Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm

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Hunting horn

(Fr. cor de chasse, huchet, trompe de chasse; Ger. Hiefhorn, Hifthorn, Jagdhorn, Waldhorn; It. corno da caccia, tromba da caccia; Sp. trompa da caza).

See Horn. See also Signal (i).

Hunt-Lieberson [Hunt], Lorraine

(b San Francisco, 1 March 1954). American mezzo-soprano. She first studied the violin and viola, changing to singing in 1981 when she won competitions sponsored by the Metropolitan and the Boston Opera. Since then her stage career has been mainly, although not exclusively, concentrated on Baroque repertory. One of her earliest successes was as Sextus in Peter Sellars’s controversial staging of Giulio Cesare. She also appered in his productions of Oedipus rex as Jocasta, Don Giovanni as Donna Elvira, L’incoronazione di Poppea as Octavia, and Serse, in which she took the title part. Hunt later scored major successes as Irene in Sellars’s 1996 staging of Handel’s Theodora at Glyndebourne, and in the title parts of Charpentier’s Médée with William Christie’s Les Arts Florissants and of Ariodante at Göttingen, and as Myrtle Wilson in Harbison’s The Great Gatsby at the Metropolitan. In 1996–7 she sang Charlotte (Werther) at the Lyons Opéra, Sextus at the Paris Opéra and Phèdre (Hippolyte et Aricie) with Christie at the Palais Garnier, Paris. She also undertook Carmen at the Opéra Bastille in 1998 and the title role in a concert performance of The Rape of Lucretia at the 1999 Edinburgh Festival. On the concert platform Hunt’s repertory includes Les nuits d’été, Berg’s Sieben frühe Lieder, Britten’s Phaedra (which she has successfully recorded) and Mahler’s Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen, with which she made her Proms début in 1998. Her other recordings include the title roles in Médée and Theodora, and a disc of Schumann lieder. Her deeply eloquent Irene at Glyndebourne is preserved on video and discloses her warm, vibrantly expressive tone at its best, while the flexibility and dramatic involvement of her singing are vividly revealed in her recording of Ariodante.


Hunys, William.

See Hunnis, William.


German firm of Mechanical instrument makers. In 1892 Ludwig Hupfeld acquired J.M. Grob’s family business of mechanical instrument dealers in Leipzig (founded in 1872), renaming it Hupfeld Musikwerke; it was later incorporated as Ludwig Hupfeld AG in 1904. The firm became the world’s largest manufacturer of disc music boxes, organettes, home player-pianos, expression pianos, reproducing pianos, orchestrions, violin players, theatre photoplayers and theatre pipe organs; they controlled up to 75% of the market in Germany. In 1926 Hupfeld merged with Gebrüder Zimmermann, and the name was changed to Leipziger Pianoforte & Phonolafabriken, Hupfeld-Gebrüder Zimmermann AG. As a consequence of the economic depression the manufacture of pneumatic instruments ceased in 1930, but the production of piano rolls was continued and the company survived by marketing other products such as radios, gramophones, billiard tables and gambling machines; they also made weapons during World War II. In 1946 the company was expropriated as a result of Soviet occupation, but continued to make upright and grand pianos under the name VEB Deutsche Piano Union. The firm was privatized again after the reunification of Germany.

Hupfeld began experimenting with pneumatic instruments in the 1890s. One of the more important models was a Player piano known as the Phonola. This originally used 73-note rolls, but from 1908 models with 88-note mechanisms were also produced. Player pianos incorporating theme perforations were marketed under the name ‘Solodant’. The firm was also noted for its models of Orchestrion. The ‘Universal’ was a simple orchestrion with piano, mandolin, a ten-note section of bells and sometimes other instruments. The ‘Helios’ was the best-selling classic orchestrion. In contrast, the ‘Pan Orchester’ was the most expensive and sophisticated model ever built, featuring a 124-hole tracker bar, enabling it to combine various instruments and registers. During the late 1920s the ‘Sinfonie Jazz’ orchestrion featured saxophone and flute pipes in addition to rhythm instruments. Most orchestrions could be equipped with remote control roll-switching mechanisms. Hupfeld also produced the most successful violin players, such as the ‘DEA-Violina’ (from 1908; a combination of the DEA reproducing piano with up to four real violins) and the ‘Phonoliszt-Violina’ (from 1910) which combined the Phonoliszt expression piano with up to six violins (for illustration see Violin player, automatic). Hupfeld also competed with Welte in manufacturing expression pianos (1904–30). The five expression holes of the Phonoliszt expression system are: the sustaining pedal, the piano, the mezzo-forte, the crescendo and the bass hammer rail. The DEA reproducing piano mechanism, marketed from 1905, uses very wide (40·5 cm) rolls and has a 106-hole tracker bar. It was replaced in the 1920s by the ‘Duophonola’ (electrically operated) and the ‘Triphonola’ (with an auxiliary foot-pump). The DEA was the only Hupfeld reproducing system that was also available as a ‘Vorsetzer’ (i.e. a push-up automatic player). Features of the Triphonola system were incorporated into the piano part of the Hupfeld ‘Pan Orchester’.

The Hupfeld automatic musical instrument catalogues offered a wide repertory ranging from Romantic, parlour, operatic and light classical music to popular songs, dances, marches, carols and a limited selection of ‘modern music’. The most important sound documents are undoubtedly the DEA rolls recorded by over 200 of the most prominent pianists and composers, including Backhaus, Busoni, Cortot, Friedheim, Godowsky, Grieg, Humperdinck, Landowska, Mascagni, Reger, Reinecke, Saint-Saëns and Skryabin. Others, such as Bruch and Richard Strauss, participated in producing rolls for the ‘Pan Orchester’. The firm’s classical repertory included works by Mozart, Beethoven, Brahms, Chopin, Tchaikovsky, Verdi and Wagner, often produced as sets or series of rolls.

See also Reproducing piano.


Q.D. Bowers: Encyclopedia of Automatic Musical Instruments (Vestal, NY, 1972)

A.A. Reblitz and Q.D. Bowers: Treasures of Mechanical Music (Vestal, NY, 1981)

L. Sitsky: The Classical Reproducing Piano Roll: a Catalogue-Index (New York, 1990)


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