Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm

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Huene, Friedrich (Alexander) von (Hoyningen-)

(b Breslau, 20 Feb 1929). American maker of recorders and flutes. He was the first American commercial maker of these instruments. He grew up on a farm in Mecklenburg, and emigrated to the USA in 1948 at the age of 19. After three years in a US Air Force band he attended Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine, and received his BA in music there in 1956. From 1956 to 1960 he worked in the shop of Verne Q. Powell, flute maker, in Boston, and spent his spare time experimenting with the construction of recorders. In 1960 he began to build recorders and Baroque and Renaissance flutes in his own shop, first in Waltham, Massachusetts, and later in Brookline, Massachusetts, where he employed five people during the 1970s. In 1966–7 he held a Guggenheim Fellowship to study instruments built in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, preserved in various museums. Von Huene was one of the first modern makers of recorders to base his instruments on historic designs. He also designed recorders for mass production, including a model based on the work of Jean-Hyacinth-Joseph Rottenburgh (1672–1756), manufactured and distributed by Moeck in Celle, and a model based on the work of Bressan, manufactured and distributed by Zen-On in Japan. He has also designed and built recorders with modern keywork.


M. Lewis: ‘How Recorders are Made: At the Workshop of Friedrich von Huene’, American Recorder, i/4 (1960), 4–6

C.E. Merger: ‘Friedrich von Huene: the Man, his Work and his Family’, American Recorder, xi/1 (1970), 3–7


Huet [Howet, Howett, Huewet, Huwet], Gregorio

(b Antwerp, before 1550; d ?Wolfenbüttel, c1616). Flemish lutenist. Although Dowland referred to him as ‘the most famous Gregorio Howett of Antwerpe’ (in A Varietie of Lute-lessons, 161023), he was long believed to have been English. Archival research has shown that the Huet family probably came from Huy near Liège. The composer's father, Gregorius, son of Guilliaem, who became a citizen of Antwerp in 1560, was himself a lutenist; he must have died before 1582 because entries in records from 1582 to 1588 mention his wife as the widow of the ‘luytslager’.

In or about 1590 Gregorio went to Wolfenbüttel, where in 1591 he took up a post as a court musician. From that date his name regularly appears in the accounts showing that he received a salary of 90 florins and subsidies for food, lodgings and clothing. Following a visit to the court in 1594, John Dowland praised Huet's kindness and talent in his First Booke of Songs or Ayres (London, 1597). In 1595 the two musicians travelled together to the court in Kassel to play for Moritz, Landgrave of Hesse. In a letter they brought back to Wolfenbüttel the prince praised Huet's playing as being perfect, especially in motets and madrigals. The Stobäus manuscript (GB-Lbl Sloane 1021) credits Huet with adopting a new right hand technique, and he may well have converted Dowland to the thumb-out technique at this time. In 1595 he was granted a gift of 1200 thalers to buy a house. After 1614, when a lutenist was no longer needed at the court, Michael Praetorius retained Huet in office to play with the orchestra. His name does not appear in the records after 1616.

All but one of Huet's surviving compositions are for solo lute. He is best known for his skilful and original fantasies, especially that in the Varietie of Lute Lessons, and his galliard on the Walsingham tune found in several versions in numerous printed and manuscript sources. Several of his works are related to music attributed to Dowland.


for lute unless otherwise stated

Edition: J. Robinson: ‘The Complete Lute Solos of Gregory Howet’, Newsletter of the Lute Society, nos.39–40 (1996), music suppl. [incl. introduction and commentary]

3 fantasias, 159419, 161023, D-Dl, LEm

2 pavans, 16006

5 galliards, 16006, Bsb, LEm

1 galliard for inst. ens, 161624

?2 galliards, Dl, LEm

?1 passamezzo, Mbs


R. Wustmann: Musikgeschichte Leipzigs, i (Berlin and Leipzig, 1909/R), 230–31, 238, 256, 266

G. Spiessens: ‘Gregorius Huet, luitspeler en componist’, Nationaal biografisch woordenboek, ed. J. Duverger, ii (Brussels, 1966)


Huete, Diego Fernández de

(b Navalmoral, Toledo, ?1633–43; d Toledo, before 21 July 1713). Spanish harpist, theorist, composer and teacher. Undoubtedly the theorist Andrés Lorente (see Jambou) and the Court harpist Juan de Navas were among his teachers. Huete was the harpist at Toledo Cathedral from 13 October 1681 to 14 June 1710; however he is remembered chiefly for his Compendio numeroso de zifras armónicas, con theórica, y pràctica para arpa de una orden y arpa de dos órdenes, y de órgano (Madrid, 1702–4), which marks the climax of a golden period for the two harp types (single-rank diatonic and two-rank chromatic) predominant in Spain between 1550 and 1700. Part i of the treatise (1702), containing secular pieces, is divided into three books for the beginner, intermediate and advanced player. Part ii (1704), containing sacred pieces, also consists of three books; the first contains 26 pasacalles which demonstrate Huete’s 11-mode system; the second presents the modes in descending and ascending octaves; and the third consists of psalm settings for voice(s), harp and/or organ (the organ is secondary to the harp in the treatise). The Compendio numeroso also reflects its author’s familiarity with the ways of the Spanish court: the music of part i, dedicated to King Carlos II, is referred to as ‘sones de la palacio’.

Huete was among the last Spanish composers to use the four-line tablature introduced by Venegas de Henestrosa in 1557. He prescribed the fingering system advocated by Ruis de Ribayaz in 1677, and introduced dedos trocadas (right-hand numeral exchanges) to avoid consecutive octaves and 5ths. He also joined the 17th-century theorists who broke away from the church modes. Huete’s 11 modes are divided into two groups, five with minor mediants and six with major mediants, anticipating Rameau’s major–minor codification of some 18 years later.




F.J.L. Tello: La teoría española de la música en los siglos XVII y XVIII (Madrid, 1974), 698–705

L. Jambou: ‘Andrés Lorente, compositeur: essai d’identification de la tablature du ms. m.1.358 de la Bibliothèque nationale de Madrid’, Mélanges de la Casa de Velazquez, xii (Paris, 1976), 251–69

C. Bordas: ‘The Double Harp in Spain from the 16th to the 18th Centuries’, EMc, xv (1987), 148–63


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