Health, disease, death and geography What’s geography got to do with disease and health?



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Health, disease, death... and geography

What’s geography got to do with disease and health?

What? Where? Why?

  • With no spatial, map-based examination of the relationship between disease and location, we might only be effectively investigating the sociology of disease

Mapping disease, risk and health

  • patterns and relationships emerge
  • questions arise and
  • Processes become clearer
  • Solutions can be explored

Communicable and non-communicable diseases

  • Worldwide, one death in three is the result of an infectious disease
  • Almost all the deaths from infectious disease occur in the non-industrialised world.
  • The biggest killers in the industrialised world are non infectious diseases 

How are infections spread?

  • From person to person
  • Through viruses, bacteria and parasites
  • More than a third of the world’s population is infected with worms!

Infectious and parasitic diseases caused 19% of all deaths worldwide in 2002

  • WorldMapper - The maps presented on this website are equal area cartograms, otherwise known as density-equalising maps. The cartogram re-sizes each territory according to the variable being mapped. 

What’s going to get you?

  • The pie graphs show the different causes of death between developed and developing regions of the world. These areas correspond closely with the non-industrialised and industrialised parts of the world. As the graph shows, the majority of people in Developing regions die of communicable diseases, while in developed regions deaths are due largely to non-communicable diseases.

Health and Human behaviour

  • http://ucatlas.ucsc.edu/
  • Cheryl Cole struck down with malaria: Holiday illness puts singer in hospital
  • Tanzania
  • Images removed for copyright reasons

Worldwide, more than 500 million people become severely ill with malaria every year. One child dies of the disease every 30 seconds.

  • Picture taken April 8, 2008. (Katrina Manson/Reuters)" http://timpanogos.wordpress.com/2008/11/03/beating-malaria-without-ddt/
  • Images removed for copyright reasons

Geographical Enquiry – the Challenge

  • Creating a sequence where pupils are building up the knowledge, understanding and skills to answer a particular enquiry question.
  • A question that enables the students to be aware of where they're 'going' all the way through the sequence - this helps them know why they're doing what they're doing - it is not just 'a lesson on...' but it is a journey towards solving a puzzle or constructing an answer.
  • A good enquiry question is engaging, making you want to answer it, and gives opportunity for careful and challenging development of those pupils' geographical learning.
  • What range of strategies and activities might you set up to engage your students?

Does poverty explain the impact of malaria in African countries?

  • http://malarianomore.org.uk/
  • Image removed for copyright reasons

Gapminder

Gapminder

  • http://www.gapminder.org

Assess the reasons why the global distribution of deaths due to malaria is very uneven (15 marks)

  • A good essay ought to include discussion of some of the following points and make reference to named locations and specific examples.
  • • Refer to the geographical spread of malaria .
  • • Show an awareness of locations where the death rate has been particularly high (e.g. sub-Saharan Africa).
  • • Focus on measures taken to reduce the death rate at a variety of scales – national, international and local.
  • • Make a judgment (to reach level 3) about the reasons for unevenness in the global distribution of deaths.

Starting a concept map

  • Why does Malaria have a high impact in Africa?
  • You could also link the different explanations with arrows to show
  • how some reasons are related
  • A key reason
  • Brief explanation
  • A named example
  • A key reason
  • A named example
  • Brief explanation
  • A key reason
  • A named example
  • Brief explanation
  • Concept Mapping
  • Concept Mapping
  • A key reason
  • Brief explanation
  • A named example
  • This is a useful skill for students to develop that can be applied to a range of situations, encouraging them to explore how different issues are linked, to think creatively and to evaluate how important each issue is.

Concept Mapping

  • Health provision
  • Environmental conditions/change
  • Living conditions
  • Education - Information and misinformation
  • Climate
  • Politics and religion
  • prejudice
  • Profit
  • Intervention strategies
  • Diffusion - rate of spread
  • Lifestyles and attitudes to risk
  • Rich or poor
  • Causes of the disease
  • To what extent?

Key Reasons

The geography of malaria

  • Malaria is currently endemic in 91 countries with small pockets of transmission occurring in a further eight countries. Eighty per cent of the cases occur in tropical Africa, where malaria accounts for 10% to 30% of all hospital admissions and is responsible for 15% to 25% of all deaths of children under the age of five. It is estimated that a single bout of malaria costs a sum equivalent to over 10 working days in Africa. 
  • Malaria deaths
  • Four fifths of malaria cases are found in 13 countries
  • http://www.who.int/malaria/world_malaria_report_2010/worldmalariareport2010.pdf
  • Climate
  • Worst affected areas;
  • Temperatures between 16°C and 32°C
  • Annual rainfall above 2000mm
  • Below 1500m
  • Location
  • Regions most affected are the Tropics and sub tropics. Rainforests and savanna;
  • Four fifths of malaria cases in 13 countries – the worst are Nigeria, Congo, Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya.
  • Some countries have seasonal outbreaks due to a rainy season – e.g. Kenya, Zambia

Poverty and remoteness

  • Malaria affects the poor and those living in rural areas more due to limited access to both prevention and treatment.
  • A vicious cycle of poverty continues as malaria reduces productivity and social stability. Families affected by malaria clear 60 percent less crops than those free of the disease.

Age

  • Infectious diseases disproportionately affect children and childhood death rates.
  • A baby girl born in Sub-Saharan Africa faces a 22 per cent risk of death before age 15. (In Industrialized countries the risk is just 1.1 per cent).
  • Why might this be so?

Lack of Education

  • Zambian Basic Education Course, NUTRITION EDUCATION, Supplementary Material 
  • Education is vital to malaria prevention. Between 2003 and 2006 GSK funded the NGO Freedom from Hunger project in West Africa, enabling it to bring financial services and education to poor women in West Africa.
  • PLUS - The study also showed that education must be accompanied with financial support. The most common reasons for non-use of Insecticide treated nets (ITNs) were their expense and lack of local availability.

Lack of health workers

  • Botswana - received funding from the Clinton foundation as well as global fund for developing countries, and so had all the funding it needed to tackle the 280,000 cases needing treatment. However, only 82,000 people received the necessary drugs.
  • The reason? There are so few health workers there. Most of them are recruited by South Africa and the UK.

Remoteness and inaccessibility

  • Zimbabwe's province of Matabeleland North -
  • The decaying road infrastructure prevented anti-malaria spraying teams from reaching the area, and is being blamed for an outbreak of the disease.

Counterfeit drugs

  • Fake anti-malarial drugs are an increasingly serious problem, particularly in South-East Asia and Africa. In countries with a large burden of malaria, such as Myanmar (Burma), the Lao PDR, Cambodia and Viet Nam, as many as half of all artesunate tablets -- one of the most effective anti-malarial drugs -- is counterfeit.

Pharmaceutical companies attitudes

Lack of funding

  • It is estimated that $5 billion would be needed each year to effectively control malaria. Only about $1.7 billion is given by malaria endemic country governments, donor governments, and UN agencies per year towards this cause.

Politics?

  • The Global Fund to Fight Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria froze its donations to Zimbabwe in 2008 after President Mugabe's central bank was found to have pilfered £4.5 million from funds meant to combat disease.

War

  • The Second Congo War (1998-2003) was the largest war in modern African history, involving eight African nations. By 2008 the war and its aftermath had killed 5.4 million people, mostly from disease and starvation.  
  • The Democratic Republic of Congo accounts for 11% of all the malaria cases in Africa.
  • The aftermath of war, poverty and lack of resources in the Congo prevents the creation of a malaria control program.
  • A Rwandan soldier carries his weapon through the village of Pinga in eastern Congo.
  • Photograph: Finbarr O'Reilly/Reuters
  • Image removed for copyright reasons
  • Student Experiences
  • Geography: the subject
  • Teacher Choices
  • Underpinned by Key Concepts
  • Thinking Geographically
  • Learning Activity
  • How does this take the learner beyond what they already know?
  • Curriculum Making
  • Learning Objectives
  • What would be your learning objectives?
  • What would be your key question(s)?
  • Structuring the learning
  • What strategies might you use to develop the enquiry sequence and build a concept map?
  • What other information do you need?

Obesity

  • Image from; http://tinyurl.com/254dgtp
  • Would you feel comfortable tackling this issue in geography lessons at school?
  • Image removed for copyright reasons

Starting a concept map

  • Obesity – A disease of the rich?
  • A key reason
  • A named example
  • Brief explanation
  • You could also link the different explanations with arrows to show
  • how some reasons are related
  • A key reason
  • Brief explanation
  • A named example
  • A key reason
  • A named example
  • Brief explanation
  • A key reason
  • A named example
  • Brief explanation
  • Concept Mapping
  • Concept Mapping
  • A key reason
  • Brief explanation
  • A named example
  • Your Turn..... How would you approach obesity?
  • Key Questions
  • Learning Objectives
  • What would be your learning objectives?
  • What would be your key question(s)?
  • Structuring the learning
  • What strategies might you use to develop the enquiry sequence and build a concept map? Address global/regional/local distributions/differences? Sensitivities?
  • What other information do you need?
  • Reflections.......
  • Top Spec Geography: Health Issues in Geography
  • Dan Cowling and Bob Digby
  • Key Stage: P16
  • ISBN: 978-1-84377-252-1
  • Published: 2010
  •  
  • Price to members: £14.99
  • Further resources.......
  • Living Geography: Exciting futures for teachers and students
  • David Mitchell


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