Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm

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Hüffer, Franz (Xaver).

See Hueffer, francis.

Hufnagel [Hufnagelschrift]

(Ger.: ‘horseshoe-nail-script’).

A style of notation found mostly in late medieval German chant manuscripts, so called because of the resemblance of its virga (single note of relatively higher pitch) to a Hufnagel (horseshoe-nail). Called ‘Gothic’ script by the humanists, it was written with a wide-headed pen cut across obliquely, and lacks curved lines, being done almost entirely in strokes at right angles to one another. It persisted long after the age of printing: manuscripts from as late as the 18th century used Hufnagelschrift. (See Notation, §III, 1, figs.27–8; J. Wolf: Musikalische Schrifttafeln, Bückeburg, 1923, pl.40, is a facsimile of D-Bs 40235, f.154, from the 18th century.)


Hufschmidt, Wolfgang

(b Mülheim, 15 March 1934). German composer. He studied church music and composition with Siegfried Reda in Essen (1954–8), and then worked as a church organist in that city until 1968, also teaching theory at the Folkwang Hochschule. In 1971 he was made director of the composition class there, and from 1988 to 1996 served at its Rektor. In 1973 he was awarded the Ruhr Prize by his home town. At first strongly influenced by Distler, J.N. David and Reda, he gradually freed himself from their adherence to the past, a liberation evidenced in the Verwandlungen for string quartet, where some movements display strongly declamatory serial polyphonic writing and others are dominated by a conception in terms of timbre, although the work is based on a theme from Reda's Ecce Homo. From the Verwandlungen onwards the characteristics of Hufschmidt's music became clear: a sensitivity to the expressive possibilities of harmonic tension, a desire for precise structural definition (here a serial technique he developed from the analysis of church chorales played an important part) and a tendency to write in several layers (textual as well as musical) which comment on one another. Thus the Meissner Te Deum (commissioned for the millennium of Meissen Cathedral) confronts the canticle text with countering verses by Grass. In later years chamber and vocal music assumed a greater importance in his work; in his Trios I, II and III he aimed to stimulate a ‘dialectical integrating thinking in various layers, material levels and modes of artistic expression’. Theatrical forms and multimedia projects have also claimed his interest, and he has embarked on a series of literary projects (after Grass, Heine, Brecht and Bechett), in collaboration with authors and actors.


(selective list)

Choral works incl. Mass, S, T, SATB, 1961; Pfingstgeschichte, 4–16vv, 1961–4; Meissner TeD, S, Bar, vocal ens 4vv, chorus 12vv, wind qnt, pf, perc, orch, org, 1968; Texte über Frieden, male chorus, 2 pf, perc, 1969; Stephanus, mixed media, 1972; Agende, 4 choruses, 3 priests, org, slides, elec, 1973; We Shall Overcome (Texte über Frieden 2) (B. Brecht), spr/1v, chorus, 9 insts, 1984

Inst music incl. Ricercar, fl, 1966; Verwandlungen, str qt, 1969; Trio I, tape, perc, org, 1970; Solo, vn, 1972; Kontrafaktur I nach der Missa cuiusvis toni von Ockeghem, orch, 1973; Exercitien III ‘Prinzip Hoffnung’, 6 insts, 1974; Trio II, 7 Inventionen über Farben und Bilder, 6 insts, tape, 1982; Trio III, Texte, spkr/s, insts, 1975–7; Lieder ohne Worte, 24 Klavierstücke, tape, 1986; Engel der Geschichte I ‘Sommermorgen an einem See’, double ww qt, 1988–9; Trio IV (‘danach’), fl, vc, pf, tape, 1995

Song cycles incl. 3 jiddische Lieder, 1v, fl, perc, 1978; 5 Lieder (B. Brecht, H. Heine), 1v, pf, 1980; an E., 1v, pf, 1995

Principal publishers: Bärenreiter, Pfau


Willst zu meinen Liedern deine Leier drehn? Zur Semantik der musikalischen Sprache in Schuberts ‘Winterreise’ und Eislers ‘Hollywood-Liederbuch’ (Dortmund, 1986)

Struktur und Semantik: Texte zur Musik 1968–88 (Saarbrücken, 1994)


MGG1 (G. Schuhmacher)

G. Schuhmacher: ‘Wie ist geistliche Musik heute möglich?: Bemerkungen zu einigen Werken von Wolfgang Hufschmidt’, Musik und Kirche, xxxvii (1967), 49–62

E. Schmidt: ‘Wolfgang Hufschmidt's “Meissner Tedeum”, Musik und Kirche, xxxviii (1968), 182–5

O. Nimczik: ‘Wolfgang Hufschmidt’, Metzler Komponisten Lexikon (Stuttgart, 1992)



Swiss firm of music publishers. Jakob Christoph Hug (1776–1855), a pastor at Thalwil, was financially associated with Hans Georg Nägeli’s music publishing firm in Zürich from 1802, making possible Nägeli’s important series, the Répertoire des Clavecinistes. Owing to the Napoleonic wars Nägeli was obliged, on economic grounds, to surrender the undertaking in 1807 to Hug and his brother Kaspar. Nägeli remained closely allied with the firm as adviser and proofreader until 1818; the firm Hans Georg Nägeli & Co. was renamed Gebrüder Hug in 1817. The firm had to contend with great financial difficulties, especially as by 1819 Nägeli had already opened a rival business; J.C. Hug resumed his office of pastor in order to earn a living. In 1831 his son J.C. Hug (1801–52) took over the firm’s direction and managed to profit from, and to provide impetus to, a revival of Swiss musical life. By 1842 his own publishing house and the associated music and instrument trade had regained their importance, and in 1849 his firm absorbed part of Nägeli’s business. After the younger J.C. Hug’s death his wife Susanna, née Wild (1814–62), in partnership with the business manager Heinrich Müller, ran the firm until 1862 when it was taken over by Emil Hug (1842–1909). Besides publishing, notably Swiss vocal music (Abt, Wilhelm Baumgartner, Attenhofer), he dealt in instruments, principally German, French and American pianos, also incorporating a workshop for restoring instruments. Branches were opened in Basle (1865), St Gallen (1865), Lucerne (1871), Strasbourg (1871–1920), Konstanz (1880–1920), Leipzig (1885–1956), Lugano (1887), Winterthur (1892), Neuchâtel (1907), Lörrach (1907–30) and Solothurn (1909), among which the Leipzig branch was particularly important. In 1879 Emil Hug began publishing the Schweizerisches Sängerblatt (Schweizerische Musikzeitung from 1879 to 1983). His sons Arnold (1866–1905) and Adolf (1867–1943) became partners in the firm in 1893. Arnold managed the St Gallen branch (1894–7) and the Leipzig branch (1902–5).

The firm published works by such leading Swiss composers as Hans Huber, Schoeck, Volkmar Andreae, Fritz Brun, Willy Burkhard and Moeschinger as well as Carl Reinecke and Reger, focussing attention on vocal music (especially songbooks), educational material and musicological works. During the 1930s teaching manuals for singing and the recorder were strongly promoted. Instruments from the Hug workshop also had a good reputation. Adolf Hug directed the establishment from 1909, and was one of the pioneers of Swiss copyright and performing rights in his capacity as co-founder of the Society of Swiss Authors and Publishers (SUISA). In 1909 he founded a collection of 220 instruments, presented to the Zürich Museum of Applied Art in 1963. His son Adolf (1904–79) took over the management in association with H. Wolfensberger (1903–74) in 1943, after which there was an increase in publishing new editions of early music, including a collected edition of Ludwig Senfl’s works and the series Das Kammerorchester. In 1966 the firm was honoured with the Hans Georg Nägeli Medal of the city of Zürich. In 1973 the undertaking was converted into a joint-stock company with Adolf Hug as director; the following year he set up a foundation for the promotion of Swiss music, with the help of which the series Schweizer Musik des 20. Jahrhunderts was published. The firm took over Foetisch Frères SA in 1978. Directed from 1979 by Adolf Hug’s daughter Erika Hug (b 1945) and then from 1995 by Stephan Mester, Hug & Co. has published the series Musica Instrumentalis and has embarked on a complete edition of the works of Schoeck. The most important recent additions to Hug’s composers’ list are Martin Derungs, Daniel Glaus, Josef Haselbach, Heinz Marti, Roland Moser, Jacques Wildberger and the English composer Caroline Wilkins. The firm now holds a leading position in Switzerland for selling music, instruments and records.


100 Jahre Gebrüder Hug & Co. (Zürich, 1907)

125 Jahre Musikalien- und Instrumentenhandlung Hug & Co. (Zürich, 1932)

S.F. Müller: 150 Jahre Hug & Co. (Zürich, 1957)

S.F. Müller: ‘Jakob Christoph Hug’, SMz, xcvii (1957), 422–31

H.-M. Plesske: ‘Bibliographie des Schrifttums zur Geschichte deutscher und österreichischer Musikverlage’, Beiträge zur Geschichte des Buchwesens, iii (1968), 135–222

T. Gartmann: 10 Jahre Jubiläumsstiftung ‘Kind und Musik’ (Zürich, 1992)

E. Hug: Ueber 186 Jahre Musik und Hug: eine Familien- und Firmengeschichte (Zürich, 1993)


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