(b Nanjing, 26 Dec 1927; d Beijing, 8 May 1997). Chinese musicologist. After the Communist ‘Liberation' of 1949 he joined the theory and composition department of the Central Conservatory of Music in 1950, moving to the Music Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Arts in 1958. Although academic and social life were disrupted by the Cultural Revolution (1966–76), he managed to do some important work on archaeological finds in this period. He served as director of the Music Research Institute from 1985 until his retirement in 1988, taking over the mantle of Yang Yinliu as mentor for Chinese musicologists.
Huang is best known as a historical musicologist – his work on pre-Qin music archaeology, notably the set of bells from the 433 bce tomb of the Marquis Yi of the Zeng state, is seminal, and he was chief editor of the monumental Zhongguo yinyue wenwu daxi (‘Compendium of Chinese musical artefacts’), which began to appear only after his death. However, his monographs offer great insights into a wide range of music throughout Chinese history, and the deepest enduring influence of his work is his constant concern to relate living folk Chinese traditions of vocal and instrumental music to early material on scales and temperament, melody and notations.
See also China, §II, 1.
Chuantong shi yitiao heliu [Tradition is a flowing stream] (Beijing, 1990)
Suliu tanyuan: Zhongguo chuantong yinyue yanjiu [Tracing the stream to its source: studies of traditional Chinese music] (Beijing, 1993)
Zhongguo gudai yinyue shi, fenqi yanjiu ji youguan xin cailiao, xin wenti [History of Chinese music: studies in periodization and new relevant material and issues] (Taibei, 1997)
Zhongguorende yinyue he yinyuexue [Music and musicology of the Chinese] (Ji'nan, 1997)
A social dance of pre-Hispanic Inca origin. It is found in Bolivia, Peru, northern Chile, Ecuador and northern Argentina. Of enormous popularity, its modern forms are part of the repertory of various ensembles. It is characterized by syncopated, anhemitonic pentatonic melodies beginning with a leap of a perfect 4th and ending with descending pendular motion. The huayno has a binary structure and duple metre, is in moderate tempo and often concludes with a fuga section that repeats the piece at twice the original speed. It is a scarf dance performed in couples, with limited zapateo (foot-stamping), and can be accompanied by sicuri bands or by harp, guitars, bombo (bass drum) and charango (small fretted lute) ensembles.
Huba, Volodymyr Petrovych
(b Kiev, 22 Dec 1938). Ukrainian composer. Huba received his first music lessons from his father, a musician with one of the numerous brass bands in the Ukraine. In 1977 he graduated from the Kiev Conservatory where he studied composition with Lyatoshyns'ky and Shtoharenko. He then worked as music editor at Ukrainian State Television and Radio and at the Ukrainian Studio of Documentary Films. An extremely prolific composer, Huba has written works in all genres and has been very active in film. ‘In my view’, says Huba, ‘a composer involved in filmmaking should create music capable of independent existence. What I mean is the kind of music that can be performed in concerts, on television or radio. The notion of “applied music” is alien to me’. In all, Huba has composed the music for 70 films. A member of two guilds – the Union of Filmmakers and the Union of Composers – Huba is also a poet and has appeared on the radio reciting his own verses. He achieved recognition in the West with the stunning sound-fresco for piano entitled Poholos (formerly Panneau/Molva), a movement from the Kiev Suite, and with Autumn Music for chamber orchestra. In such works as Fata morgana (after Kotziubyns'ky) for cello and organ, String Quartet no.3 (after Dostoyevsky) and Autumn Music, Huba makes original experiments with fantastic colours while an inward lyrical quality hangs over the obvious exuberance of the material. This style fits well into a category best described as ‘mythopoetic realism’, a common characteristic of Ukrainian culture as a whole. In Autumn Music, he explored the growing interest in neo-romantic simplicity that owes as much to naive art as to Erik Satie. Written in 1966 (in the middle of the most exuberant avant-garde explosion in Ukraine since the first two decades of the 20th century), Autumn Music is a tone poem of great simplicity and beauty, of lyricism and gentle contentment, but one that betrays within its glance some kind of horror or foreboding; extremely tonal – one could even say diatonic – melodies shift keys and colours magically.
Orch: Osinnya muzyka [Autumn Music], sinfonietta, chbr orch, 1966–81; Zakhar Berkut, 1968 [after I. Franko]; After Reading the Tale of Igor's Campaign, 1971; 6 Compositions after Albrecht Dürer, chbr orch, 1972; Orch Suite [no.1], 1973; Orch Suite [no.2], 1979; Orch Suite [no.3], 1980
Vocal: The Revelation of Sappho, S, chbr orch, 1980; For Kiev, vv, orch, 1982
Chbr and solo inst: 7 Poems, org, 1964–86; Elegy, vn, org, 1971; Fata morgana, vc, org, 1972 [after M. Kotziu'bynsky]; Duma, hn, org, 1973; Str Qt [no.1], 1975; DSCH ‘Music in Memory of Shostakovich’, vn, vc, pf, 1976; Dramatychnyi monoloh [Dramatic Monologue], vn, pf, 1976; Einstein's Violin, vn, 1976; Ukraïns'ki akvareli [Ukrainian Aquarelles], vn, vc, pf, 1976; Pf Qnt, 1978; Str Qt [no.2], 1979; Str Qt [no.3], 1980 [after F.M. Dostoyevsky]; Elegiac Music, fl, hn, vc, hp, cel, 1983; Str Qt [no.4], 1984; 3 pf sonatas; Kiev Suite, pf
70 film scores
V.Baley: ‘Orpheus Unleashed’, Soviet Ukranian Affairs, ii/3–4 (1988) [2 pts]