Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm



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Hradec nad Moravicí.


Site of a castle near Opava, Czech Republic, where concerts and an annual music competition are held.

Hrazdíra, Cyril Metoděj


(b Rájec nad Svitavou, Blansko district, Moravia, 16 Jan 1868; d Brno, 3 Dec 1926). Czech conductor and composer. He studied at the Brno Organ School with Janáček (1886–8) and held organ and conducting posts in Brno and Olomouc before settling in Ostrava (1891–8), where in addition to a church post he conducted the choral societies Záboj (1893–7) and Lumír (1894–8). Family reasons compelled him to join the Russian navy in 1898 but he returned to Moravia in 1899 and was appointed first conductor of the Brno Opera in 1903. During his four years there he introduced a number of new works, the most important of which was Janáček’s Jenůfa (1904). Janáček seems to have been pleased with his work and in his 1907 revision incorporated several cuts suggested by Hrazdíra. Conflicts with the management of the Brno theatre led to his departure (1 February 1907) and for the next few years he worked as conductor of various travelling opera companies based in Ostrava before taking up conducting posts in Split (1911), Ljubljana (1912) and Zagreb (1913–14). After World War I he continued working in Split; he finally retired to Moravia. His compositions, in a Romantic idiom, include three operas, notably Ječmínek (‘Barleycorn’, a Moravian folk hero), first performed in Brno a month after Jenůfa, and two operettas, as well as church music, cantatas and choruses, and arrangements of Silesian folksongs.

BIBLIOGRAPHY


V.A.J. Hornové [V. Horn, A. Horn and J. Horn]: Česká zpěvohra [Czech opera] (Prague, 1903), 135–7

S. Obenrauchová: Cyril Metoděj Hrazdíra (diss., U. of Brno, 1959)

V. Gregor: ‘Leoš Janáček a Cyril Metoděj Hrazdira’, Sborník prací pedagogické fakulty v Ostravě, lix (1978), D14, 83–92 [incl. Ger. summary]

J. Tyrrell: Janáček’s Operas (London, 1992)

M. Audus: ‘Chybějící pojítko: rekonstrukce Její pastorkyně z r. 1904’ [The missing link: a reconstruction of the 1904 Jenůfa], OM, xxviii (1996), 186–96

JOHN TYRRELL


Hreol


(Anglo-Saxon).

See Reel.

Hřímalý.


Czech family of musicians of Polish origin.

(1) Vojtěch Hřímalý (i)

(2) Marie Hřímalá

(3) Vojtěch Hřímalý (ii)

(4) Jan Hřímalý [Ivan Voytekhovich Grzhimali]

(5) Jaromír Hřímalý

(6) Bohuslav Hřímalý

(7) Otakar Hřímalý

JOHN TYRRELL



Hřímalý

(1) Vojtěch Hřímalý (i)


(b Blatná, nr Písek, Bohemia, 18 July 1809; d Moscow, 26 Oct 1880). Organist. Trained by the organist Josef Böhm, he was organist in his home town of Blatná and then in Plzeň (1835–75). Six of his children became musicians, four of them making up the family string quartet (first appearance, 1872): Jan (4), leader; Vojtěch ii (3), second violin; Bohuslav (6), viola; Jaromír (5) cello. On retirement he joined his son (4) Jan in Moscow.

Hřímalý

(2) Marie Hřímalá


(b Plzeň, 17 Sept 1839; d Salzburg, 13 May 1921). Pianist and singer, daughter of (1) Vojtěch Hřímalý (i). After touring as a prodigy and working as an opera singer in Olomouc and Brno, she taught singing and the piano at the Salzburg Mozarteum from 1881. Her sister Anna (1841–97), a singer and accompanist, also lived in Salzburg.

Hřímalý

(3) Vojtěch Hřímalý (ii)


(b Plzeň, 30 July 1842; d Vienna, 15 June 1908). Composer, violinist and conductor, son of (1) Vojtěch Hřímalý (i). He studied the violin with Moris Mildner at the Prague Conservatory (1855–61), after which he became the orchestral leader in Rotterdam (1861) and Göteborg (1862) and then returned to Prague as leader and director of the Provisional Theatre orchestra (1868–73). Leaving this post after disagreements with the management, he became second conductor of the German Theatre in Prague (1873–4) and chairman of the Philharmonic Society; he also wrote for Pivoda's Hudební listy. In 1874 he left Bohemia to become director of the Philharmonic in Czernowitz, Bukovina (now Chernovtsy, Ukraine), where his activities as orchestral and choral conductor, string quartet leader, teacher of harmony, singing, the violin and piano and, from 1902, as university lecturer did much to raise local musical standards. Most of his large output was left in manuscript, but his opera Zakletý princ (‘The Enchanted Prince’) remained in the repertory of the Provisional Theatre after its production in 1872 and his Violin Concerto was often played by František Ondříček. Another opera, Švanda dudák (‘Schwanda the Bagpiper’), was produced in Plzeň in 1896; he also wrote incidental music, songs, choruses and a requiem, chamber music and teaching manuals.

Hřímalý

(4) Jan Hřímalý [Ivan Voytekhovich Grzhimali]


(b Plzeň, 13 April 1844; d Moscow, 11/24 Jan 1915). Violinist, son of (1) Vojtěch Hřímalý (i). Like his brother (3) Vojtěch, he was a violin pupil of Mildner at the Prague Conservatory (1855–61), after which he became leader of the Amsterdam orchestra (1862–8). He then moved to Moscow to teach the violin at the Imperial Conservatory (1869) and in 1874 succeeded Ferdinand Laub as professor and married his daughter. One of his many pupils was Glier. He was leader, occasionally conductor, in the symphony concerts and leader of the string quartet that gave the first performance of Tchaikovsky's Third String Quartet (1876). He also played in the premières of Tchaikovsky's Second String Quartet (1874) and Piano Trio (1882); in the latter Tchaikovsky entrusted the bowing of the string parts to him. He wrote books of violin studies (Doppelgriff-Übungen and Tonleiter-Studien) and revised Mazas's violin school.

Hřímalý

(5) Jaromír Hřímalý


(b Plzeň, 23 Sept 1845; d Helsinki, 15 June 1905). Cellist, son of (1) Vojtěch Hřímalý (i). He studied the cello at the Prague Conservatory (1858–64), played in the Provisional Theatre orchestra (from 1871) and in 1872 moved to Helsinki as leader of the opera orchestra. He appeared frequently as a soloist, founded a string quartet and was well known as a teacher.

Hřímalý

(6) Bohuslav Hřímalý


(b Plzeň, 18 April 1848; d Helsinki, 11 Oct 1894). Violinist and conductor, son of (1) Vojtěch Hřímalý (i). He studied the violin with Mildner at the Prague Conservatory (1858–64) and played the violin and viola in the Provisional Theatre orchestra (1868–72). He also conducted in Plzeň (1872–4) and in Prague. In 1875 he joined his brother Jaromír in Helsinki, where he became conductor of the Finnish Opera and later of a Swedish company. His works include a one-act opera, Carevniny střevičky (‘The Empress's Slippers’; 1885–6, after N.V. Gogol).

Hřímalý

(7) Otakar Hřímalý


(b Czernowitz, Bukovina [now Chernovtsy, Ukraine], 20 Dec 1883; d Prague, 10 July 1945). Composer, teacher and conductor, son of (3) Vojtěch Hřímalý (ii). After attending school in Czernowitz, he studied in Vienna at the conservatory and university (1903–8) and took the doctorate. In 1909 he joined his uncle Jan in Moscow and became conductor in the opera section of the conservatory (1910–16). After the Revolution he became conductor of the State Opera and music inspector (1919–22). He then returned to Czernowitz (by then renamed Cernăuţi) to become professor and director (from 1933) of the music institute Societatea Filharmonică. On the Russian occupation of Bukovina he fled to Prague, where from 1940 he taught at the conservatory. His compositions, many of them based on Romanian themes, include seven symphonies, a violin concerto, a piano concerto, chamber music, two cantatas, an opera and two ballets.

BIBLIOGRAPHY


ČSHS [incl. lists of works and further bibliography]

GroveO (‘Hřímalý, Vojtěch’; M. Ottlová and M. Pospíšil) [incl. further bibliography]

P.I. Tchaikovsky: Concert review, Russkiye vedomosti (3/15 April 1875)

‘Čech na Bukovině: za Vojtěchem Hřímalým’ [A Czech in Bukovina], Česká hudba, xiv (1908), 59–61 [obituary]



V. Hřímalý: ‘Z mých hudebních vzpomínek životních’ [From the musical reminiscences of my life], Česká hudba, xiv (1908), 12–14

E. Vlček: ‘Čtyřicáte výročí úmrtí Vojtěcha Hřímalého’ [The 40th anniversary of Hřímalý’s death], Věstník pěvecký a hudební, iii (1948), 97–9 [incl. list of works]

J. Schánilec: Za slávou [Going for glory] (Prague, 1961), 138–9 [account of Czech musicians in Russia]

M. Mrázek: ‘Zapomenutá opera Bohuslava Hřímalého “Carevniny střevícky”’ [Bohuslav Hřímalý's forgotten opera The Empress's Slippers], HRo, xxix (1976), 376–7

J. Tyrrell: Czech Opera (Cambridge, 1988)
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