Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm



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Husla [husle].


A bowed instrument played by the Wends or Sorbs of eastern Germany and Slavonic countries certainly since the 17th century and possibly earlier. In general outline it somewhat resembles a medieval fiddle (from which type it is derived), the bouts being less pronounced than on the violin. The back is flat, the belly curved and the ribs of uneven depth. The soundholes consist of a rose by the fingerboard, and two narrow rectangular holes near the curved bridge. The short neck ends in a flat pegholder into which the pegs are set from behind; the tailpiece is long. The 18th-century example at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts has a soundpost but no bass-bar. The instrument is held across the chest and supported by a strap, as were many fiddles in that part of Europe during the Middle Ages. The traditional tuning of the three gut strings is d'–a'–e''. The performer plays the melody with his fingernails against the top string, leaving the others free to drone, thus accounting for the derivation of the word husla from the Slavonic root gusti, meaning to drone or resound.

By the early 20th century the greater potentialities of the violin had made the husla almost extinct, and in 1923 there remained only one master of the old tradition, Jan Kusík (whose portrait, by Ludvík Kuba, is in the National Museum at Prague). Through his efforts, and those of the clockmaker J. Mencl (Menzel), the instrument managed to survive, and since 1950 it has acquired a new lease of life, as a result of the revival of interest in folk culture of eastern Europe. An evocative illustration of the husla can be seen in the woodcut Sorbian Fiddler by Conrad Felixmüller (1897–1977; see illustration).


BIBLIOGRAPHY


MGG2 (D. Kobjela)

G. Kinsky: Musikhistorisches Museum von Wilhelm Heyer in Cöln: Katalog, i–ii, iv (Cologne, 1910–16)

C. Sachs: Real-Lexikon der Musikinstrumente (Berlin, 1913/R)

A. Hammerich: Das musikhistorische Museum zu Kopenhagen: beschreibender Katalog (Copenhagen and Leipzig, 1911), 102–03

F.W. Galpin: A Textbook of European Musical Instruments (London, 1937, 3/1956/R)

A. Buchner: Musical Instruments through the Ages (London, 1955), pl. 315 [portrait by Ludvík Kuba of Jan Kusík playing the husla]

L. Kunz: ‘Die Bauernfiedeln’, Zwischen Kunstgeschichte und Volkskunde: Festschrift für Wilhelm Fraenger (Berlin, 1960), 134–53

J. Raupp: Sorbische Volksmusikanten und Musikinstrumente, xvii (Bautzen, 1963), 191ff

W. Bachmann: Die Anfänge des Streichinstrumentenspiels (Leipzig, 1964, 2/1966), 104; (Eng. trans., 1969 as The Origins of Bowing), 89

A. Baines: The Oxford Companion to Musical Instruments (Oxford, 1992), 110

MARY REMNANT


Husmann, Heinrich


(b Cologne, 16 Dec 1908; d Brussels, 8 Nov 1983). German musicologist. He attended the Realgymnasium in Deutz, near Cologne, and from 1927 studied musicology at Göttingen University with Friedrich Ludwig, and at the University of Berlin, where his teachers included Wolf, Schering, Blume and Hornbostel. At the same time he studied mathematics, philosophy and psychology as well as old French and medieval Latin. In 1932 he took the doctorate in Berlin with a dissertation on the organa tripla of the Notre Dame school. In 1933 he became assistant lecturer at the musicological institute of Leipzig University, where he completed the Habilitation in musicology in 1939, was appointed lecturer in 1941 and was named acting director in 1944. Following the war, he taught privately but lost his livelihood under Soviet occupation and fled to Hamburg. In 1948 he completed the Habilitation at Hamburg University and in 1949 he founded the musicological institute there through the union of the university music institute with the department of comparative musicology of the Institute for Phonetics. He directed this institute from 1949 as supernumerary professor, from 1956 as reader and from 1958 as professor. In 1960 he was appointed to the chair of musicology at Göttingen University and developed a department for music psychology and ethnomusicology. In the spring semesters of 1962 and 1966 he was visiting professor at Princeton University and for the academic year 1967–8 he was Carl Schurz Professor at the University of Wisconsin. He was editor of the series Musicologia (from 1955) and of the Schriftenreihe des Musikwissenschaftlichen Instituts der Universität Hamburg (1956–66).

Husmann’s research was distinguished by its universality, both in its methods and its subject matter. He combined the working methods of the systematic musicologist with those of the historian. His analytical work, including studies on the nature of consonance and the structure of auditory perception (both 1953), is as fundamental as his ethnomusicological studies. These concerned the relationships between the musical cultures of the orient and antiquity and those of Europe (1956, 1961). He usually proceeded from a comprehensive survey of source material to textual and stylistic analysis. He contributed important studies to medieval scholarship, on the repertory of organa and motets as well as the problem of rhythm in lyric genres. He also published basic studies of the sources, concepts and material of sequences and tropes. He is likewise noted for his work on Bach, especially the late works. In his later years he examined in detail the tonal system, genres and styles of Byzantine music and its oriental roots. Here also his work is characterized by exhaustive exploration of sources and careful attention to textual interpretation.


WRITINGS


‘Musikkultur und Volksbildungswesen’, AMz, lx (1933), 309–10

Die dreistimmige Organa der Notre Dame-Schule (diss., U. of Berlin, 1932; Leipzig, 1935)

‘Marimba und Sansa der Sambesi-Kultur’, Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, lxviii (1936), 197–210

‘Die Motetten der Madrider Handschrift und deren geschichtliche Stellung’, AMf, ii (1937), 173–84

‘Olympos: die Anfänge der griechischen Enharmonik’, JbMP 1937, 29–44

‘Die “Kunst der Fuge” als Klavierwerk: Besetzung und Anordnung’, BJb 1938, 1–61

Die drei- und vierstimmigen Notre-Dame-Organa (Habilitationsschrift, U. of Leipzig, 1939; Leipzig, 1940/R)

‘Sieben afrikanische Tonleitern’, JBMP 1939, 44–9



Fünf- und siebenstellige Centstafeln zur Berechnung musikalischer Intervalle (Leiden, 1951/R)

‘Eine neue Konsonanztheorie’, AMw, ix (1952), 219–30

‘Zur Grundlegung der musikalischen Rhythmik des mittellateinischen Liedes’, AMw, ix (1952), 3–26

‘Zur Rhythmik des Trouvèregesanges’, Mf, v (1952), 110–31

‘Der Aufbau der Gehörswahrnehmungen’, AMw, x (1953), 95–115

‘Die musikalische Behandlung der Versarten im Troubadourgesang der Notre Dame-Zeit’, AcM, xxv (1953), 1–20



Vom Wesen der Konsonanz (Heidelberg, 1953)

‘Das System der modalen Rhythmik’, AMw, xi (1954), 1–38

‘Die St. Galler Sequenztradition bei Notker und Ekkehard’, AcM, xxvi (1954), 6–18

‘Sequenz und Prosa’, AnnM, ii (1954), 61–91

‘Alleluia, Vers und Sequenz’, AnnM, iv (1956), 19–53

‘Antike und Orient in ihrer Bedeutung für die europäische Musik’, GfMKB: Hamburg 1956, 24–32

‘Die älteste erreichbare Gestalt des St. Galler Tropariums’, AMw, xiii (1956), 25–41

‘Justus ut palma: Alleluia und Sequenzen in St. Gallen und St. Martial, dem Andenken Jacques Handschins’, RBM, x (1956), 112–28

‘Zum Grossaufbau der Ambrosianischen Alleluia’, AnM, xii (1957), 17–33

Einführung in die Musikwissenschaft (Heidelberg, 1958)

‘Aufbau und Entstehung des cgm 4997 (Kolmarer Liederhandschrift)’, DVLG, xxxiv (1960), 189–243



Grundlagen der antiken und orientalischen Musikkultur (Berlin, 1961)

‘The Enlargement of the Magnus liber organi and the Paris Churches St. Germain l’Auxerrois and Ste. Geneviève-du-Mont’, JAMS, xvi (1963), 176–203

‘The Origin and Destination of the Magnus liber organi’, MQ, xlix (1963), 311–30

‘Notre-Dame und Saint-Victor: Repertoire-Studien zur Geschichte der gereimten Prosen’, AcM, xxxvi (1964), 98–123, 191–221



ed.: Tropen- und Sequenzhandschriften, RISM, B/V/1 (1964)

‘Zur Geschichte der Messliturgie von Sitten und über ihren Zusammenhang mit den Liturgien von Einsiedeln, Lausanne und Genf’, AMw, xxii (1965), 217–47

‘Die Handschrift Rheinau 71 der Zentralbibliothek Zürich und die Frage nach Echtheit und Entstehung der St. Galler Sequenzen und Notkerschen Prosen’, AcM, xxxviii (1966), 118–49

‘Ein Faszikel Notre-Dame-Kompositionen auf Texte des Pariser Kanzlers Philipp in einer Dominikanerhandschrift (Rom, Santa Sabina XIV L3)’, AMw, xxiv (1967), 1–23

‘Zur Charakteristik der Schlickschen Temperatur’, AMw, xxiv (1967), 253–67

‘Die Tonarten der chaldäischen Breviergesänge’, Orientalia christiana periodica, xxxv (1969), 215–48

‘Die oktomodalen Stichera und die Entwicklung des byzantinischen Oktoëchos’, AMw, xxvii (1970), 304–25

‘Modulation und Transposition in den bi- und trimodalen Stichera’, AMw, xxvii (1970), 1–22

‘Hymnus und Troparion: Studien zur Geschichte der musikalischen Gattungen von Horologion und Tropologion’, JbSIM 1971, 7–86

‘Modalitätsprobleme des psaltischen Stils’, AMw, xxviii (1971), 44–72

‘Die antiphonale Chorpraxis der syrischen Hymnen nach den Berliner und Pariser Handschriften’, Ostkirchliche Studien, xxi (1972), 281–97

‘Die syrischen Auferstehungskanones und ihre griechischen Vorlagen’, Orientalia christiana periodica, xxxviii (1972), 209–42

‘Strophenbau und Kontrafakturtechnik der Stichera’, AMw, xxix (1972), 150–61, 213–34

ed.: Ein syro-melkitisches Tropologion mit altbyzantinischer Notation, Sinai Syr.261, i (Wiesbaden, 1975–8) [with partial transcrs.]

‘Madraše und Seblata: Repertoireuntersuchungen zu den Hymnen Ephraems des Syrers’, AcM, xlviii (1976), 113–50

‘Echos und Makam nach der Handschrift Leningrad, Öffentliche Bibliothek, gr.127’, AMw, xxxvi (1979), 237–53

‘Interpretation und Ornamentierung in der nachbyzantinischen Musik’, AcM, lii (1980), 101–21

‘Zur Herkunft des Andechser Missale Clm 3005’, AMw, xxxvii (1980), 155–65

‘Zur Harmonik des griechischen Volksliedes’, AcM, liii (1981), 33–52


EDITIONS


J.S. Bach: Die Kunst der Fuge (Leipzig, 1938)

Die drei- und vierstimmigen Notre-Dame-Organa, Publikationen älterer Musik, xi (Leipzig, 1940/R)

Die mittelalterliche Mehrstimmigkeit, Mw, ix (1955, 2/1961; Eng. trans., 1962)

Die Melodien des chaldäischen Breviers Commune, nach den Traditionen Vorderasiens und der Malabarküste (Rome, 1967)

Die Melodien der Jakobitischen Kirche: die Melodien des Wochenbreviers (Vienna, 1969)

Die Melodien der Jakobitischen Kirche: die Qale Gaoanaie des Beit Gaza (Vienna, 1971)

BIBLIOGRAPHY


H. Becker and R. Gerlach, eds.: Speculum musicae artis: Festgabe für Heinrich Husmann (Munich, 1970) [incl. complete list of writings]

U. Günther: ‘Heinrich Husmann (1908–1983)’, Mf, xxxvii (1984), 2–4

M. Huglo: ‘Nécrologie Heinrich Husmann (1908–1983)’, RdM, lxx (1984), 160 only

HANS HEINRICH EGGEBRECHT/DAVID HILEY, PAMELA M. POTTER


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