Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm



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Hymnary


(from Lat. liber hymnarius, hymnarium).

A liturgical book of the Western Church containing the metrical hymns sung at each of the Hours of the Divine Office. It is sometimes combined with a psalter (see Psalter, liturgical), an Antiphoner, or other book destined for the Office. See also Liturgy and liturgical books, §II, 3(vi), and Hymn, §II.


Hymnody.


See under Gospel music and hymn.

Hymnologus


(Lat., from Gk. humnologos: ‘singing hymns’).

A term used to denote a professional (Greek) singer in Latin antiquity. See Cybele.


Hymn Society in the United States and Canada.


Organization founded in 1922 as the Hymn Society of America to encourage the singing of hymns in congregations of all faiths, foster research in the field of hymnology and promote the writing of new hymn words and music. By 1995 the society had approved, copyrighted and made available to publishers and individuals more than 400 hymns. It publishes a scholarly and practical quarterly, The Hymn (1949–), a biannual newsletter called The Stanza (1976–), and occasional monographs on hymnology. In 1984 it published on microfilm the Dictionary of American Hymnology (edited by Leonard Ellinwood and Elizabeth Lockwood), a comprehensive index to the texts of more than 8000 hymnals published in North America.

RITA H. MEAD/R


Hynninen, Jorma


(b Leppävirta, 3 April 1941). Finnish baritone. While teaching at a Kuopio primary school he studied at the conservatory there, and continued his studies at the Sibelius Academy in Helsinki. Having made his Helsinki début in 1969 (Silvio, Pagliacci), he undertook many lyric baritone roles there before making his international début as Pelléas at La Scala in 1977. But Hynninen’s intense, fiery eloquence as a singing actor first drew widespread attention when he created the role of Topi in Sallinen’s The Red Line (1978, Helsinki; repeated in London, 1979, Moscow, 1982, and New York, 1983); to the leading roles of the two successive Sallinen operas, The King Goes Forth to France (1984, Savonlinna) and Kullervo (1992, Los Angeles), he brought similar magnetism of personality and lean, fine-grained beauty of voice. Hynninen has inspired other Finnish composers, notably Rautavaara, to write operas for him. More recently he has broadened his Verdi and Wagner repertory to include Macbeth, Telramund and Amfortas. A passionate exponent of the Finnish song repertory (much of which he has committed to disc), he is no less vivid in lieder, as his recordings of Schubert, Schumann and Brahms confirm. He has made many international appearances in, and several recordings of, the baritone part in Sibelius’s Kullervo Symphony. In 1984 Hynninen became artistic director of the Finnish National Opera, and in 1993 artistic director of the Savonlinna Festival.

BIBLIOGRAPHY


H. Finch: ‘Jorma Hynninen’, Opera, xlvi (1995), 768–73

MAX LOPPERT


Hynnis, William.


See Hunnis, William.

Hyperaeolian.


One of the two tonoi (the other being Hyperlydian) added to Aristoxenus's system of 13; Alypius (c360) was the first to mention these. Glarean used the term in the Dodecachordon (1547) to designate the octave species B–b divided at f; thus B–c–d–e–f + f–g–a–b. Although he did not accept it as one of his 12 modes, he nonetheless printed examples of it. Chapter 8 of the second book gives a plainsong melody invented by Glarean himself which, in turn, became the basis for the three-part polyphonic example of Hyperaeolian commissioned from his friend Sixtus Dietrich, and which appears as ex.47 in the third book (ex.48 is the Christe from a mass by Pierre de La Rue). The Hyperaeolian octave species was thus the basis of what is now popularly referred to as the Locrian mode.

HAROLD S. POWERS


Hyperion.


English record company. Founded in London in 1980 by Edward Perry, it produces recordings of music of all styles and periods from the 12th century to the 20th, though generally eschewing the more popular, often-recorded works. About 80 new titles are issued each year. It has specialized in music before 1800 and British music. Particularly noteworthy is the English Orpheus series, including works by Arne, Blow, Boyce, Croft, Dibdin, Locke, Philips and the Linleys, much of it directed by Peter Holman. The catalogue also includes Purcell’s complete anthems, odes and welcome songs, and several of Handel’s otherwise unrecorded oratorios. Other projects include extended series of Haydn symphonies and string quartets, the complete songs of Schubert, recorded under the supervision of Graham Johnson, Liszt’s complete piano music played by Leslie Howard (95 CDs), the complete works of Robert Simpson and a series of neglected 19th- and 20th-century Romantic piano concertos.

TED PERRY


Hyperlydian.


See Hyperaeolian.

Hypoaeolian.


The name assigned by Glarean in the Dodecachordon (1547) to the plagal mode on A, which uses the diatonic octave species e–e', divided at the Final a and composed of a second species of 4th (semitone–tone–tone) plus a first species of 5th (tone–semitone–tone–tone), thus e–f–g–a + a–b–c'–d'–e' (see also Aeolian (i)). For his plainchant examples Glarean proposed two important and well-known Gregorian melody types normally written with their finals on a: the antiphon type Benedicta tu in mulieribus (‘mode 4 transposed’) and the mode 2 transposed gradual type Haec dies – Justus ut palma. Among the polyphonic examples cited is Josquin's five-voice Miserere mei Deus, though Aaron had cited it in his Trattato (1525) as an instance of mode 3 – Glarean's Phrygian – with its final on the psalm-tone difference a.

See Mode, §III, 3(i) and 4(ii).

HAROLD S. POWERS


Hypodorian.


The common name for the second of the eight church modes, the plagal mode on D. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance the Hypodorian mode was described in two ways: as the diatonic octave species from A to a, divided at the Final d and composed of a first species of 4th (tone–semitone–tone) plus a first species of 5th (tone–semitone–tone–tone), thus A–B–c–d + d–e–f–g–a; and as a mode whose final was d and whose Ambitus was G–b. In addition to the final, the note f – the tenor of the corresponding 2nd psalm tone – was regarded as an important melodic function in the 2nd church mode.

In the Renaissance the connotations of the term ‘Hypodorian’ as a church mode were extended to the polyphonic sphere. In modally ordered sets of pieces, by far the commonest pattern (though not the only one) was that both the authentic and plagal modes on D were set in the cantus mollis (i.e. with a one-flat signature); their finals were now G, and other modal functions were likewise transposed up a 4th. The distinction between the higher authentic and the lower plagal ranges is represented in Palestrina's second book of Madrigali spirituali (1594), in which nos.1–10 are set in cantus mollis ending on G, by the use of Chiavette: in nos.1–5, chiavette indicate the (authentic) Dorian mode, while nos.6–10 have normal soprano, alto, tenor and bass clefs representing the (plagal) Hypodorian mode.

‘Hypodorian mode’ is occasionally used to describe European folksongs in which the relationship of the most prominent scale degree (the final or the apparent tonic) to the scale type seems similar to that of the Hypodorian church mode.

For the early history of Greek-derived modal names see Dorian. See also Mode.

HAROLD S. POWERS

Hypoionian.


The name assigned by Glarean in the Dodecachordon (1547) to the plagal mode on C, which uses the diatonic octave species g–g' divided at its Final, c', and consisting of a third species of 4th (tone–tone–semitone) plus a fourth species of 5th (tone–tone–semitone–tone), thus g–a–b–c' + c'–d'–e'–f'–g'. Glarean, and those who followed him in classifying polyphonic music, regarded compositions set in cantus mollis (i.e. with a one-flat signature) and having F as the principal scale degree as embodying transpositions of the Ionian or Hypoionian mode. Most 16th-century musicians, however, seemed to consider such compositions as embodiments of the 5th and 6th modes of the traditional set of eight, which from the beginnings of medieval modal theory had required the prevalence of b over b for their fourth degree above the final, f; this b corresponds to f' in the Hypoionian mode (see Lydian and Hypolydian).

Ex.1 shows the tenors of two compositions by Josquin Des Prez that were printed in the Dodecachordon as instances of the Hypoionian mode. There is no way of knowing how Josquin himself might have designated their modes, but had he even thought of them as modal at all (ex.1a was a popular song) it would have been in terms of the original eight church modes, there being no other framework current in Josquin's time. In chapter 7 of Aaron's Trattato … di … tuoni di canto figurato (1525), ex.1a, under the title Coment peult hauer ioye, is assigned to the Mixolydian mode (mode 7) because of its Ambitus g–g' (Aaron allowed c' as an alternative final in the 7th mode because c' is the last note of one of the differences of the 7th psalm tone). It is more likely, however, that a practising musician would have thought of this tenor, as well as that given in ex.1b, as being in a transposition of the Hypolydian mode up a 5th, with a ubiquitous lowered fourth scale degree. This transposition of the Hypolydian mode, with its new final or ‘confinalis’ on c', was used frequently not only in Gregorian chant but also later in the 16th century in polyphonic collections ordered according to the church modes. Such a collection was described in a letter of Leonhardt Lechner, a pupil of Orlande de Lassus (see G. Reichert: ‘Martin Crusius und die Musik in Tübingen um 1590’, AMw, x (1953), 185–202):

And this is the plain and simple old school of thought about the modes, to which belongs also Orlando [i.e. Lassus], whose first motets with five voices (of which Confitemini domino is the first) [i.e. the five-part Cantiones of 1562] give testimony, being arranged and printed according to the ordering of the eight modes, of which only the sixth and the first are transposed.



Ex.2a gives the beginning of the tenor of Surrexit pastor bonus (no.19), one of Lassus's two Hypolydian-mode pieces in the collection. It is unmistakably the same melodic type as the tenors given in ex.1, which Glarean had assigned to the Hypoionian mode. Ex.2b gives the first part of Lassus's Surrexit pastor bonus, which Glarean would have classified in the Hypoionian mode – several later writers following the 12 modes did so – and which seems close to the key of C major in tonal terms; for its composer, however, it was a sixth-mode piece, i.e. in the Hypolydian mode transposed.

HAROLD S. POWERS


Hypokrisis.


Sign used in pairs in Greek Ekphonetic notation.

Hypolydian.


The common name for the sixth of the eight church modes, the plagal mode on F. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance the Hypolydian mode was described in two ways: first, as the diatonic octave species from c to c', divided at the Final f and composed of a third species of 4th (tone–tone–semitone) plus a third species of 5th (tone–tone–tone–semitone), thus c–d–e–f + f–g–a–b–c'; and as a mode whose final was f and whose Ambitus was c–d'. In addition to the final, the note a – the tenor of the corresponding 6th psalm tone – was regarded as having an important melodic function in the 6th church mode.

The Hypolydian mode, however, even more than its corresponding authentic mode, the Lydian, was characterized by the prevalence of b, rather than b, at the fourth degree above the final. Glarean, in the Dodecachordon (1547), wrote that contemporary ‘musicians change the third species of 5th fa fa [f–g–a–b–c'] into the fourth species of 5th ut ut [tone–tone–semitone–tone, thus f–g–a–b–c'] … in this way it falls into the Hypoionian … which has been so injurious to this Hypolydian mode that it has almost been obliterated and destroyed’ (see Hypoionian). Actually Glarean was here a prisoner of his system. Historically, modal theory gave the predominance to b as early as Hucbald: ‘While examples of the tetrachord of the synemmenon [i.e. abc'–d'] are often encountered in all the modes, or tones, they can be seen especially in the authentic and plagal tritus [i.e. the Lydian and Hypolydian modes]’ (De harmonica institutione, ed. C.V. Palisca and trans. W. Babb, New Haven, CT, 1978, 31).

For the early history of Greek-derived modal names see Dorian. See also Mode.

HAROLD S. POWERS


Hypomixolydian.


The common name for the last of the eight church modes, the plagal mode on G. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance the Hypomixolydian mode was described in two ways: as the diatonic octave species from d to d', divided at the Final g and composed of a first species of 4th (tone–semitone–tone) plus a fourth species of 5th (tone–tone–semitone–tone), thus d–e–f–g + g–a–b–c'–d'; and as a mode whose final was g and whose Ambitus was c–e'. In addition to the final, the note c' – the tenor of the corresponding eighth psalm tone – was regarded as having an important melodic function in the eighth church mode.

In the late 9th-century Carolingian treatise Alia musica the name ‘Hypermixolydian’, which had been used earlier by Boethius in the fourth book of De institutione musica, was given to the eighth tonos, or transposition key. This name was replaced by ‘Hypomixolydian’ in the Nova expositio, a commentary on the Alia musica in conformity with the names of other tonoi, ‘Hypodorian’, ‘Hypophrygian’ and ‘Hypolydian’.

In the Renaissance the term ‘Hypomixolydian’ was sometimes applied to polyphony. In modally ordered collections, pieces ending on G in cantus durus are usually divided into two groups using different clefs. For example, in Palestrina's second book of Madrigali spirituali (1594), nos.24–7 use Chiavette to represent the higher (authentic) Mixolydian mode, while nos.28–30 use normal soprano, alto, tenor and bass clefs to represent the lower (plagal) Hypomixolydian.

For the early history of Greek-derived modal names, see Dorian. See also Mode.

HAROLD S. POWERS/FRANS WIERING

Hypophrygian.


The common name for the fourth of the eight church modes, the plagal mode on E. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance the Hypophrygian mode was described in two ways: as the diatonic octave species from B to b, divided at the Final e and composed of a second species of 4th (semitone–tone–tone) plus a second species of 5th (semitone–tone–tone–tone), thus B–c–d–e + e–f–g–a–b; and as a mode whose final was e and whose Ambitus was A–c'. In addition to the final, the note a – the tenor of the corresponding 4th psalm tone – was regarded as having an important melodic function in the 4th church mode.

Glarean, in the Dodecachordon (1547, ii/14; iii/19), pointed out that Hypophrygian chants normally do not go below c, and that many Phrygian chants either extend ‘irregularly’ down to c or do not reach as high as the octave of the final, e. This brings the practical tessitura of Phrygian and Hypophrygian close together; and indeed, in most 16th-century polyphonic collections whose contents are ordered according to the church modes, it is only in the E-mode pieces that no attempt is made to distinguish authentic from plagal by contrasted vocal ranges (for the contrary, see Hypodorian). This is the case, for instance, in Palestrina's second book of Madrigali spirituali (1594), where all the E-mode pieces (nos.11–16) are set in normal soprano, alto, tenor and bass clefs. On the other hand, Palestrina does seem to distinguish between Phrygian and Hypophrygian in nos.9–16 of his Offertoria (1593), although the precise nature of this distinction is disputed (see for example S. Gissel: ‘Die Modi Phrygius, Hypophrygius und Phrygius connexus: ein Beitrag zu den “in mi” Tonarten um 1600’, MD, xlv (1991), 5–94).

For the early history of Greek-derived modal names see Dorian. See also Mode.

HAROLD S. POWERS


Hytner, Nicholas


(b Manchester, 7 May 1956). English director. After studying at Cambridge University (1974–7), where he directed for the Footlights, he began a career divided between the spoken and lyric theatres. One of the most original and intellectually wide-ranging theatre directors of his generation, his first opera production was The Turn of the Screw for Kent Opera (1979), for whom he also directed Le nozze di Figaro (1981) and King Priam (1983). For the ENO he has directed a Rienzi (1983) that explored the work’s totalitarian resonances, a Serse (1985) that re-created the ancient Persian setting in the antiquarian spirit of Handel’s contemporaries, and a wittily inventive Zauberflöte (1988). His Knot Garden for Covent Garden (1988) exemplified his gift for lucid exposition effected by powerfully acted performances. Other notable productions have included Giulio Cesare for the Paris Opéra (1987), Figaro at Geneva (1989) and La clemenza di Tito for Glyndebourne in 1991. He was appointed an associate director of the Royal National Theatre in 1989, since when he has given more attention to theatre (including a revelatory production of Carousel in 1992) and film than to opera. Occasional forays into the latter, however, include a Don Giovanni in Munich and a magical Cunning Little Vixen at the Châtelet, Paris, both in 1995.

WRITINGS


‘“The Purpose of Playing”’, Opera, xxxix (1988), 419–23

‘Opera Production’, Kent Opera: Twentieth Anniversary 1969–1989, ed. M. Bewick and J. Platt (1989), 53–5


BIBLIOGRAPHY


M. Loppert: ‘Nicholas Hytner’, Opera, xlii (1991), 754–61

BARRY MILLINGTON
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