim. vi. 16.
5353 i. 18.
5454 1 Cor. iv. 8.
5555 Cant. iv. 7.
5656 Phil. ii. 15.
5757 1 John iii. 2.
5858 See S. Aug. De Gest. Pelag. §16. The widow was Juliana, mother to Demetrias (to whom Jerome addressed his Letter CXXX. “On the keeping of Virginity”). Pelagius’ letter to Demetrias is found in Jerome’s works (Ed. Vall.), vol. xi. col. 15.
5959 The whole passage, as quoted by Augustin, runs as follows: “May piety find with thee a place which it has never found elsewhere. May truth, which no one now knows, be thy household friend; and the law of God, which is despised by almost all men, be honoured by thee alone.” “How happy, how blessed art thou, if that justice which we are to believe exists only in heaven is found with thee alone upon earth.” Then follow the words quoted above.
6060 S. Luke xviii. 11.
6161 Prov. xiii. 8.
6262 Is. xiv. 13, Is. xiv. 14. Spoken of the King of Babylon.
6363 Ps. xxxviii. 7. Vulg.
6464 Ibid. 5.
6565 Ps. cxliii. 2.
6666 Ibid. 4.
6767 Ps. cxvi. 11.
6868 Rom. iii. 4.
6969 Is. vi. 5.
7070 Ps. cxx. 3. Vulg.
7171 James iii. 2.
7272 Ps. xxii. 2; Sept. and Ps. xxii. 2 Vulgate. S. Matt xxvii. 46, R. V., “and from the words of my roaring.”
7373 S. Luke xxiii. 46.
7474 S. Luke xxiii, 34.
7575 S. Matt. xi. 25.
7676 Ps. xxi. 1.
7777 S. Luke xviii. 13.
7878 Is. iii. 12.
7979 The grandfather of the Triumvir, born b.c. 142, died in the civil conflict excited by Marius, b.c. 87.
8080 Tit. iii. 10.
8181 Rom. v 14.
8282 Cyp. Ep. 64 (al. 59). S. Augustine preaching at Carthage on June 27, 413, quoted the same letter, which was a Synodical letter of a.d. 253. See Bright’s Anti-Pelagian Treatises, Introduction, p. xxi.
8383 Marcellinus was the lay imperial commissioner appointed to superintend the discussion between the Catholics and Donatists at the Council of Carthage, a.d. 411. In 413 Heraclian, governor of Africa, revolted against Honorius, the Emperor, and invaded Italy. The enterprise failed, and on his return to Africa the promoter of it was put to death. The Donatists, called by Jerome “heretics,” are supposed to have accused Marcellinus of taking part in the rebellion. He was executed in 414.
8484 “On the Deserts and Remission of Sins, and the Baptism of Infants,” in three books, the earliest of S. Augustin’s Anti-Pelagian treatises. It was composed in reply to a letter from his friend Marcellinus, who was harassed by Pelagianising disputants. See S. Aug. “De Gest. Pel.” §25.
8585 S. John iii. 3.
8686 The “De Spiritu et Littera.” Marcellinus found a difficulty in Augustin’s view of the question of sinlessness. See Bright’s Anti-Pelagian Treatises, Introduction, p. xix.
8787 Whether he who was made Bishop of Arles, in 429, is disputed. The treatise was the “De Natura et Gratia,” written early in 415.
8888 Sat. i. 10.
8989 Or, better positions have been occupied.
9090 Origen held the pre-existence of souls, endowed with free will, and supposed their condition in this world to be the result of their conduct in their previous state of probation.
11 Vincentius appears to have attached himself to Jerome at Constantinople and remained with him till the end of the century. (Jerome, Against John of Jerusalem, 41; Apol., iii. 22; Letter LXXXVIII.) Nothing is known of Gallienus.
22 Flourished b.c. 270.
33 That is, Horace.
44 Sublimia debent ingredi.—Quint, 9, 4 fin.
55 Nothing is known of these men. It is very improbable that this Valerianus was the bishop of Apuleia, who must, however, have been known to Jerome.
66 Terence’s rival, to whom he makes allusions in the Prologi to the Eunuchus, Heoutontimoroumenos and Phormio.
77 Repetundarum. Properly an action to compel one who has left office to restore public money which he had embezzled.
88 Hor. Odes II., x. 19, 20.
99 Virgil, Ec., vi. 10.
1010 Ipsa testimonia. This is what he calls in other places Hebraica veritas. Jerome was right in the main in correcting the LXX, and other Greek versions by the Hebrew. He was not aware (as has been since made clear) that there are various readings in the Hebrew itself, and that these may sometimes be corrected by the LXX., which was made from older mss.
1111 That is, by the obeli (†), to show what has been left out, and the asterisk (*), to show what has been inserted.
1212 That is, from the copies of the LXX. commonly used in the fourth century.
1313 Larger Commentaries.
1414 Daughter of Paula. See Letter XXXIX.
11 Made pope 366, died 384. Jerome had been his secretary at the Council held at Rome in 382, and continued is literary services till the pope’s death, in 385.
22 That is, after being translated from Hebrew into Greek, and from Greek into Latin.
33 Aquila belonged to the second century, but whether to the first half, or to the early part of the second half, cannot be determined. He was a Jewish proselyte, of Sinope in Pontus, and is supposed to have translated the books of the Old Testament into Greek in order to assist the Hellenistic Jews in their controversies with Christians. Jerome’s estimate of him varied from time to time. In his commentary on Hos. ii., Is. xlix., and Letter XXVIII., etc., he treats him as worthy of credit. On the other hand, in the letter to Pammachius. De Opt. Gen. Interp. (LVII. 11), he describes him as contentiosus; but in Letter XXXVI. 12, he denies that he is such. In the preface to Job he speaks of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion as “Judaising heretics, who by their deceitful translation have concealed many mysteries of salvation.” The second edition of Aquila’s version, which was extremely literal, was highly esteemed by the Jews, and was called by them the Hebrew verity. See Davidson’s “Biblical Criticism,” p. 215, etc.
44 Symmachus was the author of the third Greek version. He is said to have been a Samaritan by birth. The date of his version cannot be accurately fixed; but, apparently, it appeared after Theodotion’s. “He does not adhere to the text so closely as to render it verbatim into Greek; but chooses to express the same in perspicuous and intelligible language.”—Davidson.
55 Theodotion, the author of the second Greek version, was a native of Ephesus. His version is thought to have been made before 160. “The mode of translation adopted by him holds an intermediate place between the scrupulous literality of Aquila and the free interpretation of Symmachus,” and his work was more highly valued by Christians than that of either Aquila or Symmachus. Daniel was read in his version in the churches (Pref. to Joshua).
66 Lucian in Syria and Hesychius in Egypt attempted their recensions about the middle of the third century, the time when Origen also began to labour in the same direction. Lucian’s recension, also called the Constantinopolitan, and to which the Slavonian and Gothic versions belong, spread over Asia Minor and Thrace. See the Preface to the Chronicles. It was decreed by a council held under Pope Gelasius, a.d. 494, that “the Gospels which Lucian and Hesychius falsified are apocryphal.”
11 That is, the square character which was of Assyrian origin. As to how far the tradition is true, see Davidson’s “Biblical Criticisms” (1854), p. 22, and the authorities there referred to.
22 iii. 39. All the males from a month old and upwards are said to have been twenty-two thousand.
33 These are the alphabetical Psalms which, being mainly didactic, were written acrostically to assist the memory. Others partially acrostic are ix., x., xxv., xxxiv., to make the alphabet complete in xxxvii. [
in verse 28 must be supposed to be represented by µlr[l
55 The laws or instructions of Ezra. By many of the Jews Ezra was regarded as the author of the Twelve Prophets.
66 Jerome has in the text the Greek equivalent paraleipomenwn.
77 That is, Ezra and Nehemiah.
88 Paula and Eustochium.
99 Ps. xxxix. 2 sq.
1111 A small fish well known to the ancients, but apparently not identified with any species known to us.
1212 Job iii. 3.
1313 xlii. 6.
1414 Reading studiosum me magis quam malevolum probet. Substituting se for me, according to some manuscripts, we must translate “and thus show that he is actuated more by a love of learning than by malice.”
1515 x. 11.
1616 To split. The word has no sort of etymological connection with scino". Susanna, 54, 55, 58, 59. When the first elder says the crime was committed under a mastich tree (schinos), Daniel answers, “God shall cut thee in two” (schisei).
1717 The mastich tree.
1818 To saw.
1919 The holm-oak.
2020 In the LXX. the story of Bel and the Dragon bears a special heading as “part of the prophecy of Habakkuk.”—Westcott. The angel is said to have carried Habakkuk with a dish of food in his hand for Daniel from Judaea to Babylon.
2121 Cor. xii. 2.
2222 The bitter enemy of the Christian faith. Born at Tyre 223. Died at Rome about 304.
2323 Bishop of Patara in Lycia, and afterwards of Tyre. Suffered martydom 302 or 303.
11 See Preface to Ezra (Vulgate).
22 That is, the allegorical or mystical sense.
33 Alieno stomacho.
44 Didymus, the blind teacher of Alexandria.
55 He became bishop of Laodicea about 362. About 376 his followers became a sect, and about the same time he set up bishops of his own at Antioch and elsewhere.
66 Probably from Batanea, the ancient Bashan, where Porphyry is said to have been born.
77 “The patriarch (of the Montanists) resided at Pepuza, a small town or village in Phrygia, to which the sectaries gave the mystical name of Jerusalem, as believing that it would be the seat of the Millennial Kingdom, which was the chief subject of their hopes. Hence they derived the names of Pepuzians and Cataphrygians.”—Robertson, Ch. Hist., vol. i. p. 76.
88 The Ophites, who took their name from ofi", a serpent, supposed the serpent of Genesis iii. to have been either the Divine Wisdom or the Christ Himself, come to set men free from the ignorance in which the Demiurge wished to keep them. The sect began in the second century and lasted until the sixth.
99 The Ben. editor prefers the form Tascodrogi, and states that it is the Phrygian or Galatian equivalent for Passaloryncitae. The sect is said to have been so called from their habit of putting the finger to the nose when praying.
1010 Heretics who made offerings of bread and cheese (arto-turo". Arto-tyros).—Aug. de Haeres, No. 28.
1111 The people who lived between the Moselle and the Forest of Ardennes in and about the modern Treves.
1212 The Athenaeum was the name specially given to a school founded by the Emperor Hadrian at Rome, about a.d. 133, for the promotion of literary and scientific studies. The word denoted in general any place consecrated to the goddess Athena.
1313 Angulis. So. Cic. Rep. i. 2.
1515 That is. Rufinus. See Preface to Book xii. of Isaiah, where Ruffnus is called Grunnius Corocotta Porcellus, and Preface to Book iv. of Jeremiah.
1616 Scotorum pultibus praegravatus. The words have been translated “made fat with Scotch flummery” (Stillingfleet). Another rendering is, “having his belly filled and his head bedulled with Scotch porridge” (Wall on Infant Baptism, pt. i.c. 19, §3). Some think the words refer to Celestius, Pelagius’ Supporter.
1717 The letter to Pammachius (Jer. Letter XLVIII.) in defence of the book against Jovinianus.
1818 Jovinian was condemned in a Synod at Rome about 390. Thirty years had thus passed since the events occurred to which Jerome refers. See Preface to the treatise against Jovinian.
1919 Under whose care Eustochium had been trained.
2020 By the Goths under Alaric. The city was taken in a.d. 410.
2121 Ps. xxxix. 3, Ps. xxxix. 4.
2222 Ecclus. xxii. 6.
2323 Rufinus who died a.d. 410, in Sicily, on his way to the Holy Land from Aquileia and Rome, whence he had been driven by the troubles in Italy.
2424 The giants who bore those names. See Hor. III. od. 4.
2525 These four and Habakkuk are mentioned in the De Vir. Ill. (a.d. 492), and were written about that date, Jonah three years after, but Obadiah probably not till 403. The rest are fixed to the Sixth Consulate of Arcadius, 406.
2626 But see Preface to Jonah, which is addressed to Chromatius.
2727 The year a.d. 406.
2Roberts, Alexander and Donaldson, James, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series: Volume VI, (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.) 1997.