(b Trentham, 1825; d c1895). English ophicleide player. He was known as a virtuoso player in addition to his orchestral work. He played with the Cyfarthfa Band in south Wales and the major regional festival orchestras, and was a soloist for Louis Jullien during his 1853–4 American tour; he later became a member of Jullien’s ‘Model Wind Band’. Hughes was teaching at the Military School of Music at Kneller Hall in 1859 and was appointed ophicleide professor at the Guildhall School of Music in the late 1880s – the only ophicleidist to be appointed to such a post at a London conservatory. He was employed at Covent Garden; the instrument associated with him in the Bate Collection, Oxford (X601), is inscribed R[oyal] I[talian] O[pera], as is the recently discovered instrument at the Royal Opera House itself. Hughes was elected a member of the Royal Society of Musicians in 1861. He played at Michael Costa’s Handel Festivals, but by the time of Costa’s last festival (1880) was involved in brass band adjudication and was playing less. Hughes’s solo performances, often at influential gatherings, included an air varié on Yankee Doodle; George Bernard Shaw remembered his performance of Handel’s ‘O ruddier than the cherry’ (Acis and Galatea). Five instruments that were used by Hughes are extant in British collections, although his best ophicleide was reputedly lost in a fire at the Crystal Palace in 1866.
G.B. Shaw: London Music in 1888–89 as Heard by Corno di Bassetto (London, 1937/R); ed. D.H. Laurence: Shaw’s Music (London, 1981), i, 684
S.J. Weston: Samuel Hughes, ophicleidist (Edinburgh, 1986)
STEPHEN J. WESTON
Hughes, Spike (Patrick Cairns)
(b London, 19 Oct 1908; d London, 2 Feb 1987). English composer and critic, son of the critic Herbert Hughes. From 1923 to 1925 he studied composition in Vienna with Egon Wellesz and reported on Viennese musical activities for London periodicals. After leaving Vienna he spent some time in Cambridge and wrote incidental music for productions of Congreve's Love for Love (1926) and W.B. Yeats's The Player Queen (1927). An interest in jazz led him to form a dance orchestra with which he made many recordings (1930–33); an offshoot of this was the jazz ballet High Yellow (1932).
From 1933 to 1936 he was music critic of the Daily Herald, and in the latter year his first radio plays were heard. He wrote the incidental music for a musical version of Ferenc Molnar's The Swan (broadcast 1937), and on 29 December 1938 his television opera, Cinderella (after Perrault), was first broadcast by the BBC. Although criticized for its lack of originality, this work was deemed ‘a pleasant entertainment’ by The Times. Excerpts from a later opera, St Patrick's Day (after R.B. Sheridan), were broadcast in 1947, and in 1950 his musical Frankie and Johnny was televised.
Hughes was best known as a broadcaster and writer on music: his handbooks on operas are successful in their popular approach and the two volumes of his autobiography contain much information on famous contemporaries.
Opening Bars (London, 1946) [autobiography]
with B. McFadyean: Nights at the Opera (London, 1948)
Second Movement (London, 1951) [autobiography]
Great Opera Houses (London, 1956)
Famous Mozart Operas (London, 1957/R, 2/1972)
Famous Puccini Operas (London, 1959, 2/1972)
The Toscanini Legacy (London, 1959, 2/1969)
Glyndebourne: a History of the Festival Opera (London, 1965, 2/1981)
Famous Verdi Operas (London, 1968)
Kenneth Avery/David Scott/R
(b London, 28 July 1857; d Temple Combe, Somerset, 2 Jan 1942). English musicologist. Educated at Tonbridge School, he joined the staff of the Department of Manuscripts at the British Museum as an assistant in 1882 and remained there until his retirement in 1922. He was responsible for cataloguing music manuscripts and in this capacity compiled the monumental Catalogue of Manuscript Music in the British Museum, which included all music manuscripts acquired before 1908. This catalogue was one of the earliest of its kind and widely welcomed as such. His basic principle for cataloguing the material, grouping works of a particular genre together, was perhaps misconceived, but the work is of immense value for the wealth of information that it contains about the collections, particularly in its comprehensive indexes.
Though his literary output, apart from the catalogue, was small his musical interests were wide. He and his Hungarian-born first wife held fashionable drawing-room concerts in the early years of the 20th century. He was chairman of the London branch of the Internationale Mozart-Gemeinde from its foundation in 1890 until 1926, when in recognition of his services he was awarded a silver medal by the Internationale Stiftung Mozarteum. An album of documents relating to him and his family is now in the British Library (Add.MS 71538).
‘Music and Musicians of Italy in the Seventeenth Century’, Musical Standard, xxviii (1885), 66, 82–3, 108–09, 115
‘Henry Purcell's Handwriting’, MT, xxxvii (1896), 81–3
‘John Hothby’, Grove 2 [enlarged in subsequent edns]
Catalogue of Manuscript Music in the British Museum (London, 1906–9/R) [vols i and ii reviewed in MT, xlvii, 1906, 481; xlix, 1908, 311]
Hugh of St Victor
(b ?Saxony, c1096; d 1141). Augustinian canon and theologian. After study in Saxony, he went to the abbey of St Victor in Marseilles, and later to the culturally eminent abbey of St Victor in Paris, where he became scholasticus. His diverse writings exerted an enormous influence on the liturgical arts of his time, perhaps affecting the formation of the style that later became known as Gothic. During the 1130s Adam of St Victor was one of his confrères, and it seems likely that Hugh's mystical theology played an important role in the development of the Victorine sequence. Among his numerous works is his early compendium, the Didascalicon, which contains a chapter on music. This is entirely concerned with the three standard divisions of music, mundana, humana and instrumentalis, and with the three kinds of musician, those who compose songs, those who play instruments and those who judge. The thought, and much of the language, is borrowed from Boethius.
C.H. Buttimer, ed.: Hugonis de Sancto Victore Didascalicon (Washington DC, 1939), 30, 32–3
J. Taylor, ed. and trans.: Hugh of Saint-Victor: Didascalicon: a Medieval Guide to the Arts (New York and London, 1961/R), 67, 69–70
R. Baron: Etudes sur Hugues de Saint-Victor (Paris, 1963)
M. Fassler: Gothic Song: Victorine Sequences and Augustinian Reform in Twelfth-Century Paris (Cambridge, 1993)
ANDREW HUGHES/RANDALL ROSENFELD