Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm

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Hugo, Richard.

See Hygons, Richard.

Hugo, Victor(-Marie)

(b Besançon, 26 Feb 1802; d Paris, 22 May 1885). French author and politician. He achieved fame in all literary genres and also produced some original drawings. He modified Romanticism in a personal way, combining genres and tones. He equated expressions of the grotesque aesthetic with those of the sublime, recognizing the deformed and the hideous as well as the comic and the bouffon. A champion of liberty, he expanded his argument of artistic hierarchies to social and political domains, which led to much criticism and censorship, particularly in the theatre. He was banished for opposing Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte's coup d'état, and remained in exile for almost 19 years. During this time he fought for social democracy, to give dignity and voice to those to whom he dedicated his most famous novel, Les misérables. His work developed in all genres, deeply influencing the evolution of both poetry and the novel worldwide.

Since Hugo never gave way to the infatuation of his contemporaries with Italian music, and opposed the production of operas based on his plays, he acquired a reputation for hostility to music. This view is mistaken. In maintaining in Les rayons et les ombres that ‘music dates back to the 16th century’, and in praising Palestrina, Monteverdi and Pergolesi, he showed (almost uniquely among contemporary writers) an interest in the ‘retrospective music’ which had been played by Fétis in several outstanding concerts between 1832 and 1835. He mentioned Mozart and, more often, Gluck (Orphée, Armide), betraying a preference for German music. He dearly loved Schubert’s lieder and Weber’s Der Freischütz and Euryanthe, but above all he admired Beethoven, whom he hailed as ‘the greatest thinker’ in all music and whom he always placed among the great geniuses of humanity (see especially William Shakespeare, Paris, 1864, and its ‘Reliquat’). Berlioz, who was one of his friends, advised Louise Bertin on the scoring of her opera based on Notre-Dame de Paris. Liszt, with whom Hugo was closely acquainted, transcribed it for piano. The poet brought lawsuits against the productions of Lucrezia Borgia and Rigoletto simply to defend his copyright.


dramas and prose

Han d'Islande (novel, 1823): projected op by Musorgsky, 1856

Cromwell (verse drama, 1827): songs by Monpou and Bizet; RTF radio play by Barraud, Delannoy, Delvincourt, Ferroud, 1935

Marion de Lorme (verse drama, 1829): op by J.A. Heller, 1856; op by Bottesini, Palermo, 1862; op by Pedrotti, Trieste, 1865; op by P.E. Barbier, 1875; op by E. Perelli, c1880; op by Ponchielli, Milan, 1885; os by L. Tarantini, Trani, 1910

Hernani (verse drama, 1830): op by Bellini, 1830, inc.; op by V. Gabussi, Paris, 1834; op by Mazzucato, Genoa, 1843; op by Verdi, Venice, 1844; op by Laudamo (1851); incid music by Lange; scene from Act 5 by Lenepveu, 1881; ov. by Duvernoy, 1890; op by Hirschmann, 1907; incid music by Dutilleux, 1952

Notre-Dame de Paris (novel, 1831); as La Esmeralda (libretto, 1836): op by Bertin, Paris, 1836; Quasimodo, op by Rodwell, 1836; op by Mazzucato, Mantua, 1838; ballet by Monticini, Turin, 1838; op by J. Valero, Valencia, 1843; ballet by Pugni, London, 1844; op by Poniatowski, Florence, 1847; op by Dargomïzhsky, Moscow, 1847; burlesque by W.C. Levey, London, 1850; Ermelinda, op by V. Battista, Naples, 1851; op by Lebeau, Liège, 1856; projected op by Bizet, 1859; Notre-Dame de Paris, op by E.P. Prévost, New Orleans; Notre-Dame de Paris, op by Fry, Philadelphia, 1864; op sketched by Massenet, 1865; op by Wetterhahn, Chemnitz, 1866; op by F. Müller, Laibach, 1867; op by Campana, St Petersburg, 1869; op by L. Diémer, 1871; Quasimodo, op by Pedrell, Barcelona, 1875; op by Camps y Soler, Montevideo, 1879; incid music by Massenet, Paris, 1879; scene by Chausson, c1880; op by A.G. Thomas, London, 1883; ballet by Drigo, 1886; op by C. de Mesquita, 1888; Nuestra Señora de Paris, op by M. Giro, Barcelona, 1897; Picarol, op by Granados, Barcelona, 1901; mimodrama by Simon, Moscow, 1902; op by Bosch y Humet, early 20th century; projected op by M. Zanon, 1912; Notre-Dame, op by Schmidt, Vienna, 1914; incid music by Alexandrov; Notre-Dame de Paris, film music by Auric, 1956; op sketched by Honegger; Notre-Dame de Paris, ballet by Jarre, Paris, 1965

Le roi s'amuse (verse drama, 1832): Rigoletto, op by Verdi, Venice, 1851; incid music by Delibes, Paris, 1882

Lucrèce Borgia (prose drama, 1833): incid music for première by L.A. Piccinni, Paris, 1833; op by Donizetti, Milan, 1833; song by Lalo, 1855; incid music by Hahn, 1911

Marie Tudor (prose drama, 1833): romance by Berlioz, 1833, lost; Rossane, op by Schoberlechner, Milan, 1839; Maria d'Inghilterra, op by G.B. Ferrari, Venice, 1840; Maria regina d'Inghilterra, op by G. Pacini, Milan, 1843; serenade by Gounod, 1855; op by Bognar, Pest, 1856; op by Kashperov, Milan, 1859; The Armourer of Nantes, op by Balfe, London, 1863; Marie de Bourgogne, op by Blaramberg, 1878, Moscow, 1888; op by Gomes, Milan, 1879; Der Günstling, op by Wagner-Régeny, Dresden, 1935; incid music by Jarre, Avignon, 1955; song by Weckerlin

Angelo, tyran de Padoue (prose drama, 1835): Il giuramento, op by Mercadante, Milan, 1837; op by G. Villate, 1867; La gioconda, op by Ponchielli, Milan, 1876; Andzhelo, op by Cui, St Petersburg, 1876; Der Improvisator, op by E. d'Albert, Berlin, 1902; incid music by Hahn, 1905; op by Bruneau, Paris, 1928

Ruy Blas (verse drama, 1838): incid music for première by Strunz, Paris, 1838; ov. and chorus by Mendelssohn, 1839; op by Poniatowski, Lucca, 1843; op by Besanzoni, Placentia, 1843; Folco d'Arles, op by N. de Giosa, Naples, 1851; song by Weckerlin; op by G. Rota, Milan, 1858; duet by Massé, 1861; op by Glover, London, 1861; Maria di Nuremburgo, op by Chiaromonte, Bilbao, 1862; serenade by Chabrier, 1863; op by Zenger, Mannheim, 1868; op by G. Braga, 1868; op by F. Franchetti, 1868; op by F. Marchetti, Milan, 1869; serenade by Saint-Saëns, 1870; incid music by Massenet, Paris, 1872; serenade by Delibes, 1879; op by B. Godard, 1891; Il signor Ruy Blas, operetta by G. Pietri, Bologna, 1916; film music by Auric, 1947; incid music by Sviridov, 1952; incid music by Jarre, 1954

Les jumeaux (unfinished verse drama, 1839): song by Servoz

Le Rhin (essays, 1842): Chasse fantastique, sym. poem by Guiraud, 1887; Le Chevalier Pécopin, orch scherzo by T. Aubin, 1942

Les burgraves (verse drama, 1843): op by Salvi, Milan, 1845; incid music by Dobrzyński, Warsaw, 1860; op by d'Indy, 1869–72, inc.; op by Orsini, Rome, 1881; op by Podesta, Bergamo, 1881; drame lyrique by Lekeu, 1887, inc.; incid music by Saint-Saëns, Paris, 1902; Lola, op by L. Nielsen, 1917–20; op by Sachs, Paris, 1924

La légende des siècles (epic episodes, 1859): Isora di Provenza [after part xviii: L'Italie-Ratbert], op by Mancinelli, Bologna, 1884; Zeevolk [after part lii: Les pauvres gens], op by Gilson, Antwerp, 1904; La conscience [after part ii: D'Eve à Jésus], sym. poem by Servoz, 1927

Les misérables (novel, 1862): Nedznicy, op by Duniecki, Czernowitz, 1864; op by Bonsignore, Brooklyn, 1925; Vagabonda, op by Michetti, 1933; film music by Honegger, 1934; musical tragedy by C.M. Schönberg, Paris, 1980

La grand-mère (verse comedy, 1865): comédie lyrique by C. Silver, Paris, 1930

L'homme qui rit (novel, 1869): Dea, op by P. Ronzi, Vienna, 1894; Komedianter, op by Enna, Copenhagen, 1920; op by Pedrollo, Rome, 1920; ORTF radio play by A. Clostre, 1967; ORTF television play by J. Wiener, 1970

Quatre-vingt-treize (novel, 1874): Los hijos del batallon, op by Chapi, 1898; prélude symphonique by Casadesus, 1904; épopée lyrique by Silver, 1935; RTF television play by Wiener, 1962; op by Belov, Leningrad, 1973; op by Duhamel, Lyons, 1989

Actes et paroles (essays, 1875): Un contre tous, 4vv, orch, by I. Malec, 1972

Torquemada (verse drama, 1882): op by N. Rota, 1943, Naples, 1976


Odes et ballades (1818–28): Le pas d'armes du Roi Jean, song by Saint-Saëns, 1855; La lyre et la harpe, cant. by Saint-Saëns, 1879, by Roger-Ducasse, 1935; La fiancée du timbalier, song by Saint-Saëns, 1887, and sym. poem by Papadopoulos, 1936; Moïse sur le Nil, chorus by Letellier, 1921

Les orientales (1829): Chanson de pirates, song by Berlioz, 1829, lost; La captive, song by Berlioz, 1832, by Selmer, 1872; Sara la baigneuse, chorus by Berlioz, 1834; Mazeppa, pf study by Liszt, 1835, rev. as sym. poem, 1854; L'attente, song by Wagner, 1840, by Saint-Saëns, 1856, by d'Indy, 1876; Les djinns, chorus by Saint-Saëns, c1850, by Fauré, c1875, sym. poem by Franck, 1884, by Vierne, 1915; Rêverie, song by Saint-Saëns, 1852; Extase, song by Saint-Saëns, 1864, sym. poem by Pizzetti, 1897; Les bleuets, oc by J. Cohen, 1867; Le feu du ciel, sym. poem by Guimet, 1873; Clair de lune, song by d'Indy, 1883; Symphonie orientale by Godard, 1884; Les orientales, pf, by MacDowell, 1889

Les feuilles d'automne (1831): Enfant si j'étais roi, song by Liszt, 1844; Ce qu'on entend sur la montagne, sym. poem by Franck, c1846, by Liszt, 1848–54

Hymne (1831): song by Hérold, 1831, related patriotic pieces by Busser, Chailley, Goublier, Lenepveu, F. Leroux, X. Leroux, Letellier, Letorey, Pierné, Pugno, Rabaud

Les chants du crépuscule (1835): L’aube naît, song by Liszt, 1842, lost; S'il est un charmant gazon, song by Liszt, 1844, by Saint-Saëns, 1915

Les voix intérieures (1837): La tombe dit à la rose, song by Liszt, 1844; Puisqu'ici bas toute âme, song by Saint-Saëns, 1852, by Lalo, 1855, by Fauré, 1879; Soirée en mer, song by Saint-Saëns, 1864

Les rayons et les ombres (1840): Comment, disaient-ils, song by Liszt, 1842, by Lalo, 1856, by Bizet, 1866, by Saint-Saëns, 1870, by Massenet, 1886, by Rachmaninoff, 1902; Oh quand je dors, song by Liszt, 1842; Gastibelza, song by Liszt, 1844; songs by Bizet, 1866–8; Chant triomphal, song with orch, by Doyen, 1913

Les châtiments (1853): Le chant de ceux qui s'en vont sur mer, chorus by Saint-Saëns (1868); Patria, song by Franck, 1871; L'art et le peuple, song by d'Indy, 1894

Dieu (1855): L'oeil égaré dans les plis de l'obéissance au vent, speaker, 3vv, orch, by B. Jolas, 1961 [with other Hugo texts]; Dieu, action-piece by P. Henry, 1977

Les contemplations (1856): Viens, duet by Saint-Saëns, c1855, song by Caplet, 1900; Le rouet d'Omphale, sym. poem by Saint-Saëns, 1871; Si vous n'avez rien à me dire, song by Saint-Saëns, 1896; La fête chez Thérèse, ballet-pantomime by Hahn, 1910

Other songs and choruses on Hugo texts by Adam, R. Bergman, Besanzoni, L. Bienvenu, Bizet, Boieldieu, N. Boulanger, Britten, Bruneau, Caby, Calmel, Caplet, Chabrier, Coppola, Cui, Dargomïzhsky, Delibes, Delvincourt, Dieren, Donizetti, Doyen, Fauré, J.B. Faure, Franck, Gagneux, Gigout, Godard, Gounod, Grechaninov, Guimet, Hahn, d'Indy, Kalkbrenner, Koechlin, L. Kreutzer, Lalo, Lecocq, Letellier, Liszt, Massé, Massenet, Messager, Mihalovici, Monpou, Niedermeyer, Pedrell, Pierné, Pizzetti, Pugno, Rabaud, Rachmaninoff, Ravel, Reber, Reyer, Saint-Saëns, Selmer, Sokolov, Sviridov, A.G. Thomas, Thomé, Tosti, Tournemire, Vierne, Weckerlin, M.V. White, Widor, Wormser

miscellaneous works connected with hugo

Quintetto, str, ded. V. Hugo, by Urhan

Hymne à Victor Hugo, by Saint-Saëns, 1881

Chant d'apothéose (Saint-Georges de Bouhélier), by G. Charpentier, 1902

Hommage des enfants à Victor Hugo (M. Carminet), by Saint-Saëns, 1907

Hugo-Symphonie, by P. Henry, 1985


R. Brancour: ‘Le sentiment de la musique chez Victor Hugo’, RMI, xxii (1915), 447–82

J. Tiersot and J. Sergent: ReM, no.159 (1935) [Hugo issue]

F. Noske: La mélodie française de Berlioz à Duparc (Amsterdam and Paris, 1954; Eng. trans., rev. R. Benton and F. Noske, 1970/R), 78ff

G. Franceschetti: ‘La fortuna di Hugo nel melodramma italiano dell'Ottocento’, Contributi dell'Istituto di filologia moderna dell’Università cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Fr. ser., iv (1966)

A. Laster: ‘Victor Hugo, la musique et les musiciens’ and introduction to La Esmeralda, Victor Hugo: Oeuvres complètes, ed. J. Massin, v (Paris, 1967/R), pp.i–xix, 487–91

A. Seay: ‘Music in the Poetry of Victor Hugo’, Scritti in onore di Luigi Ronga (Milan and Naples, 1973), 593–611

A. Laster: Introduction and notes to La Esmeralda, Victor Hugo: Oeuvres complètes, ed. J. Seebacher, viii (Paris, 1985), 1459–71

A. Laster: ‘La musique’, La gloire de Victor Hugo (Paris, 1985), 632–57

D. Boneau: Louise Bertin and Opera in Paris in the 1820s and 1830s (diss., U. of Chicago, 1989)

A. Laster: ‘Audition, vision et imagination: Victor Hugo et Berlioz face à la musique’, Victor Hugo et les images, ed. M. Blondel and P. Georgel (Dijon, 1989), 223–31

A. Laster: ‘Notre-Dame de Paris à l'Opéra’, Le rayonnement international de Victor Hugo: Paris 1985, ed. F. Claudon (New York, 1989), 6–17

A. Gerhard: ‘Die Macht der Fatalität: Victor Hugo als Librettist’, Die Verstädterung der Oper: Paris und das Musiktheater des 19. Jahrhunderts (Stuttgart, 1992), 210–16

E. Sala: ‘La musica nei drammi di Victor Hugo’, L'opera senza canto: il mélo romantico e l'invenzione della colonna sonora (Venice, 1995), 208–40


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