Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm

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Hullah, John (Pyke)

(b Worcester, 27 June 1812; d London, 21 Feb 1884). English teacher and composer. He was taught by Horsley and Crivelli. His first ambition was to be an opera composer, and The Village Coquettes (to a libretto by his friend Charles Dickens) enjoyed extended runs in London and Edinburgh in 1836, to be followed by two less successful ventures in The Barbers of Bassora (1837) and The Outpost (1838), both performed at Covent Garden. Dickens privately expressed regret about the collaboration. In 1837 Hullah first learnt of Joseph Mainzer’s successful singing classes in Paris from an article by H.F. Chorley in the Athenaeum; and in 1839, hoping to imitate them in London, he visited Paris with Chorley to observe Mainzer at work. Finding the classes discontinued, the two men attended the rival singing classes of Wilhem. Returning to England, Hullah was introduced to James Kay (later Sir James Kay-Shuttleworth), secretary to the Committee of Council on Education, then planning to establish a training college for teachers. Kay believed that the introduction of continental teaching methods in general would revitalize English schools, and had already selected Wilhem’s system for teaching music. He commissioned Hullah to prepare an English version of Wilhem’s Manuel musical, appointing him music instructor when the new college (later St John’s) opened at Battersea in February 1840. The impressive initial results of Hullah’s teaching soon encouraged Kay to obtain government support for a ‘singing school for schoolmasters' which began under Hullah’s direction at Exeter Hall, London, in February 1841, separate enrolments for schoolmistresses being introduced a month later. 400 teachers attended weekly, and similar classes for the general public were formed by popular demand.

In the Westminster Review (1842) W.E. Hickson outlined the main disadvantages of the Hullah-Wilhem system: pupils identified notes on the staff only by sol-fa names permanently related to the key of C; initial progress encouraged false hopes, and when other keys were introduced, pupils became baffled. Experience was to justify those criticisms, but not before Hullah’s manual had become the official textbook for school use. The result was a battle of systems between Hullah and John Curwen, whose Tonic Sol-fa used a movable doh and had been designed shortly after Hullah’s system appeared. Over the next 30 years, teachers increasingly adopted Tonic Sol-fa, though ‘Hullah’s method’ was still taught to teachers in training.

Seen against that background, Hullah’s career seems one of growing frustration and disappointment; but his achievement in securing a permanent place for music in the school curriculum in Britain must not be overlooked, and his influence on amateur music in Britain can hardly be exaggerated. The nationwide formation of amateur choral societies after 1840 demonstrated that, at least for adults with some natural talent, his system provided an adequate start. He held many important teaching appointments in London including those of professor of vocal music at King’s College (1844–74), Queen’s College and Bedford College; he taught in six London teacher-training colleges and was appointed government inspector of music in 1872.

Hullah published many music textbooks, essays and papers, edited several pioneer collections of early choral and vocal music, and wrote numerous songs, two of which, O that we two were Maying and The Three Fishers, were to enjoy popularity for a century.


Wilhem’s Method of Teaching Singing adapted to English Use (Hullah’s Manual) (London, 2/1841–2/R) [trans. of G.L.B. Wilhem: Manuel musical, Paris, 1836]

Grammar of Vocal Music (London, 1843)

The Duty and Advantage of Learning to Sing (London, 1846)

A Grammar of Musical Harmony (London, 1852, 2/1872)

The History of Modern Music (London, 1862, 2/1875)

A Grammar of Counterpoint (London, 1864)

A Course of Lectures on The Third or Transition Period of Musical History (London, 1865, 2/1876)

The Cultivation of the Speaking Voice (London, 1870)

Time and Tune in the Elementary School (London, 1874, 2/1875, rev. 3/1880 as Hullah’s Method of Teaching Singing)

Music in the House (London, 1877)


Part Music: Sacred Pieces (London, 1842–5, 2/1868)

Part Music: Secular Pieces (London, 1842–5, 2/1866)

The Psalter or Psalms of David in Metre (London, 1843)

The Song Book (London, 1866)

A Hymnal, chiefly from the Book of Praise (London, 1868)


GroveO (R. Bledsoe)

F.R. Hullah: Life of John Hullah (London, 1886)

B. Rainbow: The Land without Music: Musical Education in England, 1800–1860, and its Continental Antecedents (London, 1967)


Hüllmandel [Hullmandel], Nicolas-Joseph [Jean Nicolas, James Nicolas]

(b Strasbourg, 23 May 1756; d London, 19 Dec 1823). Alsatian composer and performer on the harpsichord, piano and glass harmonica. His year of birth was generally given formerly as 1751, as attested by his death certificate. Strasbourg birth registers examined in 1959 record a Joannes Nicolaus born in 1756, out of wedlock, to Marie-Anne Diel and Michel Hüllmandel, violinist at the cathedral. Identification of Joannes Nicolaus and Nicolas-Joseph as the same person is likely, but not absolutely certain. Michel Hüllmandel’s wife, Marie-Anne Rudolf, was a sister of the violinist and horn player Jean-Joseph Rodolphe, known in Paris circles as Hüllmandel’s uncle. That Hüllmandel studied with C.P.E. Bach was reported by Fétis, but is otherwise undocumented. In 1771 he was in London in the employ of the Duke (Count) of Guines, French envoy to London and Mozart’s patron. Six public performances, mostly of concertos, took place in London between 10 January 1771 and 13 May 1773. Presumably he was in Paris in 1773/4 for the publication of his op.1, dedicated to Dauphine Marie-Antoinette. After travelling to Italy in 1775, he settled in Paris in about 1776, enjoying immediate success, particularly in noble and fashionable circles. His op.2 is inscribed to the Baroness Talleyrand and op.4 to the Duke of Guines. In Paris his regular participation at the elegant salons held by the painter Elisabeth-Louise Vigée Le Brun and Abbé André Morellet is mentioned in their memoirs and his performance on the glass harmonica especially praised. Among his students were Georges Onslow, Hyacinthe Jadin, D.-F.-E. Aubert, J.-B. Désormery and Victoire Lemachois (mother of Charles Gounod).

When the Revolution erupted Hüllmandel and his wife (Camille Aurore Ducazan, niece of the Receiver-General) fled to London, where he joined the ranks of the more successful foreign musicians performing and teaching there. Apart from op.12, he wrote no further original works, nor did he perform in public. His son Charles Joseph (b London, 15 June 1789; d London, 15 Nov 1850) became a leader in the development of lithography; he wrote several books on stone printing, developed a colour-printing technique known as lithotint, and also published music. Hüllmandel’s daughter (Adelaide Charlotte) Evalina, who married the flower painter Bartholomew in 1827, published a teaching method entitled Musical Game, or New Year’s Gift for Children (1827) and several piano arrangements. Hüllmandel’s death certificate in the Minutier Central of the Paris Archives Nationales calls him Joseph Nicolas, aged 72, and gives his address as Great Marlborough Street, St James’s Parish, Westminster.

Hüllmandel’s entire musical production is for harpsichord or piano, some of it with optional or obligatory violin accompaniment. Opp.1–11 were first published in Paris between 1773 and 1788, but were reissued during his lifetime in various European capitals. The simple binary and ternary airs of op.5 (varying somewhat among editions) were by far the most popular. Despite their obvious didactic intent and the absence of dynamic markings, there is remarkable diversity in mood and texture and broad exploitation of keyboard techniques (passages in parallel and contrary motion, mordents, short and sustained trills etc.) on an elementary level.

The sonatas suffer from insufficient dynamism and passion, but imaginatively exploit the possibilities for contrast inherent in the sonata-allegro form, of which they are fully-developed prototypes. The texture is a graceful mixture of contrapuntal writing and accompanied melody, with the expected scales, octaves, broken chords and Alberti-type basses. But the parts are well distributed between the hands, and there are frequent passages of developed polyphony with hocket, canon and other fugal devices. The potential brilliance of the keyboard is not neglected and many passages require considerable technical mastery.

In the 21 sonatas for accompanied keyboard, the violin part remains relatively simple, only rarely exceeding the third position. In the works with optional accompaniment it serves mainly as a harmonic or rhythmic filler, occasionally engaging in short dialogues with the clavier, but frequently having successive bars of rests or long sustained notes. Even in the sonatas with obligé accompaniment, where thematic responsibility is divided between the instruments, and where the violin sometimes performs arpeggios, rapid scales or leading melodic passages, it is always technically simpler than the keyboard part, probably reflecting the composer’s superior knowledge of the latter instrument. Although most of the accompanied sonatas written in Paris after 1775 are marked violin obbligato, in practice they differ little from those with optional accompaniment. Hüllmandel’s first sonata with obligatory accompaniment (op.6 no.3, 1782) broke new ground in making the violin a partner in fact as well as in name. The transformation of roles is apparent from the first notes of this work, where (despite its relative technical simplicity) the violin is not only the partner in thematic and melodic responsibility, but actually leads the way, in the manner of later Classical and Romantic sonatas.

Op.12 consists of 31 short pieces, arranged in increasing order of difficulty, which illustrate the didactic principles that are the main point of the work. The remarks on the basic elements of keyboard music, particularly ‘The Terms and Signs used for the Expression and Ornaments of Music’ are valuable for their reflection of contemporary performing practice. Hüllmandel’s interest in music theory is also seen in his article ‘Clavecin’, written for the Encyclopédie méthodique of Diderot and D’Alembert (in the first of two volumes issued separately under the title Musique; Paris, 1791–1818). He was evidently prevented from fulfilling his commitment for the entry ‘Piano’ by his departure for England. N.-E. Framery explained in the editorial preface to vol.i that since the earlier sections of the Encyclopédie, on the arts and crafts, had discussed instruments with respect to their construction, the effects of which they are capable, and the methods of performing on them, the present work was limited to the most popular instruments,

and those to which we could add some historical details or interesting observations, or in order to correct some minor errors which had escaped the authors of the volume mentioned. For this work we have obtained the aid of artists or amateurs whose authority is unquestioned, and whose name alone guarantees the merit of their work. Such are the articles ‘clavecin’ and ‘forte-piano’ which we owe to M Hüllmandel, who in addition to a capacity for a surprising performance on the two instruments, has knowledge rare in an artist.

The article ‘Clavecin’ shows Hüllmandel’s intimate knowledge of the harpsichord, its historical evolution, and its strengths and weaknesses. He described the various attempts at improving or modifying its tone by mechanical means and cited its advantage as accompaniment for singer or orchestra and its usefulness for the composer. Nevertheless, according to Hüllmandel:

So many complications denote the imperfection of the harpsichord. It requires too much skill from craftsmen and too much patience from performers. The springs are too troublesome and repairs too often necessary, so that instruments which have had frequent repairs are not very rare. Moreover, why should we seek to cling to false and puerile imitations? An instrument in which evenness and purity of sound in all the desired degrees of strength and gentleness speak to the heart without hurting the ear, fulfills the aim of music to a much greater degree (see the article ‘Piano-forte’).

Here Hüllmandel’s partiality for the piano and his role as one of its advocates is obvious. The changing attitude of the musical world towards the two instruments is reflected in the titles of his works: opp.1–5 (1773–80) are marked ‘for harpsichord or piano’, while opp.6–12 (1782–96), with a single exception, mention the piano in first place. But his manner of handling dynamics and his exploitation of pianistic sonorities prove that in all his works Hüllmandel favoured the piano.


published in Paris unless otherwise indicated

Edition:Piano Music: Selections … Nicolas-Joseph Hüllmandel, ed. F. Oberdörffer (New York, 1994) [O]



Six sonates, hpd/pf, vn ad lib (1773/4); no.2 ed. in Reeser (1939); nos.2–3 [O]


1er recueil de petits airs, hpd/pf (1776); as 6 Divertimentos (London, 1776); selections [O]


Trois sonates, hpd/pf, vn ad lib (1777); no.2 ed. in Saint-Foix (1923)


Trois sonates, hpd/pf (?1778); no.3 ed. in Benton (diss., 1961)


[31] Petits airs d’une difficulté graduelle, hpd/pf (1780); 7 airs ed. in Benton (diss., 1961); selections [O]


Trois sonates, pf/hpd (1782), nos.1–2 with vn ad lib, no.3 with vn obbl; no.3 ed. in Reeser (1939)


Six divertissements, ou 2e suite de petits airs, pf/hpd (1783); no.6 ed. in Benton (diss., 1961)


Trois sonates, pf/hpd (1785), no.3 with vn obbl; no.3 ed. in Benton (diss., 1961)

Sonate, hpd/pf, vn obbl, in Journal de pièces de clavecin par différens auteurs (1785); separately as op.10 (London, 1787)


Trois sonates, pf (1787), nos.1–2 with vn ad lib, no.3 with vn obbl


Trois sonates, pf/hpd, vn ad lib (1788); as op.11 (London, ?1790)


Sonate, pf, vn ad lib (1788)


Principles of Music … with Progressive Lessons, pf/hpd (London, 1796)

Sextet, 2 vn, 2 va, 2 vc, F-Pn [arr. Hüllmandel from op.8 no.3, op.10 no.3]

Arrs., hpd/pf, of excerpts from J.C. Bach’s Amadis (?1780), Gossec’s L’arche de l’Alliance (1782), Grétry’s Panurge dans l’isle des lanternes (c1803)

Arrs., pf, of Viotti vn concs: no.20, D (London, 1795); arr. pf, of Viotti vn concs. no.10 (movt 1), no.14 (movt 2), no.12 (movt 3) as single conc.




G. de Saint-Foix: ‘Les premiers pianistes parisiens, i: N.-J. Hüllmandel’, ReM, iv (1923), 193–205

E. Reeser: De Klaviersonate met vioolbegeleiding van het Parijsche muziekleven ten tijde van Mozart (Rotterdam, 1939)

D.E. Pike: ‘Hüllmandel’, ML, xxi (1940), 75–83

G. Favre: La musique française de piano avant 1830 (Paris, 1952)

R. Benton: N.-J. Hüllmandel and French Instrumental Music in the Second Half of the 18th Century (diss., U. of Iowa, 1961)

R. Benton: ‘N.-J. Hüllmandel (1756–1823), quelques aspects de sa vie et de ses oeuvres’, RdM, xlvii (1961), 177–94

R. Benton: ‘Hüllmandel’s Article on the Clavecin in the Encyclopédie méthodique’, GSJ, xv (1962), 34–44 [with Eng. trans. of article]

Calendar of London Concerts 1750–1800 (Goldsmiths College, U. of London; S. McVeigh) [restricted-access database; some pubd in S. McVeigh: Concert Life in London from Mozart to Haydn (Cambridge, 1993)]


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