Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm

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Hurel, Philippe

(b Domfront, 24 July 1955). French composer. After studying with Ivo Malec and Betsy Jolas at the Paris Conservatoire, he took a course in musical computer science with Tristan Murail in 1984. He was a member of the musical research team at IRCAM, 1985–90, winning a scholarship to the Villa Medici in Rome, 1986–8. He was awarded the prize of the Siemens Foundation, Munich, in 1995.

Hurel is associated with so-called Spectral music, initiated by Grisey and Murail in the late 1970s; his music employs processes that allow progressive transition from one given state of sonic material to another. An equal interest in counterpoint has led him to reconcile this principle of continuous transition with the more classical one of variation form. As a result his works since Pour l'image and Fragment de lune (both 1986–7) combine globally perceived timbres with polyphony perceived. Since Six miniatures en trompe l'oeil (1990–1) he has been striving for greater stylistic heterogeneity, and integrates rhythmic motives clearly influenced by jazz.


Eolia, fl, 1982; Trames, 6 vn, 2 va, 2 vc, db, 1982; Memento pour Marc, orch, 1982–3; Opcit, t sax, 1984, version for cl, 1993; Diamants imaginaires, diamant lunaire, ens, elec, 1985–6; Pour l'image, 14 insts, 1986–7; Fragment de lune, ens, elec, 1986–7; Mémoire vive, orch, 1988–9

Rémanences, 6 miniatures en trompe l'oeil, 14 insts, 1990–1; b cl, t sax, hn, tuba, synth, 1991–2; La célébration des invisibles (drame lyrique, P. Raymond-Thimonga), shadow theatre, perc, chorus, 1992, concert version: chorus, 6 perc, 1993; Leçon des choses, ens, elec, 1992–3; Pour Luigi, fl, cl, vn, vc, pf, 1993–4; Kits, 6 perc, db, 1996; … à mesure, fl, cl, va, vc, vib, pf, 1997

Works for youth orch and teaching pieces for insts

Principal publisher: Billaudot


P. Hurel: ‘Le phénomène sonore, un modèle pour la composition’, Le timbre: métaphore pour la composition: Paris 1985, 261–71

G. Lelong: ‘Nouvelles inductions musicales’, Art Press, no.145 (1990), 48–5; repr. ReM, nos.421–4 (1991), 198–204

F. Courtot: ‘Entre le décomposé et l'incomposable’, Cahiers de l'Ircam, no.3 (1993)

C. Tognan, P. Hurel and G. Lelong: Philippe Hurel (Paris, 1994)


Hurford, Peter (John)

(b Minehead, Somerset, 22 Nov 1930). English organist, lecturer and composer. Harold Darke was his first teacher, and he graduated with degrees in music and law from Jesus College, Cambridge. André Marchal, with whom he studied in Paris briefly, was a major influence at this time. Hurford emerged as a master interpreter of 18th-century French music and of Bach (particularly the trio sonatas) and an improviser in strict forms of a calibre rarely heard in England. After being appointed master of the music at St Albans Cathedral in 1958, he had the organ rebuilt to incorporate the tonal ensembles he believed necessary for authentic performances. In 1963 he founded the International Organ Festival at St Albans (a discussion of which can be found in S. Webb: ‘Peter Hurford and the St Albans International Organ Festival’, Gramophone, xlvii (1969–70), 13–14); it has since provided a biennial forum for all aspects of the organ renaissance. Several compositions for organ and for choir date from this time; somewhat French-influenced, they are attractive and rhythmical, and some, including Litany to the Holy Spirit and the suite Laudate Dominum (dedicated to Ralph Downes), remain popular. He left St Albans in 1979 to pursue a solo career.

Hurford has an acutely intelligent and informed approach to the whole organ repertory. As a virtuoso recitalist he has won wide acclaim on three continents, and his influence on organ design has been significant. His teaching of interpretation rests on a philosophical base which has brought him many gifted students and which he expresses in his book Making Music on the Organ (Oxford, 1988/R). His recordings of Bach on modern organs in Europe, Canada and Australia exploit the resources of modern mechanical actions. He was made an OBE in 1984.


Hůrka, Friedrich Franz [Franciscus Wenceslaus; František Václav]

(b Merklín, nr Přeštice, Bohemia, 19 Feb 1762; d Berlin, 10 Dec 1805). Czech tenor and composer, active in Germany. He studied with his father, a village Kantor who probably also composed. As a boy he went to Prague and trained as a chorister at the Crusaders’ monastery, where he studied with Blasius Campagnari (‘Biaggio’). In 1783 he joined Pasquale Bondini’s theatrical troupe in Prague, making his début as a tenor the following year during the Leipzig Fair. He was a successful opera and concert singer for 20 years and a highly regarded singing teacher. He was initially active in Dresden, as a Kammersänger and teacher of the Hofkapelle choirboys, 1785–8. He also sang in oratorios under C.E. Weinlig, Kantor of the Kreuzschule. In 1788 Hůrka was singing at the Schwedt Court Theatre, with a monthly salary of 58 talers. He went to Berlin before July 1789, and was engaged as a tenor at the Königliches Theater for a salary of 1000 reichstalers; but he was more active as a concert performer, for although he had an excellent, technically accomplished and very expressive voice its volume was not great. He was co-organizer of the subscription concerts in the Stadt Paris hotel, 1792–7, and a member of the Sing-Akademie, 1791–1802; he was a freemason from 1794, and edited a collection of masonic songs dedicated to August Frederic, Earl of Sussex. His wife Therese (née Jäger), edited some of his songs after his death, and his brother, Josef Martin Hůrka, was a cellist and possibly also a composer.

Hůrka was one of those Czech composers who assimilated the German lied tradition, and for the most part he followed the aesthetic principles of the Berlin lieder school without being very original in form or expression. His music, naive and of little merit, was very well known and popular in his time. Two assessments of his songs written six years after his death are of interest: J.F. Reichardt (Spenersche Zeitung, 23 March 1811) praised the ‘Muse of the delightful singer Hůrka, to whom the singing world of Germany is indebted for so many pleasing and beautiful melodies’; H.G. Nägeli (1811), although acknowledging Hůrka’s achievements, criticized him for ‘a noticeable straining for originality, for the striking and remarkable effect’.

Hůrka is significant for his pre-Romantic traits. He was one of the first to oppose the practice of singers accompanying themselves at the piano, by placing the vocal line on a separate staff and by specifying separate performers for the vocal and piano parts of his songs (preface to Scherz und Ernst, 1787). Besides the verses of ephemeral poets, he set texts by Herder, Goethe and Schiller. Although he did not want his songs to be considered folksongs, some of them came to be regarded as such in 19th-century Germany.


Edition:F.F. Hůrka: Sämtliche Lieder und Gesaenge, i, ed. T. Hůrka (Berlin, after 1806) [28 songs]

Collections (1v, pf): Scherz und Ernst in 12 Liedern (F. von Schiller, J. Richter and others) (Dresden, 1787, 2/1789); 12 deutsche Lieder, ii (C.F.D. Schubart, G.E. Lessing, F.W. Gotter, K. Müchler, J.W. von Goethe) (Mainz, 1794); Die Farben (Müchler), 5 songs (Berlin, 1795, 3/?1796 with 2 addl songs); 15 [14] deutsche Lieder (Müchler, L.C.H. Hölty and others), 1–3vv (Berlin, 1797); 6 deutsche Lieder als Neujahrgeschenk (Schiller, Goethe, P. Metastasio and others) (Hamburg, 1799); Neu-Jahrs-Geschenk (J.G. Herder), 6 songs (Oranienburg, ?1803); Die 5 letzten Lieder (C. Schreiber) (Berlin, after 1805); Lieder mit Begleitung des Klaviers, i–iv (Brunswick, n.d.) [many pubd in earlier collections]

Songs pubd singly (1v, pf; selective list): Die Geburtstagsfeier (Mainz, 1795); Ehelicher guter Morgen und gute Nacht (Schubart) (Berlin, 1796); Das Lied vom Grabe (J.J. Mnioch) (Hamburg, c1800); Die brennende Stadt (O.F.T. Heinsius) (Berlin, 1801); Die Glocke (Schiller) (Hamburg, after 1802; also Brunswick, n.d.); Liedchen an Minna bei Überreichung einer Blumengirlande (Oranienburg, c1803); Der Totengräber (Hölty) (Berlin, 1806)

Other vocal: Ecce quomodo moritur, E, 4vv, 1785–8, D-Dl; Das wütende Heer (op, 3, C.F. Bretener), Schwedt, 1788, ?lost; Die drei Rosen (F.D. Gräter, after Guldberg), solo, chorus, pf/gui (Berlin, 1799; also Hamburg, n.d., Bonn, n.d.); 39 songs in Auswahl mauerischer Gesänge (Herder, Schiller, Goethe and others), solo vv, chorus, pf, ed. F.F. Hůrka (n.p., 1803); 6 deutsche Gesänge oder sogenannte Canons (Goethe, Lessing and S. Mereau) (n.p., n.d.); other songs and vocal works, some pubd in contemporary collections, some unpubd (mostly A-Wgm, D-Bsb; 2 Litaniae Lauretanae, A, B, SATB, orch, org, CZ-Pnm [doubtful, probably by Hůrka’s brother, Josef Martin Hůrka, or his father]

Inst: 6 Divertimentos, vn, va, vc, op.4, ?before 1783, A-Wgm* [only 3 extant]



DlabacžKL, i


MCL, v


AMZ, i–viii (1798–1805)

H.G. Nägeli: ‘Historisch-kritische Erörterungen und Notizen über die deutsche Gesangs-Cultur’, AMZ, xiii (1811), 654–52, esp. 649

J.G. Meusel: Teutsches Künstlerlexikon, iii (Lemgo, 2/1814/R), 106

L. Schneider: Geschichte der Oper und des Königlichen Opernhauses in Berlin und Geschichte der churfürstlich-brandenburgischen Capelle (Berlin, 1852)

C. von Ledebur: Tonkünstler-Lexicon Berlin’s (Berlin, 1861/R)

R. Prölss: Geschichte des Hoftheaters zu Dresden: von seinen Anfängen bis zum Jahre 1862 (Dresden, 1878), 313

O. Teuber: Geschichte des Prager Theaters, ii (Prague, 1885), 145–6, 149

K. Held: ‘Das Kreuzkantorat zu Dresden: nach archivalischen Quellen bearbeitet’, VMw, x (1894), 239–410

Allgemeines Handbuch der Freimaurerei, i (Leipzig, 3/1900), 471 [orig. pubd as C. Lenning: Encyclopädie der Freimaurerei]

M. Friedlaender: Das deutsche Lied im 18. Jahrhundert, i/1 (Stuttgart and Berlin, 1902/R), 325–6

G. Schünemann: Die Singakademie zu Berlin, 1791–1941 (Regensburg, 1941), 13–14

U. Wagner: Das Wirken böhmischer Komponisten im Raum Berlin/Potsdam: ein Beitrag zum Problem der sogenannten böhmischen Musiker-Emigration im 18. Jahrhundert (diss., U. of Halle, 1988), chaps. 3 and 4; work-list in appx 3


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