2. 16th and 17th centuries.
In 1526 János Szapolyai, the most powerful noble in the country, was chosen to replace King Lajos II, who fell at the battle of Mohács. In the west of the country the opposing party, hoping for assistance from the Habsburg dynasty against the Turks, soon afterwards raised the Habsburg Ferdinand to the throne. The choice of these two kings and the ensuing struggle between them divided Hungary's strength and made it possible for the Turks to march into Buda in 1541 and dominate the large southern and central part of the country for 150 years. The eastern part of the country (Transylvania) became an independent Hungarian principality, while the western and northern parts became a Hungarian monarchy governed by the Habsburgs from Vienna. For two centuries Hungary became a battleground, both against the conquering Turks and in defence of Transylvania and the kingdom of western Hungary, where the Habsburgs were attempting to Germanize the area and oppress the Protestants. As a result there was great economic, social and cultural degeneration. With the fall of Buda there was no longer a Hungarian royal court to transmit Western music to the country, and the few episcopal residences collapsed. In non-Turkish areas the spread of Protestantism caused the polyphonic music of the Catholic Church to decline, and musical literacy suffered greatly with the closure of monastery schools.
Although foreign musicians were interested in Hungary, only a few notable musicians visited the country (Capricornus was in Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia) in 1651–7, and Andreas Rauch was in Sopron, 1629–56). Transylvania was occasionally an exception, partly through Polish and German musicians at the princely courts of János Zsigmond Szapolyai (1556–71) and Gábor Bethlen (1613–29), but mainly through musical interest of the princely Báthory family, at whose court in Gyulafehérvár (now Alba Iulia, Romania) contemporary Italian and Dutch works were performed by Italian singers and musicians under G.B. Mosto. This was not, however, typical of these two centuries; native musicians emigrated to avoid the dangerous and difficult conditions at home. Of the 16th-century musicians who did so, the lutenist Hans Neusidler moved from Pozsony to Nuremberg about 1530; Stephan Monetarius, born in Körmöcbánya (now Kremnica, Slovakia), the first Hungarian writer to have a musical theory printed (Epitoma utriusque musices practice, Kraków, 1515), went to Vienna; the great lute virtuoso Valentin Bakfark left Szapolyai's court after 1540 and, although he briefly returned to Hungary (1568–71), died in Padua; Georg Ostermayer emigrated from Brassó (now Braşov, Romania) and became organist in Tübingen in 1558 and later in Stuttgart. This emigration continued in the 17th century: after studies in Pozsony the composer G.C. Strattner stayed in various German towns and finally settled in Weimar; Michael Bulyovszky (d Durlach, 1711), a theologian, philosopher and organist, went to study in Wittenberg and Strasbourg; and J.S. Kusser emigrated to Stuttgart as a child with his father, an organist and composer in Sopron and Pozsony.
Less significant non-Hungarian musicians who visited Hungary, and the hundreds of Hungarian students who went to study at foreign universities, transmitted to Western countries the dance music which survived there under titles which recorded their Hungarian origin (e.g. Hayduczky, Ungerischer Tantz, Passamezzo ongaro, Ungarescha etc.). Although they appeared abroad in a stylized and more subdued fashion, these dances conquered even the highest circles in Hungary in their original form, whether danced by cattleherds or as a military hajdútánc (‘soldier's dance’).
The first music printed in Hungary was vocal: a collection by the Transylvanian Saxon reformer Johannes Honterus, Odae cum harmoniis (Brassó, 1548, 2/1562); Sebestyén Tinódi's Cronica (Kolozsvár, now Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 1554/R); and the Hofgreff Songbook (Kolozsvár, c1553). The ballad-like epics contained in these last two are the most characteristic form of 16th-century Hungarian music, and are closely related both in poetry and music to the psalms of the Protestant Hungarian assemblies. Further sources containing the melodies of about 250 historical songs and psalm settings (variants excepted) include Gál Huszár's printed Protestant songbook and gradual (Debrecen, 1560, 2/1574); the manuscript Eperjes Gradual; Cantus catholici (1651, 5/1792, 6/1935–8), the first printed Hungarian Catholic hymnbook; the collection of Catholic psalms and funeral chants Soltári … és halottas énekek (1693, 12/1904); and the first printed Calvinist hymnbooks in Hungary (Kolozsvár, 1744, 3/1761; Debrecen, 1774; 1778, 4/1806). Alongside vernacular songs and psalm settings with Hungarian music, the Gregorian repertory continued to be used in Latin in Catholic churches and in the vernacular in Protestant services (before the 17th-century Counter-Reformation). Nevertheless, Gregorian chant was gradually ousted from Protestant churches by the German chorale and in the Reformed Church by the Geneva psalms.
Scarcely any trace has survived of the lyrical love songs of the period, the virág-ének (‘flower song’). Because of the decline in musical literacy and the familiarity of the music, no written or printed music of the 16th- and 17th-century princely and aristocratic courts has survived. However, some information about their ensembles (between 16 and 29 musicians) has been recorded: the style of playing in string ensembles is described in Ungarische Wahrheitsgeige (Freiburg, 1683), a translation from Hungarian of a political pamphlet justifying the Hungarian uprising, while musical occasions are related in both Ungarischer oder dacianischer Simplicissimus (Göppingen, 1683/R), a novel based on the experiences of Daniel Speer, a visitor to Hungary, and in Péter Apor's description of the age, Metamorphosis Transylvaniae (written in 1736; Budapest, 1863/R). It is possible to draw conclusions from Speer's two collections of the music performed (Musicalischer Leuthe-Spiegel, 1687, and Musicalisch Türckischer Eulen-Spiegel, 1688) and even more from virginal books written in Hungary: the Kájoni Manuscript (1634–71, now lost), the Sopron Virginal Book (1689), the Lőcse (Levoča) Virginal Book (c1670) and the Vietórisz Manuscript (c1680). The Lőcse Virginal Book and the Vietórisz Manuscript are important collections of both Hungarian and Slovak music. Apart from the transcription of native folklike songs and dances and church music, these collections include a variety of international dance types included in the Baroque suite.
Folklike songs and dances and Western Baroque music also influenced the important collections of János Kájoni (1629–87; see Căianu, Ioan), a Transylvanian organist and organ builder, botanist, linguist and historian. His main collections are: the Kájoni Manuscript (which was begun by others); the Cantionale Catholicum (Csíksomlyó, now Şumulare, Romania, 1676, 3/1805), comprising 555 Hungarian songs, 259 Latin songs and four Credo melodies that were translated into Hungarian; the Organo-missale (1667), a manuscript consisting of 39 masses and 53 litanies in organ tablature; the Sacri concentus, a manuscript of church songs, chiefly from the works of Viadana (1669); and the Csíkcsobotfalvi Manuscript, which contains Hungarian church songs (c1651–75, by Kájoni or his circle). These influences were also apparent in western areas and shaped the musical individuality of Duke Pál Esterházy, whose Harmonia caelestis (1711) is a printed collection of 55 one-movement sacred pieces for solo voices (or chorus) and orchestra, some of which combine popular Hungarian sacred songs with Italian and German forms.
Hungary's connection with Western music was not broken even in these two difficult centuries; the centre of activity, however, shifted to the towns at the western edge of the country, and north and east in the Carpathians, which were far from the Turkish conflict and inhabited largely by Germans. Documents in various music libraries (Brassó from 1575; Körmöcbánya, 1599; Kassa, 1604; Pozsony, 1616) show that there was no decline in church music in these towns and that they embraced the polyphonic music of the 15th and 16th centuries; the works of Lassus were widely disseminated, and works by Janequin, Willaert, Vecchi, Giovanni Gabrieli and Vulpius (in Brassó), Finck, Josquin, Senfl and Handl (in Körmöcbánya) and Blasius Ammon and Hassler (in Pozsony) were known. Many works by these and other composers have survived in collections made in the areas around Bártfa, Eperjes and Lőcse (now Bardejov, Prešov and Levoča, all in Slovakia), some of which are in the Hungarian National Library. The works of local composers are also in the collections: about 20 compositions by Zacharias Zarevutius, an organist in Bártfa (until 1665), and 42 by Johannes Schimbracki (c1640), who worked in several northern towns. In the Eperjes Gradual (1635–50), which contains 53 four- to six-part choral works in Hungarian, there may also be works by native composers. Baroque works have survived by Johannes Spielenberg, chorus master in Lőcse (in the Kájoni Manuscript), Gabriel Reilich, who worked in Nagyszeben (now Sibiu, Romania), and Daniel Croner, an organist from Brassó.
Hungary, §I: Art music
3. 18th century.
The recapture of Buda from the Turks in 1686 marked the beginning of a new era in Hungary. The Turks lost the territories that they had occupied and Transylvania was no longer independent; thus, after the tripartite division which had lasted for over 150 years, the country was once more united under Habsburg rule. Despite the War of Independence (1703–11) under the leadership of Rákóczi, Hungary became linked with the Habsburg empire, and immigrants (mainly German) settled in the areas retaken from the Turks. There was an influx of foreign musicians, chiefly German and Vienna-influenced, in the course of the 18th century: for example, Albrechtsberger went to Győr, Krommer to Pécs and Mederitsch to Buda. Western art music was re-established in places from which it had disappeared: Michael Haydn (c1757–62), Dittersdorf (1765–9) and Pichl were engaged at the episcopal residence in Nagyvárad (now Oradea, Romania), and concerts were held in Hungarian aristocrats' palaces in Pozsony, where the young Mozart appeared by invitation in 1762. Among the various courts, the residences of the Esterházy dukes in Kismarton (now Eisenstadt, Austria, where G.J. Werner had been Kapellmeister) and Eszterháza were outstanding, the latter becoming the centre of Haydn's activity for three decades (1761–90). Haydn's symphonies and church music soon spread from there to the rest of the country (to Pécs and Pozsony as early as the 1770s). The opening of the opera house at Eszterháza in 1768, under the direction of Haydn, also saw the beginning of regular operatic life in Hungary. The earliest opera performances in Hungary had been those of Ferdinand III's Viennese court opera in Pozsony (1648) and (from 1740) occasional performances by visiting Italian companies.
The changes in musical style that had already taken place in the West, and especially in Germany, spread to the towns of Hungary and were adopted by the local musicians, for example in Pozsony by the town musical director Ferenc Tost (1754–1829), the composer and conductor Anton Zimmermann (1741–81) and the keyboard player F.P. Rigler. The first performance of a Mozart opera in Hungary was in Pozsony (Die Entführung aus dem Serail, 13 June 1785), given by Count Erdődy's resident opera company conducted by József Chudy (1753–1813), who later composed the first Hungarian Singspiel. A more modest but similar role was played by the organists and composers Benedek Istvánffy (1733–78) in Győr and János Wohlmuth (1643–1724) in Sopron, and by János Sartorius (1680–1756), J. Knall and Peter Schimert (a pupil of J.S. Bach) in Nagyszeben; a cathedral orchestra was founded in Pécs in 1712. The most talented of this group was János Fusz (1777–1819), who spent his life in Pozsony, Vienna and Buda as a composer and music historian.
All these influences had a considerably stronger effect on the development of musical life and taste in Hungary than on the music itself. The music was influenced by German and Italian forms and melodic styles, promoted by the poets László Amade (1704–64) and especially Ferenc Verseghy, who wrote texts to pre-existing melodies in those styles. More significant to the development of Hungarian music, however, were the folk traditions, which influenced both vocal and instrumental idioms.
In Protestant colleges choruses had long existed. They were further stimulated by the work of the mathematician György Maróthi (1715–44), who published two short theories of music as appendices to psalters (Debrecen, 1740 and 1743) to develop music-reading techniques he had learnt while he was in Switzerland and the Netherlands; he also organized a chorus in the Debrecen college (1739) and published Goudimel’s four-part arrangement (1565) of the Geneva psalter in a Hungarian translation by A. Szenci Molnár (1743, enlarged 4/1774). Maróthi's influence was far-reaching, although a short Hungarian music theory had already been written by J. Apáczai Csere in his Magyar Encyclopaedia (Utrecht, 1655/R), the Goudimel psalter had already been in use in Hungary, and the practice of having the melody in the tenor was already old-fashioned. Choruses were formed in Calvinist colleges. In Debrecen and Sárospatak choirmasters compiled melodiárium (choirbooks), in somewhat clumsy notation, to which many Hungarian songs were added between 1762 and 1820; besides their polyphonic development of Hungarian folksong, the chief merit of these 18th-century choruses was the preservation of the folk tradition, on which the folk-influenced songs of the 19th century were based.
The schools also laid the foundations of Hungarian musical theatre. The earliest step in this direction was the first drama in Hungarian set to music throughout, an anonymous Comico-tragoedia (Nagyvárad, 1646, repr. 1914). In this and similar instances the Protestant colleges in their school dramas were concerned primarily with the support of the Hungarian language (Nagyenyed, now Aiud, Romania, 1676), and the Catholic colleges with the music. In the Pécs Jesuit School, sung school dramas were also performed from 1717. The earliest surviving melodies (1736, Beszterce, now Bistriţa, Romania) are from the school dramas of the prolific Piarist teacher K. Kátsor (1710–92); among them are folk melodies that also survive in the oral tradition. Another Piarist teacher, the philosopher, linguist and writer B. Benyák (1745–1829), also composed the music for his own school dramas.
Alongside the Hungarian musical theatre a new type of instrumental music evolved, which was called a ‘Hungarian dance’ by those who notated it, and not verbunkos (‘recruiting music’), as it was incorrectly named later. Used for military recruitment, introduced in 1715, it was not created for that purpose and was widely familiar in its own right. Part of its musical material can be traced back to Hungarian dance music of the 16th century and to folk music. As a type it was not created by Gypsy musicians, although they later played an important role in disseminating it and in the style of its performance once they were permitted entry to the towns after 1765. Of the three outstanding verbunkos composers, only János Bihari was a Gypsy (János Lavotta and Antal Csermák were virtuoso violinists); it was chiefly with him that the genre was further enhanced by Hungarian popular music and the melodies of the Rákóczi period and remained essentially heroic dance music. The verbunkos helped to initiate a process whereby Hungarian music began to erode the influence of the German population settled by the Habsburgs in Buda and Pest after the departure of the Turks.
These immigrants started to build up the musical culture of the capital. Hungarian institutions began gradually to appear in Buda and Pest, and as early as 1733 Hungarian musicians were also in evidence; they were probably called Hungarian rather on the basis of the music they played than on their ancestry. However, church music and the more developed secular music, instrument making and regular opera performances (introduced in German in 1773) all remained the exclusive domain of immigrant musicians. Despite Emperor Joseph II's efforts at Germanization, the first Hungarian acting company, that of László Kelemen, was formed in the capital (1790–96), and was expanded to include some music productions, including the first Hungarian opera, Pikkó Hertzeg és Jutka Perzsi (‘Duke Pikko and Judy Perzsi’), by their conductor Chudy. For a time Lavotta and Csermák worked with this company, also giving concerts of their verbunkos; a few years later Bihari appeared in Pest. With them, and with the opera performances, Hungarian music, if only modestly, moved into Buda and Pest.
Hungary, §I: Art music
4. 19th century.
The 18th century effectively ended in Hungary in 1825 with the beginning of the ‘reform period’ associated with Count István Széchenyi. The War of Independence, led by Lajos Kossuth in 1848–9, was suppressed, and the subsequent oppression ended in 1867 with an agreement by which Hungary regained relative independence within the framework of the Habsburg monarchy. The population of the capital (Buda and Pest were united in 1873) increased from 60,000 inhabitants at the beginning of the century to 733,000 by the end. This general growth was also reflected in the development of musical institutions, mainly during the reform period and after the agreement of 1867.
Visits to Hungary by Haydn, Beethoven and, later, Schubert (traces of verbunkos style have survived in works by all three) were followed by other composers and performers from further away, some of whom settled there: Marschner (1817–21), Louis Lacombe (1838), Schindelmeisser (1838–46), Robert Volkmann (1841–53, 1858–83) and Mahler (1888–91) all worked in Hungary; Anton Rubinstein (several times after 1842), Berlioz (1846), Wagner (1863, 1875), Brahms (many times after 1867), Delibes (1878, 1881, 1885), Massenet (1879, 1885), Saint-Saëns (1879) and Richard Strauss (1895) performed or conducted there. This reflected a greatly increased interest in music which, until the last quarter of the century, led many gifted native musicians to emigrate in their childhood or youth because of inadequate training and limited opportunity (e.g. József Böhm, Liszt, Heller, Filtsch, Joachim, Goldmark, Hans Richter, Auer, Joseffy, Nikisch, Etelka Gerster and Tivadar Nachez).
In the first decades of the century the aristocratic orchestras typical of the preceding period were still in evidence in Kismarton, Tata and Esztergom. The Hungarian nobility was particularly interested in instrumental playing, but the weight of musical activity shifted from the aristocracy to the bourgeoisie. In Pest a new Hungarian drama and opera company was formed and for some years (1807–15) vied with the German company; its conductor Gáspár Pacha (1776–1811) wrote several Hungarian operas. But the German company moved into a fine new theatre in 1812 with an up-to-date repertory that quickly incorporated new Italian and French operas. The Hungarian company was confined to giving performances in the provinces for two decades along with several Hungarian and German companies who had already been working there for the first half of the century; the main centres of the Hungarian companies were Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca) and Kassa (now Košice), and of the German companies, Pozsony and Temesvár (now Timişoara, Romania). The role of the aristocratic courts was taken over by theatres and music societies (Pest, 1818; Kolozsvár, 1819; Veszprém, 1824; Sopron, 1829; Pozsony, 1832): the Veszprém society published the first big collection of verbunkos music; and the Kolozsvár society organized a music school, which developed into the country’s first conservatory (1837). This conservatory and the Nemzeti Szinház (National Theatre), opened in 1821, made Kolozsvár an important centre of Hungarian art music. József Ruzitska, conductor of the National Theatre, wrote Béla futása (‘Béla's Escape’, 1822), the most popular Hungarian opera before those of Ferenc Erkel (whose career also began in Kolozsvár). The predominantly German ensemble at Pozsony Cathedral gave historically important concerts, including Beethoven's Missa solemnis in 1835.
Pest finally became the country's musical centre in the 1830s with a rapidly developing concert life, the building of the National Theatre in 1837 and the opening of the Conservatory of the Pestbuda Society of Musicians in 1840. Erkel became the leading musician at that time: he was principal conductor of the opera from 1838 to 1874; his early works include the earliest significant Hungarian Romantic operas (Bátori Mária, 1840; Hunyadi László, 1844); he composed the national anthem in 1844; he was a concert pianist; and he directed many concerts, notably those of the Filharmóniai Társaság (Philharmonic Society) from their beginning in 1853 until 1871. The operas by Erkel’s subordinates at the theatre – Károly Thern, György Császár (1813–50), Franz and Karl Doppler and Károly Huber, Jenő Hubay's father – did not, despite their brief success, compare with Erkel's. Yet Hungarian musical sources were common to them all, including Erkel: the verbunkos, already past its zenith; the csárdás, which emerged around 1835, and was closely related to the verbunkos; and the folk-influenced art song.
There was no lack of initiative in other areas of musical life: György Arnold, regens chori in Szabadka (now Subotica, Yugoslavia), wrote church music, Hungarian dances and opera (Kemény Simon, 1826), published a Yugoslav songbook and wrote a music encyclopedia (1826, followed only in 1879 with József Ságh's Hungarian music encyclopedia); Gábor Mátray was important for his research into Hungarian music history and his collections of folk-style music; András Bartay, a forerunner of Erkel with the first Hungarian comic opera Csel (‘Ruse’, 1839), was a pioneer of oratorio and in music education; and Lajos Beregszászy founded an internationally renowned piano factory.
At his childhood farewell concert in Pest (1823) Liszt played verbunkos music and the Rákóczi March, dating from around 1810 and arising from tunes of the Rákóczi War of Independence (1703–11). At his 1839–40 and 1846 concerts in Hungary, however, he turned mainly to the melodic sources of the folk-influenced art songs and csárdás. Liszt made use of these themes within the formal structure of the verbunkos in his Hungarian Rhapsodies (nos.1–15). His later visits to his native Hungary, apart from being connected with some important cultural or political event, often coincided with the first performance of one of his significant works with Hungarian connections or in a Hungarian style (e.g. Missa solemnis, 1856; Hungaria, 1856; Die Legende von der heiligen Elisabeth, 1865; Hungarian Coronation Mass, 1867). His Hungarian Rhapsodies provided the model for a school but among the many compositions by his followers, it was only those of Imre Székely (1823–87), the finest Hungarian pianist of the time apart from Liszt, and of Jenő Hubay that were outstanding. Erkel wrote Hungarian symphonic music before Liszt (Hunyadi László overture, 1845), but Liszt's influence was deeper and more lasting, and can be traced in the works of Mihály Mosonyi and Ödön Mihalovich through the turn of the century (Károly Aggházy, Mór Vavrinecz) up to Bartók. Despite such early efforts as Mátyás Engeszer's Hungarian Mass (1841) Liszt's influence was felt more slowly in church music. He had relatively little influence on his contemporaries, but his church works alluding to Hungarian origin (he used the motivic material of the Rákóczi March in the Hungarian Coronation Mass, and old church modes and newer themes in folk style in the Die Legende von der heiligen Elisabeth), and those using Gregorian chant and alluding to a 16th-century polyphonic style (Missa choralis and the second version of the four-part Mass) had a strong impact on 20th-century Hungarian composers (Kodály, Artúr Harmat, Lajos Bárdos).
Liszt did not write chamber music or opera, and his influence was scarcely apparent in these genres. After the innovations of Lavotta and Csermák and some early Erkel works there had been only sporadic attempts at composing chamber works with a Hungarian character (Székely's string quartets and Violin Sonata; Ede Reményi's string quartets; Géza Allaga's Serenade for string sextet and cimbalom, 1882). The German Romantic music of Goldmark, who lived in Vienna, and Volkmann, who settled in Pest, was highly appreciated and dominated the repertory until Brahms’s chamber works began to appear in the 1870s and Dohnányi's at the end of the century. But the thematic and harmonic character of Hungarian opera showed some influence of Liszt. The most important opera composer was Erkel, whose works, after the success of Bánk bán (1861), were of two contrasting types: the historical music drama with recitatives and choruses (Dózsa György, 1867; Brankovics György, 1874), and the lyrical-comic type, with arioso and many folk scenes (Névtelen hősök, ‘Unknown Heroes’, 1880). Szép Ilonka (‘Pretty Helen’, 1861), a lyrical fairy-tale opera by Mosonyi, used verbunkos and folklike art song elements and was also a significant contribution to the genre.
The 1867 agreement made it possible for societies and institutions to be set up. That year many of the song-circles joined the Országos Magyar Daláregyesület (National Hungarian Choral Association), which organized a national choral festival in different towns every two years with Erkel as chief conductor. In the capital two mixed choirs were formed, each with orchestra, initiating the performance of large-scale works. In 1873 the country celebrated the 50th anniversary of Liszt's first public concert in grand style with a performance of Christus conducted by Richter. From 1869 to his death, Liszt spent considerable time each year in Hungary, and through his appearances as pianist and conductor, his encouragement to local musicians and the visiting musicians drawn to Hungary by his presence, he played an important part in making Budapest a musical centre of Europe.
The country's musical culture was greatly advanced by the founding of the Országos Magyar Királyi Zeneakadémia (National Hungarian Royal Academy of Music) in Budapest (1875), with Liszt as president and principal of the piano performing faculty, and Erkel as director and one of the piano professors. Most of Liszt's outstanding Hungarian pupils came from the academy: Aggházy, Aladár Juhász, I. Ravasz, Árpád Szendy and István Thomán, who later taught both Bartók and Dohnányi.
In the Népszínház (People's Theatre), built in Budapest in 1875, the folk play was revived chiefly through the efforts of the talented composer of folk-influenced songs Elemér Szentirmay, the opera conductor Gyula Erkel and the theatre conductor Elek Erkel, who then developed from the folk play the Hungarian operetta. In 1884 the opera section of the National Theatre moved to the new Opera House, under the direction of Sándor Erkel (1876–86), Mahler (1888–91), Nikisch (1893–5) and Gyula Káldy (1895–1900). The general development and prosperity of the capital also reached the country towns, where the new or rebuilt theatres (Debrecen, 1865; Arad and Székesfehérvár, 1874; Szeged, 1883; Pozsony, 1886; Pécs, 1895; Kassa, 1899) welcomed the Hungarian opera groups as well, chiefly those based in Debrecen, Kolozsvár and Arad.
Although it offered excellent professional training, the Academy of Music had no effect on the evolution of compositional styles and musical scholarship. Research into Hungarian music history was carried out on the initiative of Gábor Mátray, and later by István Bartalus and János Seprődi (1874–1923) (in addition to their folk music publications) as well as Ábrányi (who wrote on the history of 19th-century Hungarian music). The new generation of Hungarian composers after Liszt and Erkel were unable to continue the late style of Liszt, in which an increasingly large role was played by Hungarian music in its stricter sense (e.g. Sunt lacrymae rerum, three csárdás, Hungarian Rhapsodies nos.16–19, Historische ungarische Bildnisse) and whose bolder features pointed towards the 20th century. Ferenc Erkel's last opera, István király (‘King Stephen’, 1885), written to a large extent by his son Gyula, was in a style closely approaching Wagner. Excessive respect for Wagner was detrimental to the operas of the talented Mihalovich; Géza Zichy's operas, based on Hungarian traditions and the works of Ödön Farkas (1851–1912) were also short-lived. Only one of Hubay’s operas, A cremonai hegedűs (‘The Violin Maker of Cremona’, 1894), had an international success. Among the earliest Hungarian ballets were those on music of the 18th-century verbunkos composers Lavotta and Csermák (1829) and the ballet inserts in Erkel’s operas; these were followed by Jenő Sztojanovits's Csárdás (1890), a ballet using folkdance throughout, and Károly Szabados's Vióra (1891), both of which were particularly successful in Hungary. It was Liszt's pupil Aggházy, rather than the conservative J.G. Major, Béla Szabados or the experimental Sándor Bertha, who became historically significant to early 20th-century Hungarian music through combining elements of Liszt with French and Baroque influence.
Hungary, §I: Art music
5. 20th century.
At the turn of the century Hungarian music and musical life were marked by a characteristic dichotomy: trained musicians were influenced by German Romantic composers while the national tradition was represented by the popular art songs of semi-dilettante composers. Szabolcsi concluded that ‘European culture and national tradition had become unhealthily separated from each other and even appeared as adversaries’.
The Budapest Academy, run by Liszt and Erkel together during its first decade, had the neo-Wagnerian Ödön Mihalovich as its director from 1887 to 1918, with composition being taught by German musicians such as Robert Volkmann, and later Hans Koessler, whose classes produced the generation of Hungarian composers who opened new horizons for Hungarian music: Dohnányi, Bartók, Kodály and Weiner. From the outset, Dohnányi’s music was unambiguously Germanic and largely remained within the framework of Brahmsian Romanticism, although during the decades of his activities in Hungary his use of Hungarian folk melody became more significant. Weiner’s music also adheres to German Romanticism, though he went further than Dohnányi in the use of the Hungarian folk material, which became the main feature of an identifiable late period of his style (1931–51). His activities as a teacher of chamber music at the Budapest Academy influenced several generations of Hungarian musicians. Among his students were Antal Dorati, Georg Solti, György Pauk, György Sebők and Janos Starker.
Bartók also began his career with experiments aimed at combining Germanic musical style with the 19th-century Hungarian verbunkos, and only later realized that the melodies of Hungarian popular art song and the verbunkos (forcibly transplanted from its own period) were not compatible with the German Romantic symphonic forms and instrumentation. However, the discovery of ancient peasant melodies that had survived practically unchanged in Hungarian villages led to the solution of this problem. Kodály started collecting folksongs on a wide-ranging, scholarly basis in 1905, and Bartók followed his example; their use of the melodic material they found, which differed both from Western European folksongs and from Hungarian popular songs (which had until then been thought of as folksongs) gave new direction to the development of Hungarian music. Also, again on Kodály’s initiative, composers had become orientated towards France rather than Germany and discovered, especially in the works of Debussy, new possibilities for the harmonization of pentatonic and modal melodies. While a sort of national classicism emerged in Kodály’s music, Bartók interpreted folk music sources in a wider sense, absorbing into his music the influences of the folksongs that he subsequently collected in Romania, Slovakia and North Africa. Bartók also reacted more sensitively than Kodály to Western influences, approaching Schoenberg’s atonal style in the early 1920s, while later in the decade he briefly followed Stravinsky in neo-Baroque experimentation. In his last creative period, alongside his robust classicizing tendencies he ensured an even broader context for the interpretation of traditional music.
Bartók’s and Kodály’s younger contemporaries Sándor Jemnitz, György Kósa and László Lajtha consciously struggled to forge their individual styles and incorporate new influences; Jemnitz, a pupil of Reger and Schoenberg, assimilated German expressionism and stood apart from Kodály’s nationalism; Kósa drew his inspiration from Hungarian literature and dance, while Lajtha followed Kodály and Bartók in their use of folk music but went his own way under the influence of such French composers as Schmitt and d’Indy and the Triton society in Paris.
Besides his compositions and folk music research, Kodály’s activity as a teacher also contributed to the establishment of a national school. From 1907 he taught music theory and later composition at the Budapest Academy, where he had a powerful influence on two generations of young composers. If Kodály did not force his personal style on his pupils, he trained Hungarian musicians to master the most valuable elements of European art music and to make use of Hungarian folksongs in establishing a national style. In the 1920s and 30s the Kodály school not only laid the foundations of a new sort of national musical classicism, but became the progressive opposition of the chauvinistic pro-German musical culture that flourished between the wars.
The first generation of Kodály’s pupils, born around the turn of the century, came to international attention in the 1920s and 30s, and included Jenő Ádám, Lajos Bárdos, Tibor Serly, Ferenc Szabó, Pál Kadosa, Zoltán Horusitzky, Géza Frid, István Szelényi, Mátyás Seiber, Zoltán Gárdonyi, Antal Dorati, János Viski, György Ránki, Sándor Veress and Mihály Hajdu. Kodály’s influence was so great that it left its mark on composers who did not study with him, among them Ferenc Farkas, a pupil of Albert Siklós.
Although the composers of the Kodály school all shared the same musical training, central to which was the creation of a national music language, each one left works that reflected his own personality. Kadosa, who composed chiefly instrumental works, always showed great individuality, despite some influence of Bartók and Kodály. Szabó’s early works are characterized by the austere sounds and Baroque forms of functional art; however, from the 1930s onwards, his vision and his choice of genre were decisively influenced by his left-wing political sympathies (from 1932 to 1945 he lived in the Soviet Union). The works of Ádám and Bárdos were closely linked to the development of the new Hungarian choral movement, while the continuation of the Liszt tradition emerged as an important element in the music of Szelényi and Gárdonyi. In the 1950s Horusitzky and Hajdu each attempted to revive Hungarian opera, the former composing the historical opera Báthory Zsigmond, the latter the folk-based opera Kádár Kata. The most original and successful attempt at reviving the genre of operetta was Ránki’s Pomádé király új ruhája (‘King Pomádé’s New Clothes’) Veress, who succeeded Kodály in the composition faculty at the Budapest Academy, was rated the most successful composer of the generation following Bartók and Kodály. His early chamber works, initially neo-classical, then folk-based were followed in the 1940s by such large-scale compositions as the Violin Concerto, the ballet Térszili Katicza (‘Katica from Térszil’) and Szent Ágoston psalmusa az eretnekek ellen (‘St Augustine’s Psalm Against the Heretics’).
The evolution of Veress’s output was similar to those of his contemporaries whose development was decisively influenced by emigration. Both before and after World War II, a number of Hungarian composers, including Tibor Harsányi, Frid, Seiber, Dorati, Veress, Miklós Rózsa and Jenő Takács, were forced to emigrate. The effect of a new cultural environment on the creativity of the emigrant composers was usually stimulating, although most of them retained their distinctive Hungarian voice.
Both made use of the language of Hungarian vocal music that Kodály had cultivated to refine his personal style. He deliberately trained a group of competent musicians with whose help he hoped to achieve his main objective – the creation of a musically cultured Hungary. Many of his pupils became teachers, while a number of his colleagues and pupils (Lajtha, Veress and György Kerényi) were engaged in the collection and study of folk music.
The second generation of Kodály’s pupils (the group of composers born around 1920), like young composers elsewhere, were hampered in their development during the war years. The social and political transformation of the country in 1948–9 brought with it a cultural policy that turned musical life against the trends in Western Europe and, in the spirit of socialist realism, made a composer’s primary task that of serving the cultural needs of the masses. This over-simplified cultural policy won easy acceptance in Hungary, for even between the wars Kodály had hoped that he and his pupils would ‘bring art closer to the people, and the people closer to art’. The three most prominent features of the Kodály school – a national outlook based on Hungarian folk music, the need for correct Hungarian prosody and the rejection of experiments in language and technique – thus became the dominant trends in Hungarian music in the first decade after the war. It was characteristic of the situation around 1950 that while Bartók’s music was officially praised, some of his works, mostly from his avant-garde middle period, were banned.
In the ongoing arguments about the politics of music in the late 1940s and early 50s there were frequent shifts in emphasis. The first few years after the war were dominated by lighter genres: serenades and cantatas in a conservative, highly accessible idiom and songs for the masses, whose texts reinforced the prevailing socialist ideology. After a few years, however, composers began to turn to more substantial genres, notably the oratorio, the symphony and the concerto. Significant works of this period include Rezső Sugár’s Hősi ének (‘Heroic Song’, 1951), Pál Járdányi’s Vörösmarty-Symphony (1952), Endre Szervánszky’s Concerto in Memoriam Attila József (1954) and András Mihály’s Cello Concerto (1953), all of them written in a neo-Romantic nationalist idiom incorporating elements of folk music.
After the 1956 uprising there was a call for greater liberalization in musical life. Although nominally an official political ideology for the arts continued to exist, it could no longer be consistently enforced. Composers soon sensed the liberalized atmosphere and began to compensate for the ground lost during the years of isolation. Through foreign radio broadcasts and recordings and scores obtained from abroad, they began to broaden their horizons; and from Bartók, whose most radical works were no longer banned, they learnt how to synthesize Hungary’s native musical language with modern European techniques into an individual expression. Composers of the middle generation such as Járdányi, Rudolf Maros, Mihály, Endre Székely and Szervánszky were able to lay down a new path for Hungarian music, free of the strictures of the past. The first and most natural orientation lay in the belated imitation of the Second Viennese School, from which Hungarian musical life had been cut off both before and after the war. An emblematic work of this period was Szervánszky’s Six Pieces for Orchestra (1959), strongly influenced by Webern. Strict 12-note technique was used in only a few works (e.g. Imre Vincze’s String Quartet no.2), while a freer application became fairly common.
Two particularly gifted composers of the generation born in the 1920s proved capable of moving in a fundamentally new direction: György Ligeti and György Kurtág, both of them pupils of Veress and Farkas at the Budapest Academy. Ligeti settled in Vienna in 1957 and soon became an influential composer of avant-garde music. Kurtág’s studies in Paris (1957–8) were a turning-point in his career; without departing from the subtly rethought Bartók tradition, his style underwent radical reform on the basis of the serial techniques of Webern and Stravinsky. Kurtág discovered the ‘microform’, and through his concentration, extreme expressive capacity and fertile exploration of previous traditions he has created a unique musical style, the scope of which won belated international recognition following the 1981 première of his Poslaniya pokonoy R.V. Trusovoy op.17 (‘Messages of the Late R.V. Troussova’). Another distinguished composer of this generation is András Szőllősy, who studied with Kodály, Viski and Petrassi and established his individuality in orchestral works from the mid-1960s.
About 1960 a new generation of young composers appeared whose studies had been completed in the new freer atmosphere at the academy, and who were offered the chance of continuing their studies abroad. Two opera composers of this generation whose works are known abroad are Emil Petrovics and Sándor Szokolay whose Vérnász (‘Blood Wedding’, 1964) was probably the most successful Hungarian opera since Bluebeard’s Castle. Many of these musicians gave Hungarian music new direction at the beginning of the 1960s: although they were all influenced by a recognizably Hungarian tradition (not necessarily using folksong), the influence of free 12-note technique and of the ‘Warsaw school’ helped them to achieve results that brought the attention of the musical world back to Hungary (Decsényi, Kalmár, Károlyi, Kocsár, Láng, Lendvay, Papp and Soproni). Balassa, Bozay and Durkó, in particular have achieved an international reputation. They have not bound themselves to any single trend, but have drawn on all of them – from serialism to techniques based on timbres, clusters, note rows and aleatory procedures. In instrumental music their preferred genres have been works for a solo instrument and for chamber ensembles, sometimes using experimental instrumental combinations. In the 1980s most composers of this generation turned increasingly to a neo-Romantic idiom.
The works of the generation that became established in the 1970s showed that Hungarian music had broken free of national tradition and could move closer to both the older and newer avant-garde trends. The young musicians of the group known as the Új Zenei Stúdió (New Music Studio) – Jeney, Sáry, Vidovszky, Eötvös and Dukay – completed their studies in Hungary; most of them then worked under Petrassi, Messiaen or Stockhausen, experimenting with principles of organization in musical time and space, chiefly on the basis of the ideas of Cage. After the gradual dissolution of the group in the 1980s the individual characteristics of each of its composers became clearer: Eötvös’s theatrical temperament, Jeney’s strict rationalism, Sáry’s lyricism and Vidovszky’s wit. Among other composers of this generation who were unconnected with the New Music Studio, Jószef Sári founded a non-dramatic style following the example of Ligeti, and László Dubrovay brought the techniques of electronic music to his instrumental works.
The generation of Hungarian composers that emerged around 1980 did not formed a unified group, although many of them studied with Petrovics. Iván Madarász’s eclectic style shows an affinity with minimalism, István Márta uses collage techniques and incorporates elements from pop music, and the experimental 180-as Csoport (Group 180) of László Melis, András Soós and Tibor Szemző were influenced by Steve Reich. Many younger composers have adopted a neo-Romantic, tonal idiom, among them Miklós Csemiczky, György Orbán, György Selmeczi and János Vajda. Some composers of this generation (e.g. Máté Hollós) cultivate a specifically Hungarian style, while others such as László Tihanyi, a disciple of Eötvös, are more cosmopolitan in outlook.
The birth and relatively rapid expansion of Hungarian musicology in the 20th century was closely related to the development of modern Hungarian music. The pioneering role was not played by historical and theoretical research, as in most western European countries, but by ethnomusicology, initiated by Béla Vikár at the turn of the century, followed by Kodály, Bartók, Lajtha and Veress. While Kodály founded a school of ethnomusicology (Járdányi, Kerényi, Kiss, Olsvai, Rajeczky, Sárosi, Vargyas, László Vikár), Bence Szabolcsi and Dénes Bartha carried out pioneering work in the field of music history. Many branches of musicological research are carried out at the Magyar Tudományos Akadémia (Hungarian Academy of Sciences), under whose auspices the first collections of folk music were systematized (Bartók, 1934–40), and the Népzenekutató Csoport (Folk Music Research Group) established under Kodály’s direction in 1953. Under Kodály’s guidance the systematic publication of Hungarian folk melodies was begun in 1951 in the series Magyar Népzene Tára (Corpus Musicae Popularis Hungaricae). This has been continued by the new generation of folk music scholars.
In 1951 Bartha and Szabolcsi founded the department of musicology at the Liszt Ferenc Zeneművészeti Főiskola (Liszt Academy of Music). They taught several generations of music historians. Besides Bartha and Szabolcsi, important musicologists have included Gárdonyi, Bárdos, Rezso Kókai and, later, György Kroó, Lászlo Somfai, János Kárpáti, Tibor Tallián, Lászlo Dobszay, Janka Szendrei, Katalin Komlós, A. Batta, Sándor Kovács and I. Ferenczi. In 1961 the Bartók Archives, an independent department of the Academy of Sciences, were opened under the directorship of the Belgian scholar Denijs Dille. The archive’s activities were expanded under Somfai’s direction from 1972, and have included the preparation of a thematic catalogue and a complete critical edition of Bartók’s works.
The Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Zenetudományi Intézete (Institute for Musicology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences) is a centre of musicological research in Hungary. In 1974 the previously independent Népzenekutató Csoport (Folk Music Research Group) was annexed to this institution. The institution’s activities have included important research into Gregorian chant and the history of early music in Hungary; the series of musical editions Musicalia Danubiana (16 volumes) and the congress reports Cantus Planus have gained international recognition. Since the early 1980s Hungarian scholars have been involved in the production and publication of the five-volume series Magyarország Zenetörténete (‘The History of Music in Hungary’), the first two of which appeared in 1988 and 1990. The results of recent decades of research into the history of music in Hungary are published in the series Magyar Zenetörténeti Tanulmányok (‘Studies in Hungarian Music History’, ed. F. Bónis). Two important institutions opened since the 1980s are the Liszt Memorial Museum and Research Centre, under the direction of Mária Eckhardt (1986), and the Kodály Memorial Museum and Archives, directed by István Kecskeméti. The distinguished tradition of Hungarian music criticism established in the first half of the 20th century by Bartha, Antal Molnár, Aladár Tóth and Jemnitz has been continued by such critics as Járdányi, András Pernye and Kroó.
The principal institution for the teaching of music in Hungary is the Liszt Academy of Music, founded in 1875 as the National Hungarian Royal Academy of Music, and named after Liszt in 1925. The Nemzeti Zenede (National Conservatory) was founded in 1840 and was renamed the Bartók Béla Zeneművészeti Szakiskola (Béla Bartók Musical Training College) in 1949; it provides training at an intermediate level together with affiliated colleges in provincial towns (Debrecen, Győr, Miskolc, Pécs, Szeged etc.). There is a broad network of elementary music schools; music is taught in all schools according to Kodály’s principles. The centre for the teaching of the ‘Kodály method’ is the Nemzetközi Kodály Intézet (International Kodály Institute) in Kecskemét. (For further information on Hungary’s principal institutions see Budapest.)
See also Braşov; Bratislava; Cluj-Napoca; Eszterháza; Szeged.
Hungary, §I, 5: Art music: 20th century
E. Haraszti: La musique hongroise (Paris, 1933)
D. Bartha: Erdély zenetörténete [History of Transylvanian music] (Budapest, 1936)
I. Molnár, ed.: A magyar muzsika könyve [Book of Hungarian music] (Budapest, 1936)
G. Papp: A magyar katolikus egyházi népének kezdetei [The sources of Hungarian Catholic hymns] (Budapest, 1942)
D. Bartha and Z. Kodály: Die ungarische Musik (Budapest, 1943)
B. Szabolcsi: A magyar zenetörténet kézikönyve [A concise history of Hungarian music] (Budapest, 1947, rev. 3/1979 by F. Bónis; Eng. trans., l964, 2/1974, as A Concise History of Hungarian Music)
F. Bónis, ed.: B. Szabolcsi: A magyar zene évszázadai [Szabolcsi's collected writings on centuries of Hungarian music] (Budapest, 1959–61)
J. Vigué and J. Gergely: La musique hongroise (Paris, 1959, 2/1976)
D. Keresztury, J. Vécsey and Z. Falvy: A magyar zenetörténet képeskönyve [The history of Hungarian music in pictures] (Budapest, 1960)
D. Legány, ed.: A magyar zene krónikája: zenei művelődésünk ezer éve dokumentumokban [Chronicle of Hungarian music: 1000 years of documentation on musical culture] (Budapest, 1962)
B. Stoll: A magyar kéziratos énekeskönyvek és versgyűjtemények bibliográfiája: 1565–1840 [Bibliography of Hungarian manuscript song and poem collections, 1565–1840] (Budapest, 1963)
F. Sándor, ed.: Zenei nevelés Magyarországon (Budapest, 1964; Eng. trans. by B. Balogh, Z. Horn and P. Járdányi, 1966, 3/1975 as Musical Education in Hungary)
E. Major: Fejezetek a magyar zene történetéből [Episodes from Hungarian music history], ed. F. Bónis (Budapest, 1967)
F. Bónis, ed.: Magyar zenetörténeti tanulmángok [Studies on Hungarian music history], i–vii (Budapest, 1968–1996)
J. Ujfalussy, ed.: Dokumentumok a Magyar Tanácsköztársaság zenei életéhez [Documents on the musical life of the Hungarian Socialist Republic] (Budapest, 1973)
K. Szigeti: Régi magyar orgonák: Kőszeg [Old Hungarian organs: Kőszeg] (Budapest, 1974)
K. Bárdos: Volksmusikartige Variierungstechnik in den ungarischen Passionen, 15. bis 18. Jahrhundert (Budapest, 1975)
Műhelytanulmányok a Magyar zenetörténethez [Workshop studies to ‘History of Music in Hungary’], i–xv (Budapest, 1981–95)
K. Bárdos: ‘Újabb szempontok a magyarországi toronyzenészek történetének kérdéséhez’ [New aspects of the problem concerning the history of the tower musicians in Hungary], Zenetudományi dolgozatok (1983), 103–11
L. Dobszay: Magyar zenetörténet [A history of Hungarian music] (Budapest, 1984; Eng. trans., 1993)
E. Halmos: Die Geschichte des Gesang-Musikunterrichts in Ungarn: unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Einflusses aus dem deutschsprachigen Kulturbereich (Stuttgart, 1988)
I. Balázs: Musikführer duch Ungarn (Budapest, 1991; Eng. trans., 1992)
E. Brixel: ‘Das Signalwesen der Postillions in Österreich-Ungarn’, Musica pannonica, i (1991), 75–110
P. Karch: ‘Ergänzungen und Berichtigungen zu den bisher veröffentlichten Verzeichnissen über die Militärmusik in der Donaumonarchie, die ungarische Reichshälfte betreffend’, Pannonische Forschungsstelle Oberschützen: Arbeitsberichte-Mitteilungen, ii (1991), 130–75; iii (1992), 277–350
J. Kárpáti, ed.: Fejezetek a Zeneakdémia történetéből [Chapters from the history of the Academy of Music] (Budapest, 1992)
L. Dobszay: Abriss der ungarischen Musikgeschichte (Budapest, 1993)
K. Schnorr: ‘Gli organi delle chiese nella fascia danubia slovacca ed ungharese’, Danubio: una civiltà musicale, iii (Monfalcone, 1993), 55–76
L. Marosi: Két évszázad katonazenéje Magyorországon, 1741–1945 [Two centuries of military music in Hungary, 1741–1945] (Budapest, 1994)
b: to 1700
I. Bartalus: A magyar egyházak szertartásos énekei a XVI. és XVII. században [Liturgical song in the Hungarian church of the 16th and 17th centuries] (Pest, 1869)
J. Dankó: Vetus hymnarium ecclesiasticum hungariae (Budapest, 1893)
K. Isoz: Körmöczbánya zenészei a XVII. században [The musicians of Körmöcbánya in the 17th century] (Budapest, 1907)
O. Gombosi: ‘Quellen aus dem 16.–17. Jahrhundert zur Geschichte der Musikpflege in Bartfeld (Bártfa) und Oberungarn’, Ungarische Jahrbücher, xii (1932), 331–40
D. Bartha: Szalkai érsek zenei feljegyzései monostor-iskolai diák korából (1490) [Music notes of Archbishop Szalkai from his school years (1490)] (Budapest, 1934)
E. Haraszti: ‘Les musiciens de Mathias Corvinus et de Béatrice d'Aragon’, La musique instrumentale de la Renaissance: Paris 1954, 35–59
K. Csomasz Tóth: A XVI. század magyar dallamai [Hungarian songs of the 16th century] (Budapest, 1958) [with Ger. summary]
Z. Falvy: ‘Spielleute im mittelalterlichen Ungarn’, SMH, i (1961), 29–64
B. Rajeczky: ‘Spätmittelalterliche Organalkunst in Ungarn’, SMH, i (1961), 15–28
Z. Falvy and L. Mezey: Codex Albensis: ein Antiphonar aus dem 12. Jahrhundert (Budapest and Graz, 1963)
K. Szigeti: ‘Denkmäler des Gregorianischen Chorals aus dem ungarischen Mittelalter’, SMH, iv (1963), 129–72
K. Szigeti: ‘Mehrstimmige Gesänge aus dem 15. Jahrhundert im Antiphonale des Oswald Thuz’, SMH, vi (1964), 107–17
L. Zolnay: ‘Data of the Musical Life of Buda in the Late Middle Ages’, SMH, ix (1967), 99–113
Z. Falvy: Drei Reimoffizien aus Ungarn und ihre Musik (Budapest and Kassel, 1968)
G. Papp: ‘Beiträge zu den Verbindungen der polnischen und ungarischen Musik im 17. Jahrhundert’, SMH, x (1968), 37–54
G. Papp: A XVII. század énekelt magyar dallamai [Hungarian songs of the 17th century] (Budapest, 1970)
B. Szabolcsi: Tanzmusik aus Ungarn im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert (Budapest and Kassel, 1970)
L. Dobszay: ‘Dies est leticie’, Acta ethnographica, xx (1971), 203–13
B. Rajeczky: ‘Ein neuer Fund zur mehrstimmigen Praxis Ungarns im 15. Jahrhundert’, SMH , xiv (1972), 147–68
J. Szendrei: ‘Die Te Deum-Melodien in Kodex Peer’, SMH, xiv (1972), 169–201
Z. Falvy: ‘Troubadourmelodien im mittelalterlichen Ungarn’, SMH, xv (1973), 79–88
J. Szendrei: ‘Te Deum als ungarischer Volksgesang im Mittelalter’, SMH, xv (1973), 303–20
L. Zolnay: ‘Feldtrompeter und Kriegsmusik im ungarischer Mittelalter’, SMH, xvi (1974), 151–78
J. Szendrei, L. Dobszay and B. Rajeczky, eds.: XVI.–XVII. századi dallamaink a népi emlékezetben [16th- and 17th-century Hungarian songs in the folk tradition] (Budapest, 1979)
J. Szendrei, L. Dobszay and B. Rajeczky: Cantus Gregorianus ex Hungaria – Magyar Gregoriánum (Budapest, 1981)
K. Rennerné Várhidi: ‘Adatok a szepesi huszonnégy királyi város 16–17. századi zenei eletéhez’ [Details of the musical life of the 24 royal towns of Szepes in the 16th and 17th centuries], Zenetudományi dolgozatok (1983), 91–102
J. Szendrei: Középkori hangjegyírások Magyarországon [Music notations in medieval Hungary] (Budapest, 1983)
K. Bárdos: Szabad királyi városaink és mezővárosaink zenei struktúrája és zeneélete a 16–17. században (1541–1686) [The musical structure and musical life of our independent royal towns and our agricultural towns in the 16th and 17th centuries (1541–1686)] (diss., U. of Budapest, 1986)
Z. Czagány: ‘Fragment eines anonymen Musiktraktats des XV. Jahrhunderts aus Leutschau’, Cantus Plannus III: Tihany 1988, 237–44
J. Szendrei: ‘Tropenbestand der ungarischen Handschriften’, ibid., 297–326
J. Szendrei: ‘Die Geschichte der Graner Choralnotation’, SMH, xxx (1988), 5–234
K. Bárdos: ‘Das Musikleben des Jesuiten und Piaristen Ordens in Nordungarn des 17. Jahrhunderts’, Musicae sacrae ars et scientia: ksiega ku czci Ks. Prof. Karola Mrowca, ed. S. Dabek (Lublin, 1989), 315–29
C. Brewer: ‘The Historical Context of Polyphony in Medieval Hungary: an Examination of Four Fragmentary Sources’, SMH, xxxii (1990), 5–21
L. Dobszay: ‘Plainchant in Medieval Hungary’, Journal of the Plainsong and Medieval Music Society, xiii (1990), 49–78
Z. Czagány, G. Kiss and Á. Papp: ‘A Repertory of Mass Ordinaries in Eastern Europe, Cantus Plannus VI: Eger 1993, 585–600
A. Jánosi: ‘La tradizione interpretativa della musica barocca in Ungheria’, Danubio: una civiltà musicale, iii (Monfalcone, 1993), 267–73
L. Dobszay: ‘Local Compositions in the Office Temporale’, Max Lütolf zum 60. Geburtstag Festschrift, ed. B. Hangartner and U. Fischer (Basel, 1994), 65–74
R. Gates-Coon: The Landed Estates of the Esterházy Princes: Hungary during the reforms of Maria Theresia and Joseph II (Baltimore, 1994)
G. Kiss: ‘Die Beziehung zwischen Ungebundenheit und Traditionalismus im Messordinarium’, Laborare fratres in unum: Festschrift László Dobszay zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. J. Szendrei and D. Hiley (Hildesheim, 1995), 187–200
c: 18th and 19th centuries
K. Ábrányi: A magyar zene a 19-ik században [Hungarian music in the 19th century] (Budapest, 1900)
B. Szabolcsi: ‘Ungarische Chorpartituren des 18. Jahrhunderts’, ZMw, xi (1928–9), 306–12
D. Bartha: A XVIII. század magyar dallamai [18th-century Hungarian melodies] (Budapest, 1935)
A. Molnár: ‘Nyugatias magyar dallamok a XVIII. század végén és a XIX. század első felében’ [Hungarian art songs of the late 18th century and the first half of the 19th century], ZT, iv (1955), 103–62
A. Valkó: ‘Haydn magyarországi működése a levéltári akták tükrében’ [Documentation on Haydn’s activity in Hungary], ZT, vi (1957), 627–67; viii (1960), 527–668
J. Ujfalussy: ‘Hogyan kerülnek a magyarok Beethoven III. szimfóniájának utolsó tételébe?’ [How did Hungarian influence reach the finale of Beethoven’s Third Symphony?], Magyar zene, i (1960–61), 7–15
P.P. Domokos: ‘Magyar táncdallamok a XVIII. századból' [Hungarian dance melodies of the 18th century], ZT, ix (1961), 269–94
Z. Falvy: ‘Danses du XVIIIe siècle en Hongrie dans la collection “Linus”’, SMH, xiii (1971), 15–59
I. Mona: ‘Hungarian Music Publication 1774–1867’, SMH, xvi (1974), 261–75
K. Bárdos: Pécs zenéje a 18. században [Music at Pécs in the 18th century] (Budapest, 1976)
K. Bárdos: A Tatai Esterházyak zenéje 1727–1846 [Music of the Esterházy court in Tata, 1727–1846] (Budapest, 1978)
K. Csomasz Tóth: Maróthi György és a kollégiumi zene [Maróthi and the music in colleges] (Budapest, 1978)
A. Meier: ‘Die Pressburger Hofkapelle des Fürstprimas von Ungarn, Fürst Joseph von Batthyany, in den Jahren 1776 bis 1784’, Haydn Yearbook 1978, 81–9
D. Legány: ‘Kamaramuzsikálás Magyarországon 1800–tól 1830–ig’ [Chamber music performance in Hungary from 1800 to 1830], Magyar zene, xxiv (1983), 269–80
G. Galavics: ‘Művészettörténet, zenetörténet, tánctörténet: Muzsikus- és táncábrázolások 1750–1820 között Magyarországon’ [History of art, music and dance: representations of musicians and dance in Hungary between 1750 and 1820], Ethnographia, xcviii (1987), 160–206
A. Németh: A magyar opera története a kezdetektől az Operaház megnyitásáig [The history of Hungarian opera from its beginnings to the opening of the Opera House] (Budapest, 1987)
I. Sonkoly: ‘Die Vertonungen von Texten deutscher Dichter des 19. Jahrhunderts in Ungarn’, Német filológiai tanulmányok/Arbeiten zur deutschen Philiologie, xix (1990), 25–38
A. Gupcsó: ‘Musiktheater-Aufführungen an Jesuiten- und Piaristenschulen im Ungarn des 18. Jahrhunderts’, SMH, xxxviii (1997), 315–44
d: 20th century
Contemporary Hungarian Composers (Budapest, 1967, enlarged 5/1989)
M. Pándi: Száz esztendő magyar zenekritikája [A century of Hungarian music criticism] (Budapest, 1967)
G. Kroó: A magyar zeneszerzés 30 éve [30 years of Hungarian music] (Budapest, 1975; Ger. trans., 1980 as Ungarische Musik gestern und heute; Fr. trans., 1981 as La musique hongroise contemporaine)
T. Tallián: ‘Új magyar opera: korszak- és típusvázlat’ [New Hungarian opera: a rough sketch of period and type], Zenetudományi dolgozatok (Budapest, 1980), 345–64
A. Tokaji: Mozgalom és hivatal: tömegdal Magyarországon 1945-56 [Movement and office: the mass song in Hungary, 1945–56] (Budapest, 1983)
M. Berlász and T. Tallián, eds.: Iratok a magyar zeneoktatás történetéhez [Writings on the history of music teaching in Hungary] (Budapest, 1984)
M. Berlász and T. Tallián, eds.: Iratok a magyar zeneélet történetéhez [Writings on the history of musical life in Hungary] (Budapest, 1985–6)
J. Breuer: Negyven év magyar zenekultúrája [Hungarian music culture in the last 40 years] (Budapest, 1985)
T. Tallián: Magyarországi hangversenyélet 1945–1958 [Hungarian concert life 1945–1958] (Budapest, 1991)
J. Breuer: ‘Verfemte Musik in Ungarn’, Verfemte Musik: Komponisten in den Diktaturen unseres Jahrhunderts (Frankfurt and New York, 1995), 263–71
M. Hollós: Az Héletmu fele: zeneszerzőportrék beszélgetésekben [Halfway on career: portraits of composers in interviews] (Budapest, 1997)
For further bibliography see Budapest.