Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm

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Hyla, Lee (Leon Joseph)

(b Niagara Falls, NY, 31 Aug 1952). American composer. After graduating from the New England Conservatory (BMus 1975), he studied at SUNY, Stony Brook (MA 1978). In 1992 he returned to the New England Conservatory to teach. His numerous fellowships and honours include the Stoeger Prize from the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center, the Prix de Rome, grants from the Fromm and Koussevitzky foundations, and a Guggenheim Fellowship. His music finds common ground between the postwar American expressionism of Stefan Wolpe and Elliott Carter and the avant-garde jazz style of musicians such as Cecil Taylor, also integrating aspects of rock music, especially punk. Despite their high energy and raw surface, his works are fully notated. A meticulous attention to pitch organization and dramatic structure allows raucousness to achieve elegance.

Among Hyla's works for chamber orchestra, Pre-Pulse Suspended (1984) marks the first thorough integration of the various elements of his musical style. In this pivotal work, the motivic treatment of short-breathed riffs develops a Beethovenian intensity. This rhythmic force enables Hyla to juxtapose music of contrasting tempo and affect. At the same time, a powerful sense of drama unfolds through an adroit manipulation of pedal points, presented either as fixed chords or as extended repeated notes. Hyla develops these techniques in the Concerto for Piano no.2 (1991) and Trans (1996). Hula’s chamber music is notable for three highly original string quartets and a sensitive setting of Allen Ginsberg’s poem Howl.


Orch: Pf Conc. no.1, pf, chbr orch, 1974; Vn Conc., 1987; Cl Conc., b cl, chbr orch, 1988; Pf Conc. no.2, pf, chbr orch, 1991; Trans, 1996

Chbr: White Man on Snowshoes, fl, a sax, vn, vc, 1973; Str Qt no.1, 1975; Amnesia, sextet, 1979; Str Trio, 1981; In Double Light, va, b cl, pf, perc, 1983; Pre-Pulse Suspended, 12 insts, 1984; Str Qt no.2, 1985; Anhinga, chbr ens, 1987; The Dream of Innocent III, vc, pf, perc, 1987; Amnesia Variance, cl, vn, va, vc, pf, hammered dulcimer, 1989; Str Qt no.3, 1989; Amnesia Breaks, ww qnt, 1990; Ciao, Manhattan, fl, va, vc, pf, 1990; We Speak Etruscan, b cl, bar sax, 1992; Howl, nar, str qt, 1993; Qt, bn, str trio, 1993; How Was Your Weekend, va, vc, 1994; Now Exclusively Cello, 16 vc, 1996

Solo inst: For Tenor Sax, 1973; Bassius Ophelius, db, 1975; Revisible Light, pf, 1978; Pre-Amnesia, a sax, 1979; Mythic Birds of Saugerties, b cl, 1985; Basic Training, pf, 1994; Riff and Transfiguration, pf, 1996


S. Wheeler: ‘Beyond the Flat Surface: Form and Rhetoric in Machover, Hyla and Lindroth’, CMR, x/1 (1994), 75–100

J. McCalla: Twentieth-Century Chamber Music (New York, 1996)


Hylaire [Hilaire, Hyllayre, Illayre]

(fl early 16th century). French composer. The first evidence for him is literary: in Le plainte du désiré, written in memory of the French courtier Louis de Luxembourg, who died on 24 December 1503, Jean Lemaire de Belges wrote that Luxembourg bade ‘Hillaire’ ‘cause his … lament to be sung in mournful words and artful music’. Further, a number of works first appear in musical sources between about 1508 and 1514 ascribed to ‘Hylaire’ (or a variant) without any surname. This person must be distinct from Hilaire Penet, who was born in 1501 and whose surname is always given in the sources of his music. There are two chief candidates for identification with Hylaire.

Hilaire [Illario] Turluron [Toleron, Turleron] became a singer in the Ferrarese court chapel at the same time as Obrecht in September 1504. He travelled to France in April 1507 to recruit singers for Ferrara. In December 1510, along with several other Este singers, he moved to the Gonzaga court in Mantua. He seems to have scented opportunity when the music-loving Leo X became pope in 1513; in November of that year a letter was addressed to him as a singer in the papal chapel in Rome, although in February 1514 the Marquis of Mantua was still trying to get him to return by the middle of Lent. Turluron remained in Rome, however, at least until September 1522. A papal document of 1520 refers to him as ‘Hylarius Daleo alias Turluron, cleric of the diocese of Clermont’; if Daleo was a surname it may refer to the town of Alès, bordering on that diocese (Grove6), but Lockwood thought it was merely an indication of the singer's service with Leo X.

Hilaire Bernoneau [Bernnoneau] was maître de chapelle of the French royal chapel from 7 February 1510 at the latest until some time between September 1514 and April 1515, when he was succeeded by Etienne Guillot dit ‘Verjust’. In 1516 he is recorded as first chaplain of the royal chapel, and in 1519–20 he was a valet de chambre or private musician to François I. Though not a priest, he was dean of Poitiers Cathedral and treasurer of St Sauveur, Blois. Bernoneau is more likely than Turluron to be the composer of Hylaire's music. All factors point to the French royal court and chapel as Hylaire's milieu: besides Lemaire's poem mentioned above, ‘Hilaire hilaris’ is listed among other French royal musicians in Moulu's occasional motet Mater floreat; the principal manuscripts of his two chansons originated at the French court, and the poem of Non mudera is based on the motto of Queen Anne of Brittany; the chief Italian sources of his two sacred works present them in the context of music by French royal composers; and the style of his rather bland music is distinctively that of the royal chapel as typified especially by Févin. Bernoneau was clearly an important member of this musical community, whereas there is no evidence connecting Turluron with the French court.

In a revision of La plainte du désiré Lemaire substituted Josquin's name for Hylaire's; the resulting five-voice chanson, Cueurs desolez/Plorans ploravi, survives only under Josquin's name and has nothing in common with Hylaire's music. Two four-voice motets ascribed to ‘Illario’ or ‘Ylario’ in Iberian manuscripts (O admirabile commercium, E-Bc 454, TZ 2–3, P-Cgu 12, 32, 48, 53, US-BLl Guatemala 4, 8; Conceptio tua, E-TZ 2–3; both ed. in Calahorra) are likewise in a different style and are probably the work of the Johannes Illarius cited by the theorist Cristóbal de Escobar about 1496.


Missa [sine nomine], 4vv, I-Rvat C.S.16, Pal.lat.1982

Ascendens Christus in altum, 4vv, 15141, Pc A17; ed. in Gehrenbeck

Een vroelic wessenn, 4vv, Fc Basevi 2439 (attrib. ‘hylaire’ in contemporaneous index; similar in style to chansons)

Il m'est advis que je voy Perrichon, 3vv, 15206, GB-Cmc Pepys 1760; ed. in Charles

Non mudera ma constance et firmesse, 3vv, 15428 (Confortamini in Domino), Lbl Harl.5242


Grove6 (‘Hilaire Daleo’; J. Rifkin)

F.X. Haberl: Die römische ‘Schola cantorum’ und die päpstlichen Kapellsänger bis zur Mitte des 16. Jahrhunderts, iii: Bausteine für Musikgeschichte (Leipzig, 1888/R), 71

M. Brenet: Les musiciens de la Sainte-Chapelle du Palais (Paris, 1910/R), 51–4

J. Wolf: ‘Der Choraltraktat des Cristóbal de Escobar’, Gedenkboek aangeboden aan Dr. D.F. Scheurleer (The Hague, 1925), 383–91

H.-W. Frey: ‘Regesten zur päpstlichen Kapelle unter Leo X. und zu seiner Privatkapelle’, Mf, viii (1955), 58–73, esp. 73; ix (1956), 139–56, esp. 149–50

D.M. Gehrenbeck: Motetti de la Corona: a Study of Ottaviano Petrucci's Four Last-Known Motet Prints (Fossombrone, 1514, 1519) (diss., Union Theological Seminary, 1970), 472–81, 1452–9

S.R. Charles: ‘Hillary–Hyllayre: How Many Composers?’, ML, lv (1974), 61–9

L. Lockwood: ‘Jean Mouton and Jean Michel: French Music and Musicians in Italy, 1505–1520’, JAMS, xxxii (1979), 191–246, esp. 208

R. Sherr: ‘The Membership of the Chapels of Louis XII and Anne de Bretagne in the Years Preceding their Deaths’, JM, vi (1988), 60–82, esp. 61–4

J.T. Brobeck: ‘Musical Patronage in the Royal Chapel of France under Francis I (r.1515–1547)’, JAMS, xlviii (1995), 187–239, esp. 196, 198, 238–9

P. Calahorra, ed.: Autores hispanos de los siglos XV–XVI de los MS. 2 y 5 de la catedral de Tarazona (Zaragoza, 1995), 34–6, 117–32

O. Rees: Polyphony in Portugal, c.1530–c.1620: Sources from the Monastery of Santa Cruz, Coimbra (New York, 1995), 421–4


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