Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm

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Hristić, Zoran

(b Belgrade, 30 July 1938). Serbian composer. He was a pupil of Castiglioni at the Milan Conservatory in 1959 and graduated from the composition class of Rajičić at the Belgrade Academy of Music in 1963. After working as a freelance composer he was editor-in-chief, consecutively, at Radio Belgrade (1982–9), Belgrade television and Serbian television. His musical language – which is reminiscent of the Polish school of Lutosławski, Penderecki and others – is characterized by bizarre sounds and the use of parody. Among his better-known compositions are Genealogy, the ballet Darinka’s Bestowal and The Step, a work that verges on pure theatre. Yugoslavica, a dance score for chorus, orchestra and synthesizer, was written for the 1984 Winter Olympic Games held in Sarajevo. He has received many awards, including the State Prize for Darinka’s Bestowal, an award from Dublin television for Genealogy and other prizes for stage and film scores.


(selective list)

all dates are performance unless otherwise stated

Stage: Kameleon (TV ballet), 1972; Narcissus (TV ballet), 1976); Darinkin dur [Darinka’s Bestowal] (choreog. V. Kostič), 7 Oct 1974; Adam i Eva (S. Pervan), Dubrovnik Festival, 18 Aug 1982; Koruk [The Step] (choreog. M. Miškovič), 6 Oct 1980

Vocal: Naslovi [Titles] (B. Miljkovič, chorus, orch, 1964; Rodoslov [Genealogy] (S. Mitič), 5 groups of vv, folk insts, chbr orch, 1972; Opomena [Warning] (orat, Yugoslav poets), 2vv, orch, 1974; Yugoslavica (dance score), chorus, orch, synth, 1984

Orch: Cordes vides puis plus pleines, str, perf. 1968; U roku od 8 [8 is the Time Limit], 19 str, 1977; Anticoncert ‘December X’, vn, synth, orch, 1983; A Testament, gemshorn, va, orch, 1988

Chbr: 4 for E, pf trio, 1966; Tišina [Silence], db, 1981; Folklorna tokata, pf 4 hands, 1995

Sound workshops: Bitka [The Battle], 1989; Brod ludaka [Boat of Fools], 1991

Many film scores, incid music

Principal publisher: Udruženje kompozistora Srbije


V. Peričič, D. Kostič and D. Skovran: Muzički stvaraoci u Srbiji [Music creators in Serbia] (Belgrade, 1969)


Hrušovský, Ivan

(b Bratislava, 23 Feb 1927). Slovak composer and musicologist. From 1947 to 1952 he studied musicology, philosophy and aesthetics at Bratislava University (PhD) and composition with Alexander Moyzes at the Bratislava Conservatory; his studies under Moyzes continued at the Academy of Music and Dramatic Art in Bratislava (until 1957).

As a musicologist Hrušovský has specialized in 20th-century music and in Slovak music in particular. As a composer he was greatly influenced at first by Moyzes: he kept within the boundaries of an extended tonality containing modal elements and preferred rich instrumentation and epic scope, as in the Pastorálna suita (1955) and Tatranská poéma (‘Tatra Poem’, 1960). At around the same time he began to explore timbre, which resulted in an emancipation of sound from its subordination to harmonic structure (demonstrated in an especially original way in the choral compositions). In the course of the 1960s he also absorbed stimuli from serialism, which he applied in its purest form in Combinazioni sonoriche, and from controlled aleatorism, as in the Piano Sonata of 1965. With the aid of these techniques, and in a way reminiscent of Lutosławski or Górecki, he focussed on developing a new sound world and expressive means in works such as Sen o človeku (‘A Dream about a Man’) and Tri madrigalové impresie (‘Three Madrigalian Impressions’). In their use of modality and polymodality as well as Slovak folk idioms, the later works are not unrelated to the music of Moyzes and his generation, though there is little to suggest links with late Romanticism or Impressionism. A typical feature of Hrušovský’s works from the 1970s onwards in their use of historical forms such as the sonata, the madrigal and Baroque suite; aimed at bridging the gap between musical past and present, this combines with a deepening concentration of expression to project a suggestive though ideological message.


(selective list)

Orch: Pastorálna suita, 1955; Pf Conc., 1957; Tatranská poéma [Tatra Poem], sym. picture, 1960; Concertante ov., str, 1963; Passacaglia, 1966; Musica nocturna, str, 1970; Konfrontácie [Confrontations], 1979; Suita quasi una fantasia, str, 1980; Hudba k Vincentovi Hložníkovi [Music to Vincent Hložník’s Graphic Art], sym. fresco, 1986; Sym. no.1, str, 1988; Sym. no.2 ‘Spomienková’ [Commemoration], pf, chbr orch, 1996

Vocal: Červený mak [Red Poppy] (M. Haľamová), song cycle, S (Mez), pf, 1959; Hiroshima (cant., R. Skukálek, 2 spkrs, S, chorus, orch, 1961, rev. 1965; Biela breza, sestra moja … [White Birch, my Sister …] (cant., I. Kupec), Mez, female chorus, 1961; Sen o človeku [A Dream about a Man] (cant., V. Reisel), spkr, S, chorus, orch, 1964; 3 madrigalové impresie (Reisel), chorus, 1966; Moja milá pani hmla [My Dear Mrs Fog] (M. Drouet), spkr, children’s/female chorus, 1970; Májová flauta [The May Flute] (J. Smrek), 2 female choruses, 1971; Cesta ku svetlu [The Way to the Light] (cycle, P. Horov), chorus, 1973; Amor Iuventae (song cycle, Ye. Yevtushenko, J. Prévert, Smrek), chorus, 1974; 3 Etudes (I. Hrušovsky), chorus, 1974; Madrigalová sonáta (C. Pavese), chorus, 1974; Ódy [Odes] (P. Koyš, M. Rúfus), spkr, chorus, 1975; Canti (cycle, Virgil, Ovid), chorus, 1978; Obrázky z prírody [Pictures from Nature] (cycle, Ľ. Feldek), children’s chorus, tape, 1980; Tá láska [That Love] (cant., Prévert), Mez, chorus, 1984; Triptych (J. Hollý, Old Slavonic texts), chorus, 1984; Canticum pro pace (orat, Bible, Horov), spkr, Mez, B, chorus, orch, 1985; Eja, studiosi (anon.), chorus, 1986; Mikropoézie (J. Iwaszkiewicz), chorus, fl, pf, 1987; Cantus de caritate (cant., New Testament), chorus, pf/org, 1990; Cantate Domino (cant., psalm), chorus, 1991; S radosťou slúžte Pánovi! [With joy you serve the Lord] (triptych, pss), children’s chorus, chorus, org, 1992; Missa pro iuventute, chorus, 1994; A tam za horami [And There Beyond the Mountains] (ballad, folk poetry), chorus, 1995; Rekviem na koniec tisíročia [Requiem for the end of the Millennium] (R. Dilong, P. Hudák), spkr, S, T, chorus, brass, perc, org, 1997–8

Chbr and solo inst: Sonatina, pf, 1953; Toccata, pf, 1958; Suita piccola, vc, pf, 1963; Combinazioni sonoriche, fl, ob, b cl, tpt, vib, pf, vn, va, vc, 1963; Pf Sonata, 1965; 3 skladby [3 Pieces] (Sonáta č.2), pf, 1968; Sonata, vn, 1969; Toccata chromatica, pf, 1970; Sonata in modo classico, hpd, 1977; 3 kánoy, vn, hpd/pf, 1980; Dialoghi in ritmo, org, perc, 1982; Str Qt no.1, 1983; Musica rustica, fl, 1984; Fantázia, introdukcia a fúga v starom slohu [Fantasia, Introduction and Fugue in Old Style], pf 4 hands, 1986; Suite, 2 pf/pf 4 hands), 1986; Str Qt no.2, 1990; Musica paschalis, suite, org, 1992; 2 romantické fúgy a postlúdiá [2 Romantic Fugues and Postludes], pf, 1993; 8 variácií na Beethovenu tému [8 Variations on Beethoven’s Theme], pf, 1994; 7 bagatel, pf, 1994; Sonata no.2, vn, pf, 1995; Lamento 94/95, vn, va, 1995; Str Qt no.3, 1995

Tape: Invocation, 1973; Idée fixe, 1975


Principal publishers: Opus, Slovenský hudobný fond


‘Hudobná reč Cikkerovej opery Vzkriesenie’ [The musical language of Cikker’s opera Vzkriesenie], K problematike súčasnej hudby, ed. V. Donovalová (Bratislava, 1963), 117–37

Slovenská hudba v profiloch a rozboroch [Slovak music in profiles and analyses] (Bratislava, 1964)

‘Pokus o myšlienkovú a estetickú podstatu Cikkerovej ranej tvorby’ [On the ideal and aesthetic substance of Cikker’s early works], Musicologica Slovaca, iii (1971), 3–23

‘Vítězslav Novák a slovenská hudba’ [Novák and Slovak music], Česká hudba světu a svět české hudbě (Prague, 1974), 179–95

‘Princíp riadenej aleatoriky z kompozičného a teoretického hľadiska’ [The principle of controlled aleatorism from a compositional and theoretical standpoint], SH, xviii (1992), 536–96

‘Reflexie o duchovnej hudbe 20. storočia’ [Reflections on sacred music of the 20th century], SH, xxi (1995), 20–37


Ľ. Chalupka: ‘Slovenská hudba 20. storočia: vývoj po roku 1945’ [Slovak music in the 20th century: development after 1945], Dejiny slovenskej hudby, ed. O. Elschek (Bratislava, 1996), 298, 312–13

Z. Martináková: ‘K sedemdesiatke Ivana Hrušovského’ [On the 70th anniversary of Hrušovský], Hudobný život, xxix/4 (1997), 6 only


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