Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm

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Humbucking pickup.

A type of pickup used on electric guitars, patented by Gibson’s Seth Lover in 1955. See Electric guitar, §3.

Hume, Paul (Chandler)

(b Chicago, 13 Dec 1915). American music critic. He studied music and English at the University of Chicago (BA 1937). During his time as music editor of the Washington Post (1946–82), he wrote more than 20,000 articles and reviews; his negative assessment of a song recital given by Margaret Truman, daughter of Harry S. Truman, elicited a vitriolic response from the president and made Hume nationally known. He contributed to such periodicals as The Critic, The Sign, Americas and Dialogue, and published several books including Catholic Church Music (New York, 1956/R), biographies of Paderewski and John McCormack, entitled respectively The Lion of Poland (New York, 1962) and The King of Song (New York, 1964), Verdi (New York, 1977) and Harry Truman: the Man and his Music (with others, Kansas City, MO, 1985). He was an established radio personality in the Washington area and consistently promoted serious music in a city once notorious for its musical apathy. Hume also taught at Georgetown University (1950–77) and Yale University (1975–83).


Hume, Tobias

(b ?c1579; d London, 16 April 1645). English composer and viol player. As a professional soldier he served as an officer in the Swedish and Russian armies, and as a viol player published two important volumes of music, principally for the Lyra viol. When in 1629 he entered the Charterhouse almshouse he was probably 50 (the minimum age of admission); he later died there.

The profession of arms, his vivid and personal literary style, his insistence that the viol ‘shall with ease yeelde full various and as devicefull Musicke as the Lute’, and the fact that most of his music, being in tablature, is inaccessible to most modern musicians, have been the cause both of modern neglect of Hume as a composer of talent, and of his reputation as a musical eccentric.

What is remarkable is that Hume regarded himself primarily as a soldier: ‘I doe not studie Eloquence, or professe Musicke, although I doe love Sense, and affect Harmony: My Profession being, as my Education hath beene, Armes, the onely effeminate part of me, hath beene Musicke; which in mee hath beene alwayes Generous, because never Mercenarie’. Hume's addresses to the reader herald a new vigour that the 17th-century pamphleteers were to bring to English prose; his claim for the viol as a worthy rival to the lute as a solo, an ensemble and a continuo instrument, was an accurate forecast of change in English musical taste.

All of Hume's known compositions are contained in his First Part of Ayres (1605) and Captaine Humes Poeticall Musicke (1607), the former constituting the largest repertory of solo music for the lyra viol by a single composer in the early 17th century. Together, these works comprise instrumental dances, pieces with descriptive, fanciful or humorous titles, programmatic pieces and songs. Hume's First Part of Ayres contains what may be the earliest examples of pizzicato: ‘play one straine with your fingers, the other with your Bow’, ‘to be plaide with your fingers … your Bow ever in your hand’ and col legno: ‘Drum this with the back of your Bow’. This book includes a number of playfully suggestive titles – My Mistresse hath a prettie thing, She loves it well and Hit it in the middle – as well as a Lesson for two to play upon one Viole which requires one player to sit in the lap of the other. His second collection, dedicated to Queen Anne, is more staid in tone; it earned for the composer ‘according to her highnes comandment and pleasure [by warrant, 6 June 1607]: 100 s[hillings]’. While making no great technical demands on the performer, the music displays much skill and invention, both in the exploitation of the potential of the viol and in the effectiveness and the variety of sonorities in the ensemble works.


The First Part of Ayres, French, Pollish and others together … with Pavines, Galliards, and Almaines (London, 1605/R); 3 songs, v, lyra viol, ed. in EL, 2nd ser., xxi (1969), 8 inst. works ed. in MB, ix (1955, 2/1962)

Captaine Humes Poeticall Musicke … so contrived, that it may he plaied 8. severall waies upon sundry Instruments with much facilitie (London, 1607/R); 1 song, v, 3 viols, ed. in EL, 2nd ser., xxi (1969), 3 works, 3–4 viols, ed. in MB, ix (1955, 2/1962)


AshbeeR iv

T. Hume: The True Petition of Colonel Hume, as it was Presented to the Lords Assembled in the High Court of Paliament (London, 1642)

F. Traficante: ‘Music for the Lyra Viol: the Printed Sources’, LSJ, viii (1966), 7–24; repr. in JVdGSA, v (1968), 16–33

W. Sullivan: Tobias Hume's ‘First Part of Ayres’ 1605 (diss., U. of Hawaii, 1967); serialized in JVdGSA, v (1968), 5–15; vi (1969), 13–33; vii (1970), 92–111; viii (1971), 64–93; ix (1972), 16–37

K. Nemann: ‘Captain Hume's Invention for Two to Play upon One Viole’, JAMS, xxii (1969), 101–6

C. Harris: A Study and Partial Transcription of ‘The First Part of Ayres’ by Tobias Hume (diss., U. of London, 1971)

C. Harris: ‘Thomas Hume, a Short Biography’, Chelys, iii (1971), 16–18

C. Harris: ‘The Viol Lyra-Way’, Chelys, iv (1972), 17–21


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