Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm

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Hudson, Richard

(b 1617/18; bur. London, 17 Feb 1668). English violinist, probably brother of George Hudson.

Hudson, Robert

(b London, 25 Feb 1730; d Eton, 19 Dec 1815). English tenor and composer. One of Charles King’s last pupils at St Paul’s, he sang as a young man at Ranelagh and Marylebone Gardens in London, and in 1755 was assistant organist of St Mildred Bread Street (though see Dawe). In 1756 he was appointed vicar-choral of St Paul’s Cathedral, in 1757 he was elected a member of the Royal Society of Musicians, in the following year a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal and in 1773 he was appointed almoner and master of the children of St Paul’s, resigning the last two posts in 1793. He was also music master at Christ’s Hospital from 1767 until 1808. He was buried at St Paul’s on 28 December 1815, having been a vicar-choral there for 60 years.

Hudson’s principal compositions were A Psalm of Thanksgiving to be Sung by the Children of Christ’s Hospital on Monday and Tuesday in Easter Week (London, 1787), and The Myrtle, a collection of songs in three books (London, 1767). He also composed numerous songs (many published in the Lady’s Magazine), a service (GB-Lbl), some chants and many hymn tunes. His works include a setting for five voices of the lines on Child’s monument at Windsor, beginning ‘Go, happy soul’. His daughter Mary Hudson (d London, 28 March 1801) was an organist and composer of hymn tunes.


D. Dawe: Organists of the City of London, 1666–1850 (Padstow, 1983)

W. Shaw: The Succession of Organists (Oxford, 1991)

M. Argent, ed.: Recollections of R.J.S. Stevens (London, 1992)


Hudukkā [huruk, hurkī, hurko, utukkai, udukkai, udukku].

Variable tension drum, principally an hourglass drum, of India. The pitch of the heads is raised by pressure on the central cross-lacing. The names date from medieval times and are probably onomatopoeic. Hudukkā is Sanskrit, huruk (and its variants) Hindi and modern North Indian languages and utukkai (and its variants) is the modern southern form of the name. The older term for an hourglass drum in Sanskrit (panava) occurs in epic and classical texts. The three main medieval terms for variable tension drums are hudukkā (raised barrel drum), dakkā (hourglass drum), and damaru (hourglass-shaped rattle drum). There is some interchange of names and types in modern drums.

The northern huruk and southern utukkai have wide heads like those of the raised barrel drum hudukkā but they are true hourglass drums. Male Hurukīyā musicians used the huruk to accompany their singing of karkā (martial ballads associated especially with the Punjab and Rajasthan), and of dhrupad. In the North the names huruk, hurkī etc. alternate with the names dāk, Gujarati dāklu and the dhāk or deru of Rajasthan denoting similar drums. The hurkī of Garhwal, northern Uttar Pradesh, is an hourglass drum about 25 cm long. Its two heads, of goatskin attached to bamboo or figwood hoops, are about 15 cm in diameter and wider than the drum-faces; they are braced by cotton Y-lacing through six holes and by a central cross-lacing attached to the shoulder-strap. The left hand grips the waist of the drum under the lacing to vary the tension; only the right face is played. The instrument is used to accompany dance girls. The guruki, a similar drum of Maharashtra, is related in name.

The utukkai of Tamil Nadu and the udukku of Kerala are also hourglass drums. They are of similar size and construction to the northern huruk but their bodies are sometimes of brass or clay and they have a snare of two crossed hairs or wires under the left-hand skin. They are also called tudi or idaisurangu parai and are mostly played with the right-hand fingers. A larger size is the davandai, with thicker skins and lacing, played with a stick. These drums are played mostly in temples and are also used by professional fortune-tellers.

The instrument played in west Nepal and Kumaon is called hudko.


C. Marcel-Dubois: Les instruments de musique de l’Inde ancienne (Paris, 1941)

P. Sambamoorthy: Catalogue of Musical Instruments Exhibited in the Government Museum, Madras (Madras, 3/1962)

K.S. Kothari: Indian Folk Musical Instruments (New Delhi, 1968)

A. Chandola: Folk Drumming in the Himalayas (New York, 1977)

B.C. Deva: Musical Instruments of India (Calcutta, 1978), 2/1987


Hüe, Georges (Adolphe)

(b Versailles, 6 May 1858; d Paris, 7 June 1948). French composer. Born into a celebrated family of architects, he was encouraged by Gounod and later studied counterpoint with Paladilhe and the organ with Franck. In 1879 he won the Prix de Rome with a cantata, Médée, and two years later won acclaim for his comic opera, Les pantins (‘The Jumping-Jacks’). Vocal music was to form the core of his output and the ambitious symphonic legend Rubezahl was one of his earliest large-scale successes, first given at the Châtelet. Its fairy tale atmosphere (Rubezahl is king of the gnomes) paved the way for Hüe's later works exploring similar themes, notably the operas Titania (favourably reviewed by Debussy), and Riquet à la houppe, both of which confirmed his refusal to follow the realist path taken by several of his contemporaries. Alongside his larger-scale pieces, Hüe produced songs continually throughout his life. The earliest are firmly grounded in the salon tradition, while the later songs use a more developed musical language to respond to his chosen texts: Edith au col de cygne, for example, uses bars of uneven length. Between 1910 and 1920 his harmonic language advanced considerably, absorbing the added-note harmonies and static effects of the Impressionists, while remaining essentially traditional.

His first full-scale opera Le roi de Paris, dealing with the unsuccessful attempt of the Duc de Guise to usurp the throne of Henry III, was first performed in 1901, and employed pastiche Baroque music to portray its historical setting. Titania, in direct contrast, was set in a world of fantasy and employed extended forest scenes using shimmering orchestral effects and static harmony. Le miracle concerns a sculptor who produced an image of a saint all too reminiscent of a local courtesan. As in Dans l'ombre de la cathédrale, Hüe makes extensive use of plainsong and organ music to evoke the liturgical setting. This was his most successful opera, exploring the conflicts between socialism and the riches of the church. Hüe travelled in East Asia, and his one-act chinoiserie Siang-Sin and the Poèmes japonais reflect his discovery of the music of that region.



all stage works first performed in Paris

Les pantins (oc, 2, E. Montagne), OC, Favart, 28 Dec 1881

Coeur brisé (pantomime, 1, M. Arbel), Bouffes Parisiens, 17 Dec 1890

Le roi de Paris (op, 3, H. Bouchut), Opéra, 26 April 1901

Titania (op, 3, L. Gallet and A. Corneau), OC, Favart, 20 Jan 1903

Le miracle (op, P.B. Gheusi and A. Mérane), Opéra, 14 Dec 1910

Dans l'ombre de la cathédrale (op, 3, M. Léna and H. Ferrare, after V. Blasco Ibañez), Opéra, 7 Dec 1921

Siang-Sin (ballet-pantomime, 2, P. Jobbé-Duval), Opéra, 12 March 1924

Riquet à la houppe (comédie-musicale, 3, R. Gastambide, after Perrault), OC, Favart, 17 Dec 1928

Le retour d'Ulysse (film score), ?1909

Les Romanesques (incid music)


for voice and piano unless otherwise stated

Médée (scène lyrique, Grimault), 1879; 6 mélodies (H. Heine), 1886; La merle à la glu (J. Richepin), 1886; Rubezahl (légende symphonique, G. Cerfberr and C. de l'Eglise), 1886; Extase (V. Hugo), 1887; La poète au calife (Hugo), 1887; Salut, ô beau jour (Cerfberr and de l'Eglise), 1888; A des oiseaux (E. Adenis), 1889; Chant de noces (H. Gréville), 1889; 20 mélodies, 1889; Villanelle (A. Ocampo), 1889; Résurrection (épisode sacré), S, SATB, 1891; Le sommeil d'Hercule, 1891; Le vol des heures, S, A, pf, 1891; Le bateau rose, Le bateau noir (J. Richepin), 1892; Le berger (A.-L. Hettich), 1892; Espérance (C. Joliet), 1892

Violettes (A. Silvestre), 1892; Le berceau (E. Pailleron), 1893; Enchantement (Silvestre), 1893; Les Tziganes (E. Guinand), SATB, 1893; L'absent (Silvestre), 1894; Les fleurs (Maris de la tour), 1894; J'ai pleuré en rêve, J'ai rêve d'une enfant de Roi, Ma bien aimée (Heine), 1894; Réveil (Guinand), 1894; Sur les cîmes (Hettich), 1894; Les tristes ressemblances (C. Mendès), 1894; Les yeux morts (M. Rollinat), 1894; Novembre (P. Bourget), 1895; Nuit d'été (Bourget), 1895; Heures douces (Hettich), 1896; L'inutile regret (Hettich), 1896; Jeunesse (cant., Hettich), 3 solo vv, orch, 1897; Poèmes de regret (S. Bordèse), 1897

Chansons lointaines (A. Lebey), 1898; Brises d'autrefois (H. Gauthiers-Villars), 1899; Chers souvenirs (J. Bénédict), 1899; Notre amour (Silvestre), 1899; Air au matin, Air du soir (J.M. Mestrallet), 1901; Chanson de Longnac (P. de Ronsard), 1901; Portrait d'enfant (M. Chassang), 1901; Ronde (Chassang), 1901; Les yeux et la voix (P. Bourget), 1901; Chansons printanières (J. Benedict), 1902; Dans le jardin multicolore (A. Samain), 1902; Edith au col de cygne (cant., Chassang), 1v, pf, 1902; 3 poèmes maritimes (Lebey), 1904; Vox populi, male vv, 1904, arr. military band; Croquis d'Orient (T. Klingsor), 1905; Lieds dans la forêt (A. Alexandre), 1906

Jeunes chansons sur des vieux airs (Alexandre), 1905; L'éternelle sérénade, SATB, pf (Hettich), 1906; Chimères (Lebey), 1909; Etrennes (Hettich), 1909; Farniente (Hettich), 1909; Ferveur (C. Marteau de Milleville), 1909; Vertige (Lebey), 1909; Chansons du valet de coeur (Klingsor), 1912; 3 nouvelles mélodies, 1912; 2 poésies de Jean Lahor, 1912; L'un et l'autre (G. Boyer), 1913; Vengeons nos morts (Chassang), 1916; Triptyque (A. Puget), 1918; Dans le parc (Samain), 1919; Esquisses marocaines (A. Droin), 1919; Versailles (Samain), song cycle, 1920; Les heures (P. Arosa), 1922; 2 poèmes japonais, 1922

Epiphanie (Leconte de Lisle), 1924; L'inconnue (de l'Eglise), 1924; Lied (H. de Régnier), 1924; Madone (J. Lahore), 1924; Le mariage de Marion (Klingsor), 1924; Mélancolie (Lahore), 1924; Petites litanies de Jésus (Klingsor), Mez, SATB, 1924; Sonnez les matines, 1926; 2 chansons dans le style populaire (Arosa), 1927; Impressions d'Alsace (Alexandre), 1927; Mélancolie du souvenir (Arosa), 1930; Chanson, Mélodie (Arosa), 1931; La Polletaise (Arosa), 1931; Passereau, Passerose (Chassang), 1932; Berceuse pour les Gueux (Arosa), 1933; La nuit immortelle (Chassang), 1933; Volupté (P. Margaritis), 1933; 2 choeurs, 4vv, 1934; Ave Maria, 1v, org


Orch: Rêverie, 1886; Sérénade, 1886; Causerie, 1893; Emotions, 1918, arr. pf 4 hands; Le parfum des lis, Recueillement, chbr orch, 1928

Chbr and Solo inst: Tarantelle, vn, pf, 1886; Romance, vc, pf, 1888; Fantasie, vn, pf, 1893; Romance, vn, pf, 1896, arr. vn, orch, 1899; Andante, vc, pf, 1898, arr. vc, orch; Solo, cornet, pf, 1900; Nocturne, fl, pf, 1901, arr. fl, orch; Gigue, fl, pf, 1904; Impromptu, pf, 1907; Nocturne, pf, 1907; Le retour d'Ulysse, pf, 1909 [arr. of film score]; Fantasie, fl, pf, 1913, arr. fl, orch, 1923; Thème varié, va, pf, 1920; Petite pièce, fl/ob/vn, pf, 1921; Berceuse, vn, pf, 1924; Chasse et idylle, pf, 1930; Pèlerinage élégique, pf, 1930; Fantasie-ballade, pf, 1932

MSS in F-Pn

Principal publishers: Leduc, Heugel, Choudens


J. Bruyr: ‘Un entretien avec … Georges Hüe’, Guide de concert, xxi (1934–5), 295–7

C. Oulmont: ‘Georges Hüe, les frères Hillemacher, Levade’, Le théâtre lyrique en France (Paris, 1937–9) [pubn of Poste National/Radio Paris], iii, 138–48

P. Landormy: La musique française après Debussy (Paris, 1943)

P. Bertrand: Le monde de la musique (Geneva, 1947)

G. Samazeuilh: Musiciens de mon temps (Paris, 1947)


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