Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm

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Hüsch, Gerhard (Heinrich Wilhelm Fritz)

(b Hanover, 2 Feb 1901; d Munich, 21 Nov 1984). German baritone. He studied with Hans Emge and made his début at Osnabrück in Lortzing’s Der Waffenschmied in 1923. Engagements followed at Bremen, Cologne (1927–30) and Berlin (1930–42), first at the Städtische Oper and then at the Staatsoper. He sang at Covent Garden in 1930 as Falke in Bruno Walter’s production of Die Fledermaus, then as Papageno the following year, and again in 1938 under Beecham, with whom he also recorded the role. At Bayreuth in 1930 and 1931 he sang an outstanding Wolfram in Tannhäuser. His repertory included Count Almaviva, Germont, Sharpless and Storch (Intermezzo). Hüsch possessed a lyric baritone which could be soft and sweet in Italian opera, sonorously warm and resonant in German. He had a notable feeling for words, and his performances of Schubert’s song cycles, which he also recorded, remain models of style. His other recordings include Wolf lieder, and excerpts from his operatic roles.


Hüschen, Heinrich

(b Moers, 2 March 1915; d Bad Oeynhausen, 20 July 1993). German musicologist. He studied church music (1938–40), music education (1938–41) and musicology (with Fellerer and Bücken) at Musikhochschulen and universities in Cologne and Berlin, and took the doctorate at Cologne in 1943. After five years in the army and as a POW, he became an assistant lecturer at Cologne University in 1948, completing his Habilitation there in 1955 with a work on textual concordances in musical literature of the Middle Ages. After a term as acting professor at Heidelberg University (1957–8), he was appointed supernumerary professor at Cologne in 1961. He became full professor at Marburg University in 1964 and was appointed professor at Cologne University in 1970. He retired in 1983.

Hüschen was an adviser to Das Erbe deutscher Musik from 1955 and a member of the advisory committee of the Deutsches Musikgeschichtliches Archiv in Kassel from 1959; from 1962 to 1971 he was on the editorial committee of Acta musicologica. He edited the Marburger Beiträge zur Musikforschung (1967–70), the Kölner Beiträge zur Musikforschung (1971–84) and the Studien zur hessischen Musikgeschichte (1969–71). His work, published mainly in Festschriften and the Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch (see vols.xxxv–xxxvii), focussed on neglected theoreticians of the Middle Ages and Renaissance (such as Handl, Puteanus, Quercu, Schornburg, G.J. Vossius), late Renaissance classifications of music and early German music publishers.


Musiktraktat des Bernhard Bogentantz (diss., U. of Cologne, 1943)

ed.: H. Eger von Kalkar: Das Cantuagium (Cologne, 1952)

‘Andreas Papius, ein vergessener Musiktheoretiker der 2. Hälfte des 16. Jahrhunderts’, KJb, xxxvii (1953), 47–53

Textkonkordanzen im Musikschrifttum des Mittelalters (Habilitationsschrift, U. of Cologne, 1955)

‘Die Musik im Kreise der Artes liberales’, GfMKB: Hamburg 1956, 117–22

‘Frühere und heutige Begriffe von Wesen und Grenzen der Musik’, IMSCR VIII: New York, 1961, 386–97

‘Antike Einflüsse in der mittelalterlichen Musikanschauung’, Miscellanea mediaevalia, i (1962), 80–95

ed.: Festschrift Karl Gustav Fellerer zum sechzigsten Geburtstag (Regensburg, 1962/R) [incl. ‘Regino von Prüm, Historiker, Kirchenrechtler und Musiktheoretiker’, 205–23]

‘Hessische Gesangbuchdrucker und -verleger des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts’, Festschrift Hans Engel (Kassel, 1964), 166–89

‘Thomas Horner und seine Kompositionslehre De ratione componendi cantus, Königsberg 1546’, Musik des Ostens, iv (1967), 136–76

‘Albertus Magnus und seine Musikanschauung’, Speculum musicae artis: Festgabe für Heinrich Husmann, ed. H. Becker and R. Gerlach (Munich, 1970), 205–18

‘Nikolaus von Kues und sein Musikdenken’, Symbolae historiae musicae: Hellmut Federhofer zum 60 Geburtstag, ed. F.W. Riedel und H. Unverricht (Mainz, 1971), 47–67

ed.: Musica scientiae collectanea: Festschrift Karl Gustav Fellerer (Cologne, 1973) [incl. ‘Lob und Preismotetten auf die Musik aus früheren Jahrhunderts’, 225–42]

ed., with D.-R. Moser: Convivium musicorum: Festschrift Wolfgang Boetticher (Berlin, 1974) [incl. ‘Bemerkungen zur Satzstruktur der Mussa canonica zu 4 (8) Stimmen von Jacobus Gallus (1550–1591)’, 130–40]

Die Mottette, Mw, xlvii (1974; Eng. trans., 1976)

‘Hamburger Musikdrucker und Musikverleger im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert’, Beiträge zur Musikgeschichte Nordeuropas: Kurt Gudewill zum 65. Geburtstag, ed. U. Haensel (Wolfenbüttel, 1978), 255–70

ed., with G. Feder and U. Tank: Joseph Haydn: Cologne 1982


H. Hüschen: ‘Hüschen, Heinrich’, Rheinische Musiker, vi, ed. D. Kämper (Cologne, 1969), 87 [contains complete list of writings]

D. Altenburg, ed.: Ars Musica, musica scientia: Festschrift Heinrich Hüschen (Cologne, 1980) [incl. W. Gieseler: ‘Quid est musica? Quid sit musica? Anmerkungen zu Heinrich Hüschen, Artikel “Musik: Begriffs- und geistesgeschichtlich” in MGG9, Sp.970–1000’, 175–80]


Hus-Desforges, Pierre-Louis

(b Toulon, 14 March 1773; d Pont-le-Voy, nr Blois, 20 Jan 1838). French cellist and composer. His actress mother was a daughter of the violinist Giornovichi. He was a choirboy in the cathedral school at La Rochelle at the age of eight, and later studied the trumpet and the cello. In September 1792 he became a French cavalry trumpeter, remaining in the service until losing a right-hand finger from a bullet wound. He then took a post as a cellist in the Grand Théâtre at Lyons, but left after six months to study with Janson at the Paris Conservatoire. He was also engaged in the orchestra at the Théâtre des Troubadours.

Leaving the Conservatoire in 1800, Hus-Desforges became orchestral director of the French opera in St Petersburg, with an additional orchestral post at the Petersburg Theatre in 1805. He left Russia in 1812 and performed in Cassel on 25 April; Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung reports place him in the French provinces by the end of 1812. He returned to Paris between 1817 and 1820, where he was appointed principal cello and house composer at the Théâtre de la Porte-St-Martin. Relocating to Metz, he established a music conservatory, but shortly resumed touring. He returned to Paris around 1827, where he was granted membership of the Société Académique des Enfants d'Apollon. He became orchestral director at the Théâtre du Gymnase-Dramatique in 1828, the Théâtre de Madame in 1829 and the Théâtre du Palais-Royal in 1831. His final employment was as a cello instructor at the music school at Pont-le-Voy.

Hus-Desforges published an elementary cello method which received favourable comment in the Revue musicale in October 1829. His concertos demonstrate comfortable virtuosity, the melodic construction illustrative of his association with opera. As historical works their interest lies in their high tessitura (f''') and Hus-Desforges's adoption of fingering techniques developed by Romberg. According to Weber, the op.12 concerto, dedicated to Romberg, similarly parallels Romberg's compositional style. While emulation of the German cellist extended to performing without music, he maintained the French-style bow grip with the hand above the frog. His modernistic use of slurred staccato and accented bowstrokes, including martelé, demonstrates an affinity for the bowing practices of the French violin school. As a performer, he was commended for his musicality, but criticized for a thin, weak tone. His pupils included L.(J.) Jacquard and Louis Decortis.


printed works published in Paris unless otherwise stated

Vocal: Messe, 3vv, orch, op.68; Romance (?romances)Orch: Symphonie concertante, vn, vc, orch; vc concs., op.2 (1804), op.12 (Leipzig, c1811), op.23 (c1827), 1 other, lostChbr: 9 qnts, 2 vn, va, vc, db, opp.24, 26, 32–5, 46 [7th and 9th without op.no.]; Grand trio, vc, vn, b acc., op.15 (c1812); Trio, vc/vn, vn, b acc., op.16 (c1812); Trio, vc, vn, b acc., op.17; 12 duos 2 vc, opp.7, 47, 53; 6 duos, 2 vc/(vn, vc), opp.30–31; 3 [?6] grandes sonates, vc, b, op.3 bks 1–2 (c1804), sonatas, vc, b, op.5 (1805); 3 sonatines brillantes, vc, b/bn, op.49 (c1825); 9 soirées musicales, thèmes variés (vc, acc. vn, b)/(vc, pf); other worksPedagogical: Méthode de violoncelle à l'usage des commençants, op.56 (1829)

Melodramas written at the Théâtre de la Porte St-Martin



Correspondance des amateurs musiciens (11 Jan 1804)

M. Decourcelle: La Société académique des enfants d'Apollon (Paris, 1881)

H. Weber: Das Violoncellkonzert des 18. und beginnenden 19. Jahrhunderts (Tübingen, 1932)

L. Ginsburg: Istoriya violonchel'novo iskusstva [The history of cello playing], ii (Moscow, 1957)

N. Wild: Dictionnaire des théâtres parisiens au XIXe siècle (Paris, 1989), 182

V. Walden: An Investigation and Comparison of the French and Austro-German Schools of Violoncello Bowing Techniques: 1785–1839 (diss., U of Auckland, 1993)


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