Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm

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Howen, Carl van der.

See Hoeven, Carl van der.

Howes, Frank (Stewart)

(b Oxford, 2 April 1891; d Standlake, Oxon., 28 Sept 1974). English critic, editor, lecturer and writer on music. He was educated at Oxford High School and St John’s College. After a period at the RCM he joined the staff of The Times in 1925 and succeeded H.C. Colles as chief music critic in 1943, a post which he held until 1960. He lectured on musical history and appreciation at the RCM (1938–70) and was Cramb Lecturer at Glasgow University in 1947 and 1952. He was awarded the FRCM and Hon RAM, and was made a CBE in 1954.

One of Howes’s chief interests found expression in his first book, The Borderland of Music and Psychology (1926), and again in Man, Mind and Music (1948). Another lifelong interest was reflected in Folk Music of Britain – and Beyond (1969) and in his editorship of the Folk Song Journal and its successor (JEFDSS) from 1927 to 1945.

A champion of contemporary English music, he did much to further the music of Vaughan Williams and Walton between the wars, later writing excellent monographs on each (1954 and 1965). His study of The English Musical Renaissance (1966) declared natural affinities which made him out of sympathy with the movement which, after 1945, led away from national self-sufficiency in English music towards a more cosmopolitan attitude. He used his critical influence to support, for instance, the cause of opera in English and to combat new movements in music that he regarded as deleterious. A staunch champion of anonymous criticism (as in The Times), Howes possessed a personal style, in which the didactic was often concealed beneath an easy persuasiveness of manner, and strong individual opinions; and the combination served as effectively as any signature to identify his writing.

In the field of administration and organization he worked indefatigably for over 30 years. He was president of the Royal Musical Association (1947–58); chairman of the Musicians’ Benevolent Fund (1936–55); and member of the Music Panels of the Arts Council and the British Council between 1945 and 1971.


The Borderland of Music and Psychology (London, 1926)

Appreciation of Music (London, 1928)

William Byrd (London, 1928)

A Key to the Art of Music (London, 1935)

with P. Hope-Wallace: A Key to Opera (London, 1939)

Full Orchestra (London, 1942, enlarged, 2/1976)

Man, Mind and Music (London, 1948)

Music, 1945–50 (London, 1951)

The Music of Ralph Vaughan Williams (London, 1954)

Music and its Meanings (London, 1958)

The Cheltenham Festival (London, 1965)

The Music of William Walton (London, 1965, 2/1974)

The English Musical Renaissance (London, 1966)

Folk Music of Britain – and Beyond (London, 1969)

Oxford Concerts: a Jubilee Record (Oxford, 1969)


J. W[arrack]: Obituary, MT, cxv (1974), 973 only

D. McVeagh: ‘Frank Stewart Howes’, R.C.M. Magazine, lxxi (1975), 17–18


Howes [Hawes], William

(b in or nr Worcester; d Windsor, 21 April 1676). English singer, violinist, cornett player and composer. According to Anthony Wood he was ‘bred up among the musicians or the waits in Worcester’. He was a lay clerk at St George's Chapel, Windsor, from November 1632 until the start of the Civil War in 1642, and was sworn a member of the Chapel Royal on 25 November 1643, when the court was based at Christ Church, Oxford. Wood also stated that ‘when the wars were ceased he returned to Windsor and there by friends got the pay of a soldier from the persons there in Authority which kept him from starving’. He was certainly back in Windsor and had entered holy orders by the time his son John was baptised there on 27 June 1647. He was one of the musicians in Cromwell's household (probably 1656–8), and was among those who petitioned the Council for the Advancement of Musick on 19 February 1657 for the establishment of a music college. He is mentioned by John Batchiler in The Virgin's Pattern: In the Exemplary Life, and Lamented Death of Mrs. Susanna Perwich (London, 1661) as one of the ‘most exactly skilful Brothers’ who admired the musical talents of Susanna Perwich.

At the Restoration, Howes resumed his places at Windsor and in the Chapel Royal (‘where he usually played on the cornet’, according to Wood), and was given places in the Twenty-Four Violins and among the royal wind musicians. He died at Windsor on 21 April 1676, and ‘was buried in the yard joining to the Royal Chapel of St. George's there’. His son Burgess (1649–80) was a bass at Windsor and in the Chapel Royal. Howes's catch Good Simon, how comes it your nose looks so red in Catch that Catch Can (RISM 165210/R) probably refers to Simon Ives (i). In addition, there is a setting of Super flumina Babylonis for three sopranos and continuo (GB-Ob Tenbury 726), a chant (Lbl Add.34609), and the bass part of a song, Fine young folly (Ge R.1.61).


AshbeeR, i, v, viii



E.F. Rimbault: The Old Cheque-Book, or Book of Remembrance of the Chapel Royal (London, 1872/R)

P. Scholes: The Puritans and Music in England and New England (Oxford, 1934/R)

J.D. Shute: Anthony à Wood and his Manuscript Wood D 19(4) at the Bodleian (diss., International Institute of Advanced Studies, Clayton, 1979), i, 173

L. Hulse: ‘John Hingeston’, Chelys, xii (1983), 23–42

P. Holman: Four and Twenty Fiddlers: the Violin at the English Court 1540–1690 (Oxford, 1993, 2/1995)


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