Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm



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Huttenlocher, Philippe


(b Neuchâtel, 29 Nov 1942). Swiss baritone. He studied at Fribourg with Juliette Bise and became a professor of singing at the Musikhochschule in Saarbrücken. He began his career as a member of the Ensemble Vocal de Lausanne under Michel Corboz, and in 1975 sang the title role in the famous Ponnelle production of L’Orfeo (Monteverdi) conducted by Nikolaus Harnoncourt at the Zürich Opera, which toured throughout Europe and was recorded both in sound and video. Although known especially for his performances of Baroque music (Bach cantatas, operas by Monteverdi and Rameau), his repertory ranges from Monteverdi and Schütz to contemporary Swiss composers. Huttenlocher has participated in numerous recordings, singing mainly under Corboz, Harnoncourt and Helmuth Rilling. He is admired for his warm, light baritone, his clear articulation and his keen sense of style.

MARTIN ELSTE


Hüttenrauch, Karl August


(b Lichtenstein, nr Zwickau, 21 March 1794; d Glauchau, 26 Feb 1848). German organ builder. He came from a family of Kantors and scholars in Waldenburg (Saxony) of which five members were enrolled at Leipzig University between the years 1716 and 1779. He lived in Oberlungwitz from about 1800, when his father became pastor there. He learnt organ building in Lichtenwalde from Johann Christian Günther, who in 1803–4 had built the new organ for St Martin in Oberlungwitz. He also studied mechanics and mathematics at the academy in Budapest and worked abroad for several years. From 1816 he again lived in Oberlungwitz, then moved to Glauchau, where he obtained citizenship on 24 November 1823. Hüttenrauch was a master organ builder, conscientious and skilled, who constructed excellent register combinations and tasteful façades. In the specification for his 1821–2 organ at Oberwiera an inclination towards a newer concept of tone is evident, in that the Hauptwerk, of solemn, rather broad scaling, was contrasted with an Oberwerk of rather narrower string-like scaling. The organ at Waldenburg (Lutherkirche, 1822–4; two manuals and pedal, 22 speaking stops, manual and pedal couplers), a valuable specimen of its type, has a light, silvery and yet strong and clear tone, with a suggestion of a pleasantly warmer timbre. Hüttenrauch also built pianos.

BIBLIOGRAPHY


C.G. Dietmann: Kirchen- und Schulen-Geschichte der Hochreichsgräflich Schönburgschen Länder in Meissen (Breslau, Brieg and Leipzig, 1787)

F. Krummacher: ‘Zur Sammlung Jacobi der ehemaligen Fürstenschule Grimma’, Mf, xvi (1963), 324–47

W. Hüttel: Musikgeschichte von Glauchau und Umgebung (Glauchau, 1995), 101, 103, 109–10

WALTER HÜTTEL


Hutter, Josef


(b Prague, 28 Feb 1894; d Prague, 2 Dec 1959). Czech musicologist. His musicological studies under Nejedlý and Otakar Zich at Prague University (from 1913) were interrupted by four years of military service. After taking the doctorate in 1920 with a dissertation on the history of instrumental music in 17th-century Bohemia, he became music critic for the daily newspaper Tribuna (1920–28) and worked as librarian at the Prague Conservatory (1922–8). From 1925 he also served as Nejedlý’s assistant, and completed his Habilitation in 1927 with a work on Czech notation. Promotion was delayed by the prevailing economic conditions until 1935, when he was appointed assistant professor, taking over more of Nejedlý’s duties from 1938. The German occupation and closing of the Czech universities (1939) halted Hutter’s teaching career, although he continued to publish. He was imprisoned by the Gestapo on 6 July 1944 for his part in the resistance movement; released on 5 May 1945, he resumed his duties at the faculty and was appointed full professor in September 1947 (retrospectively from 1939). On 4 March 1948, a few days after the Communist putsch, he was forbidden to teach. He was dismissed from his post (1949), imprisoned (1950) and in 1952 tried and condemned to 24 years in jail for ‘treason and espionage’. Despite a plea for clemency (1955) signed by leading figures in Czech culture and education, he remained in prison until the general amnesty of 1956. His health broken, he nevertheless produced a substantial work on Czech gothic song. His full political rehabilitation was granted in 1990; a conference devoted to reassessing his life and work took place in Prague in 1992.

Hutter was one of the leading Czech musicologists of his day. He trained his Communist successors such as František Mužík (whose negative judgment on his last works effectively proscribed them) and wrote pioneering studies of medieval music, in particular laying the foundations for modern palaeography. He also wrote theoretical works in which he applied his knowledge of ancient music theory to later music to illuminate what he saw as constant musical phenomena such as melodic and harmonic principles. His removal from Czech musicological life is generally (see Volek) laid at the door of his former teacher, Nejedlý, who was then minister of education. Hutter’s crimes may have been merely that he had begun to work with Nejedlý’s rivals (such as Helfert) and praised figures of whom Nejedlý disapproved, such as Suk and Talich; or perhaps that with his fastidious and thorough scholarship, he was evidently a finer medievalist than Nejedlý.


WRITINGS


‘Hudba v sovětském Rusku’ [Music in Soviet Russia], Smetana, x (1920), 76–8

K dějinám instrumentální hudby v Čechách v XVII. století [The history of instrumental music in Bohemia in the 18th century] (diss., U. of Prague, 1920)

Otakar Zich a jeho hudební drama ‘Vina’ [Zich and his music drama The Fault] (Prague, 1922)

Česká hudba [Czech music] (Prague, 1925)

Česká notace [Czech notation] (Prague, 1926–30) [vol.i as Habilitationschrift, U. of Prague, 1927]

Ferdinand Vach a PSMU [Ferdinand Vach and the Moravian Teachers’ Choral Society] (Prague, 1928)

‘Stilprinzipien der modernen tschechischen Musik’, Melos, vii (1928), 133–6



Melodický princip stupnicových řad [The melodic principles of scales] (Prague, 1929) [with Fr. summary]

Notationis bohemicae antiquae specimena selecta (Prague, 1931)

Chroai v hudbě monofonické [Chroai in monophonic music] (Prague, 1935)

Harmonický princip [Harmonic principles] (Prague, 1941)

ed. with Z. Chalabala: České umění dramatické, ii: Zpěvohra [Czech dramatic art, ii: Opera] (Prague, 1941) [incl. ‘Otakar Zich’, 301–8]

Hudební myšlení [Musical thought] (Prague, 1943) [summaries in Fr., Ger.]

Hudební nástroje [Musical instruments] (Prague, 1945)

‘Počátky české hudební kultury’ [The beginnings of Czech musical culture], Notitiae musicologicae, i (1959)

‘Závišova milostná píseň’ [Záviš’s love song], Časopis Národního musea: vědy společenské, cxxviii (1959), 141–66

in MS: ed.: Scriptores de musica bohemica, 1949; Česká píseň gotická [Czech gothic song], 1958; Česká mensura [Czech mensuration], 1959

BIBLIOGRAPHY


CŠHS [incl. further list of writings]

J. Racek: ‘K padesátinám prof. dra Josefa Huttra’, Rytmus, ix (1943–4), 74–7

[R.] R[ybarič]: ‘Škrt v histórii neplatí’ [A deletion from history is invalid], SH, viii (1964), 61 only

V. Lébl and I. Poledňák, eds.: Hudební věda [Musicology] (Prague, 1988), esp. i, 204–6

T. Volek: ‘Profesor Josef Hutter: oběť dvou totalitních režimů’ [Professor Josef Hutter: a victim of two totalitarian regimes], HV, xxxi (1994), 363–73 [with Ger. summary]

T. Volek and T. Berný, eds.: ‘Z dopisů Josefu Huttrovi’ [From the letters to Josef Hutter], i, HV, xxxi (1994), 452–62; ii, HV, xxxii (1995), 73–85 [incl. letters from Martinů, Suk, Talich and Moyzes]

JOHN TYRRELL


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