Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm

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Hrisanide [Hrisanidis], Alexandru

(b Petrila, 15 June 1936). Romanian composer and pianist. He studied with Jora, Constantinescu and F. Musicescu at the Bucharest Conservatory (1953–64); while there he taught piano at the No.1 Music School in Bucharest (1952–62), becoming a junior lecturer at the conservatory in 1962. His studies were continued under Boulanger in Paris, at the American Conservatory in Fontainebleau (1965) and at the Darmstadt summer courses (1966–7). After a period spent teaching in the USA at the University of Oregon (1973–4), he returned to Europe and became professor of piano and chamber music at the academies of music in Amsterdam and Tilburg. As a pianist he has promoted new Romanian music abroad, built up an immense repertory of contemporary music and given several important premières. In his composition he employs the most novel means (abundant and inventive effects of timbre, employment of sound masses and of electronics) in an essentially romantic spirit. In 1957 he received a distinction at the Young Romanian Students’ National Competition and in 1965 he was given the Lili Boulanger Foundation Award for his Volumes-Inventions.


(selective list)

Orch: Poem, 1959; Passacaglia, 1959; Vers antiqua, 1960; Ad perpetuam rei memoriam, 1967; Ro, 1968; Conc., hpd, orch, 1994

Choral: C’était issu stellaire (Mallarmé), male chorus, 3 tpt, 4 trbn, pf, org, 5 perc, 1967; I-Ro-La-Hai (vocal-sym. poem, Hölderlin), 1971

Other inst: 3 pf sonatas, 1955, 1959, 1964; Pf Pieces 1–13, 1955–64; 3 sonatas, fl, pf, 1957–62; Trio, vn, va, bn, 1958; Sonata, cl, pf, 1962; Volume-Invenţiuni, vc, pf, 1963; Undă [Wave], org, 1965; In căutarea verticalei [In Search of the Vertical], ens, 1965; M.P.5, vn, va, vc, t sax/cl, pf, 1967; Mers-Tef, vn, 1968; Directions, ens, 1969; Musique pour ‘Ra’, ens, 1969–71

Principal publishers: Gerig, Musicală, Salabert


W.G. Berger: Ghid pentru muzica instrumentală de cameră [A guide to instrumental chamber music] (Bucharest, 1965), 388–9

V. Cosma: Muzicieni români: lexicon (Bucharest, 1970), 237–8


Hristić, Stevan

(b Belgrade, 19 June 1885; d Belgrade, 21 Aug 1958). Serbian composer and conductor. From 1904 to 1908 he lived in Leipzig, where he studied at the conservatory with Stephan Krehl and Richard Hofmann (composition) and Nikisch (conducting). He continued his studies during the years 1909–12 in Moscow, Rome and Paris. From 1912 until the beginning of World War I he conducted at the National Theatre in Belgrade and taught at the Serbian music school and seminary. He was chief conductor of the Belgrade PO (1923–37) and director of the opera (1925–35) before becoming professor of composition at the academy of music (1937–51), and rector there (1942–4). For several years after World War II he was chairman of both the Yugoslav and Serbian Composers' Unions, and he was elected to corresponding (1948) and full (1950) membership of the Serbian Academy.

Drawn towards contemporary west European music, he adopted a late Romantic style, sometimes with Impressionist elements. Some of his works are inspired by folk music, while his sacred music is influenced by Russian music. His major contributions, however, were for the stage. The opera Suton (‘Twilight’) is successful both in creating atmosphere and in the vocal underlining of psychological states; the revised version includes an extensive ballet divertissement. The summit of Hristić’s output is the ballet Ohridska legenda (‘The Legend of Ohrid’, 1933), a work which brilliantly transforms folk motifs in a symphonic manner; its descriptive music is based on powerful folkdance rhythms. The Legend of Ohrid has achieved wide popularity, thanks to its brightly coloured orchestration and its plot embracing both patriotic struggle and idyllic episodes. Hristić’s songs and choral pieces are written in a direct melodic style.


(selective list)

Stage: Čučuk Stana [Little Stana] (incid music, M. Petrović), 1907; Uobraženi bolesnik (incid music, after Molière: La malade imaginaire), 1921; Suton [Twilight] (op, after I. Vojnović), 1925, rev. 1954; Hamlet (incid music, after W. Shakespeare), 1930; Ohridska legenda [The Legend of Ohrid] (ballet), 1933, enlarged 1947, 1958; The Tempest (incid music, after Shakespeare), 1933

Orch: Sym. Fantasy, vn, orch,

Choral: Vaskrsenje [Resurrection] (orat, D. Ilić), 1912; Dubrovnik Requiem, e, n.d.; a cappella songs

Songs, incl. Lastavica, Elegija [The Swallow]

Film music, few inst works

Principal publishers: Geca Kon, Prosveta, Savez Kompozitora Jugoslavije


B. Dragutinović: ‘Stevan Hristić’, Zvuk, no.6 (1933), 201–6

M. Živković: ‘Značaj kompozitorske ličnosti Stevana Hristića’, Muzički glasnik, no.4 (1933), 73–7

P. Bingulac: ‘“Ohridska legenda” Stevana Hristića’, Muzika, i (1948), 105–13

‘Stevan Hristić in memoriam’, Zvuk, nos.21–3 (1958), 1–31

S. Đurić-Klajn: ‘Stevan Hristić’, Pozorišni život, iv (1959), 9, 19

N. Mosusova: ‘“Ohridska legenda” Stevana Hristića’, Zvuk, no.66 (1966), 96–114

V. Peričić: Muzički stvaraoci u Srbiji [Musical creators in Serbia] (Belgrade, 1969)

S. Đurić-Klajn: Serbian Music through the Ages (Belgrade, 1972)

V. Peričić: Beogradska filharmonija [Belgrade Philharmonic] (Belgrade, 1977)

StevanHristić: Belgrade 1985

V. Peričić: Stevan Hristić i njegovo delo: Zbornik radova studenata muzikologije Fakulteta muzičke umetnosti [Stevan Hristić and his work: anthology of articles by students of musicology at the Faculty of Musical Art] (Belgrade, 1985)

Folklor i njegova umetničke transpozicija [I]: Belgrade 1987 [summaries in Eng., Fr., Ger.]

N. Mosusova: ‘Izvori inspiracije “Ohridske legende”’ [Sources of inspiration for “Ohridska legenda”], MZ, xxv (1989), 67–79

Srpska muzička scena: Belgrade 1993

R. Pejović: Kritike, članci i posebne publikacije u srpskoj muzičkoj prošlosti [Critiques, articles and other publications in the Serbian musical past] (Belgrade, 1994)


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