(b Birmingham, 25 Feb 1898; d Malvern, 12 Jan 1982). English composer. She completed her general education early in order to study with McEwen and Matthay at the RAM. She was a talented pianist as well as a composer, and much of her work is for the piano, most notably the concerto. She gained recognition in 1919 when her symphonic poem Lamia was given its première at the Promenade Concerts by Sir Henry Wood and was performed four more times that same season. Her style is essentially Romantic, often drawing on nature and landscape for inspiration. The music is tonal, coloured by rich harmonies and chromaticism. The Phantasy for violin and piano won the Cobbett Prize in 1921. Her use of mainly small-scale genres in later works – for piano, voice or ensemble – was partly due to the restrictions of ill-health. From 1924 to 1970 she was professor of harmony and counterpoint at the RAM, and in 1971 was elected a member of the Royal Philharmonic Society. A catalogue of Howell's works (compiled by Celia Mike) is held at the British Library.
printed works published in London
Stage: Christmas Eve, perf. 1922; Sanctity, perf. 1938
Orch: Lamia, sym. poem, 1918 (1921); Danse grotesque, 1919; 2 Dances, 1920; Humoresque, 1921; Koong Shee, 1921, rev. 1933; Minuet, str (1923); Pf Conc., 1923; 2 Pieces for Muted Strings, 1926; The Rock, 1928; Fanfare, ?1930; 3 Divertissements, ?1940; 1 sym., Concert Ov., Prelude, Valse caprice, all n.d.
Other inst: Pf Sonata, c, 1916; 5 Studies, pf (1919), Spindrift, pf (1920); Phantasy, vn, pf, 1921 (1925); The Moorings, vn, pf (1925); Sonata, vn, pf, 1947 (1954); Pf Sonata, e, 1955; 1 str qt, other inst pieces, n.d.
Choral and other vocal works
Principal publishers: E. Arnold, L.J. Casy, Cramer
MSS held by the Dorothy Howell Trust, Bewdley, Worcs.
E. Kuhe: ‘A Girl Musician: Miss Dorothy Howell’, Lady's Pictorial (4 Oct 1919)
C. Mike: ‘Dorothy Howell’, British Music, xiv (1992), 48–58
Howell, Gwynne (Richard)
(b Gorseinon, 13 June 1938). Welsh bass. He studied at the RMCM, where he sang Leporello in concert and Hunding, Fasolt and Pogner on stage. In August 1968 he joined Sadler’s Wells, making his début as Monterone (Rigoletto), and playing, among other roles, the Commendatore, Colline and the Cook (The Love for Three Oranges). Howell’s Covent Garden début was as First Nazarene in Salome (1970); his many parts there have included Richard Taverner in the première of Maxwell Davies’s Taverner, Timur, the Landgrave (Tannhäuser), Pimen, Padre Guardiano (La forza del destino) and the main Wagnerian bass roles. With the ENO he has sung many leading roles, notably Hans Sachs, Gurnemanz, King Philip II and Bartók’s Bluebeard; his parts for the WNO have included the Ruler in the première of Maxwell Davies’s The Doctor of Myddfai (1996) and Monteverdi's Seneca. A voice of mellow, well-rounded timbre (slightly less imposing at the bottom of its compass) and a tall, dignified figure have aided his natural aptitude for basso cantante roles; his authority and quiet dignity have often provided performances with their bedrock of security. His recordings include Walter in Luisa Miller, Capellio in I Capuleti e i Montecchi, Jero in Le siège de Corinthe and the bass roles in choral works from Bach to Elgar.
A. Blyth: ‘Gwynne Howell’, Opera, xlii (1991), 1018–25
(b c1670; d 15 July 1708). English countertenor. He was a boy chorister and later a lay vicar at Westminster Abbey. He sang in the Chapel Royal from 1691, and the Royal Private Music and St Paul's Cathedral from 1697. His singing at St Paul's was satirized by Thomas Brown: ‘H—ll was a stretching his Lungs in order to maintain a long white Wig, and a Hackney Coach’. Purcell wrote ‘High counter tenor for Mr. Howell’ against the countertenor and bass duet ‘Hark, each tree’ in the 1692 St Cecilia ode and included solos for him in two birthday odes, Celebrate this festival (1693) and Who can from joy refrain? (1695). These parts, rising to c'' and above, are markedly higher than those Purcell wrote for his other countertenors.
O. Baldwin and T. Wilson: ‘Who can from Joy Refraine?’, MT, cxxii (1981), 596–9
T. Morris: ‘Voice Ranges, Voice Types, and Pitch in Purcell's Concerted Works’, Performing the Music of Henry Purcell, ed. M. Burden (Oxford, 1996), 130–42
OLIVE BALDWIN, THELMA WILSON
Howells, Herbert (Norman)
(b Lydney, Glos., 17 Oct 1892; d London, 23 Feb 1983). English composer andteacher. The youngest of six children, he showed early musical promise and announced his intention of becoming a composer while still a young child. Although the Howells family was not wealthy, thanks to the generosity of a local landowner he was able to study with Brewer at Gloucester Cathedral. In 1912, after two years as Brewer's articled pupil, during which time he also befriended and was influenced by his fellow pupil Gurney, Howells won an open scholarship to the RCM where his principal teachers were Stanford (composition) and Charles Wood (counterpoint). There, he came under the influence of Parry, whose philosophy and humanity inspired a deep and lasting affection. Howells was one of the most brilliant and technically gifted students of a generation which included Bliss, Benjamin and Gurney, and after only a few weeks on Stanford's recommendation, his Mass in the Dorian Mode was sung in Westminster Cathedral. Stanford was an important figure in his early career, describing him as his ‘son in music’. He conducted the première of Howells's First Piano Concerto in 1913 and persuaded him to enter his Piano Quartet (1916) in the first of the Carnegie Trust's composition competitions, where it won an award.
Severe ill-health cut short Howells's first appointment (sub-organist at Salisbury Cathedral) in 1917, and for a time he was not expected to live. During his years of convalescence, 1917–20, the Carnegie Trust employed him as Terry's assistant in the editing of Tudor manuscripts, and procured for him a teaching appointment at the RCM (where he remained until well into his 80s). These years of enforced leisure were among his most productive, and much of his orchestral and chamber music dates from this time. In later years, teaching, examining and adjudicating left him with less time for composition; but these activities were always more than a means of earning a living, and he regarded contact with students and amateurs as an essential stimulus to his own creativity. From 1936 to 1962 he was director of music at St Paul's Girls' School, Hammersmith, where he succeeded Holst, and in 1950 he was appointed King Edward VII Professor of Music at London University, playing a central role in the establishment of a full-time honours school in music. From 1941 to 1945 he deputised for Robin Orr as organist of St John's College, Cambridge. He rose quickly to fame as a composer of songs, chamber music and orchestral pieces, but his extensive contribution to cathedral music, which in later years dominated his reputation, did not begin until the late 1940s.
Howells held many other appointments including the presidencies of the Incorporated Society of Musicians, the Plainsong and Mediaeval Music Society and the Royal College of Organists. In 1931 he became the first John Collard Fellow of the Worshipful Company of Musicians and in 1959 succeeded Elgar and Vaughan Williams as the third John Collard Life Fellow. He was Master of the Company in 1959–60. In 1937 he was awarded the degree of Doctor of Music at Oxford, and in 1961 was awarded an honorary doctorate at Cambridge, where he was made an honorary fellow of St John's College in 1966. Other honours included the CBE (1953) and CH (1972). He wrote a number of articles in a rich, allusive style, and delivered many radio talks.
Howells's mature style skilfully interweaves a number of strands. Of his formative influences, probably the most important were modal counterpoint, derived from Tudor models, Elgar in his elegiac aspects and Vaughan Williams, whose Tallis Fantasia had a galvanising effect on the young composer, and whose Pastoral Symphony (on which Howells wrote a seminal article) deeply influenced the string quartet In Gloucestershire, the most substantial of Howells's instrumental works. To these must also be added the topography of his native Gloucestershire, and his love of English literature. These quintessentially English ingredients are mixed with an un-English technical assurance and made piquant by richly sensuous harmonies, arguably more French in origin (he knew Ravel). The early chamber works, notably the Piano Quartet, the Phantasy String Quartet (1916), the Rhapsodic Quintet for clarinet and strings (1919, another Carnegie award winner) and In Gloucestershire, reveal both a natural poet in sound and a musician keenly alive to structural problems. The strong melodic impulse is often vocal in feeling, the texture subtly distinctive. Here already are many of the qualities that made him the finest-grained of the Georgians. Howells, by the early 1920s with a string of successes behind him, was a composer of whom much was expected. Two major orchestral commissions, Sine nomine (1922) and the Second Piano Concerto (1925), saw him grappling with the problem of single movement form, but neither work was well received, and the failure of the concerto's première followed by its withdrawal (it was not revived until after the composer's death), brought about a creative crisis. Howells, immersing himself in teaching and adjudicating, produced few substantial works between 1925 and 1935, when personal tragedy unlocked his creativity.
There is in all of Howells's best music an underlying, elegiac sense of transience and loss. He was deeply affected by the human waste of World War I and his Elegy (1917), composed in memory of a close friend killed in the fighting, is an eloquent expression of personal grief. The death from polio of his own nine-year-old son in 1935 affected him at the deepest level, and it is arguable that most of his subsequent works were, to a greater or lesser degree, influenced by it. A cello concerto on which he was working at the time was particularly associated in his mind with the boy's death and, perhaps for this reason, Howells was unable to complete it, though the first and second movements survive as the Fantasia and Threnody for cello and orchestra. It is possible that the slow movement of the final version of In Gloucestershire was also composed in the aftermath of this tragedy. Partly in order to overcome his intense grief, and drawing on an earlier Requiem for unaccompanied voices (1932), Howells composed Hymnus paradisi for soloists, chorus and orchestra, generally accounted his masterpiece. Here, the sense of loss is found to be inseparable from a visionary splendour in a way that suggests a deep affinity with Delius. Largely complete by 1938, it remained a private document until 1950 when Howells, persuaded by Sumsion, Vaughan Williams and Finzi, conducted the first performance at the Three Choirs Festival in Gloucester Cathedral. The work's success led to the composition of other works for similar forces, the Missa Sabrinensis (1954) and Stabat Mater (1963–5), both scores which present amateur choralists with prodigious difficulties. In these works, and in the equally fine Concerto for Strings (1938) whose slow movement is another elegy for Howells's son, there is a rare mastery of soft dissonance, intricately variegated texture and refined sonority. These qualities are evident in other works, including A Maid Peerless for women's chorus, the unaccompanied Take him, earth, for cherishing and The summer is coming, and in the music for the church to which he turned in his later years.
Howells had a lifelong love of cathedral architecture and most of his church music was written for specific buildings, choirs and individuals. In the sacred works, he found the perfect niche for his languid romanticism, a love of choral texture and resonant acoustics, in music of chromatic sensuousness. He created an ecclesiastical style for the 20th century as Stanford had done for the 19th. The essentially reflective, introvert and nostalgic nature of the office of Evensong found echoes in Howells's own persona, and at the heart of his religious music stand 16 settings of the canticles, of which those for King's College, Cambridge (Collegium Regale, 1945), Gloucester (1946) and St Paul's Cathedral (1951) have established firm places in the repertory. There are a number of large-scale anthems, among which The House of the Mind (1954) and A Sequence for St Michael (1961) are outstanding examples.
Among the best of Howells's songs are his settings of verses by de la Mare, a personal friend. They include the cycle Peacock Pie (1919) and the collection A Garland for de la Mare (1919–73). For the poet, King David was the perfect setting. In setting the Georgian poets, his ingrained sense of the transience of beauty saved him from the clichéd style of some of his contemporaries. His distinguished body of organ music includes four rhapsodies, two sets of psalm-preludes and two sonatas, the second (1932) being his largest and most important solo work. The late Partita (1971–2), written in a spare, austere, almost neo-classical idiom, shares characteristics with the contemporaneous Sonatina for piano. In two sets of miniatures, Lambert's Clavichord (1926–7) and Howells' Clavichord (1941–61), and in Master Tallis's Testament (1940) for organ, Howells, who used flippantly to describe himself as a reincarnation of one of the lesser Tudor composers, alludes to the world of the Elizabethan virginalists, but placed in an unmistakenly modern idiom.
Howells's star rose early and seemed to wane in the late 1920s. Although the success of Hymnus paradisi and the late outpouring of church music re-established his reputation – to the postwar generation, he was known for little else – he did not achieve the position at the pinnacle of English music that was predicted for him. However, the posthumous rediscovery of his early instrumental and orchestral music has revealed a composer of range and depth, and at the close of the 20th century his importance was becoming better understood.
Pf Conc. no.1, c, op.4, 1913, unpubd; The B's, suite, op.13, 1914, unpubd; 3 Dances, op.7, vn, orch, 1915; Puck's Minuet, op.20 no.1, 1917; Suite, op.16, str orch, 1917, unpubd; Elegy, op.15, va, str qt, str orch, 1917; Thé dansant, 1919, lost; Merry Eye, op.20 no.2, 1920; Procession, op.36, 1922; Pastoral Rhapsody, 1923, unpubd; Pf Conc. no.2, op.39, 1925, unpubd; Paradise Rondel, op.40, 1925, unpubd; Mother's Here (incid music), 1929, collab. G. Jacob, lost; Penguinski (ballet), 1933, unpubd; Pageantry, suite, brass band, 1934; King's Herald, 1937, unpubd [1st movt of Pageantry, arr. orch]; Fantasia, vc, orch, 1937; Threnody, vc, orch, late 1930s, orch C. Palmer, 1992; Conc. for str, 1938; Folk Tune Set, 1940, unpubd; First Suite, str, 1942; Second Suite, str, 1942, lost; Fanfare for Schools, brass, timp, str, 1943, unpubd; Music for a Prince, 1948, unpubd: Corydon's Dance, Scherzo in Arden; 3 Figures: Tryptych, brass band, 1960; Fanfare to Lead into the National Anthem, brass, perc, org, 1977
3 or more insts: Variations for 11 solo insts, op.3, c1913, lost; Lady Audrey's Suite, op.19, str qt, 1915; Piano Quartet, a, op.21, 1916; Phantasy Str Qt, op.25, 1916–17; In Gloucestershire (str qt no.3), 1916–c1935 [1st version lost, rev. 1920, final version early 1930s]; Rhapsodic Qnt, op.31, cl, str, 1919; The Old Mole, pf qnt, 1937, unpubd [folktune arr.]; Hunsdon House, pf qnt, 1937, unpubd [arr.]
1–2 insts: Sonata, b, vn, pf, 1911, unpubd; Comedy Suite, op.8, cl, pf, c1913, lost; Prelude no.1, hp, 1915, unpubd; 3 Pieces, op.28, vn, pf, 1917: Pastorale, ‘Chosen’ Tune, Luchinushka; Damsons, vn, pf, c1917, unpubd; Sonata no.1, E, op.18, vn, pf, 1917–19; Sonata no.2, E, op.26, vn, pf, 1917, unpubd; Cradle Song, vn, pf, 1918, unpubd; Sonata no.3, e, op.38, vn, pf, 1923; A Country Tune, vn, pf, c1925; A Croon, vn, pf, c1925; Slow Air, vn, pf, c1927; Lambert's Clavichord (3 transcrs), vc, pf, 1929; Sonata, ob, pf, 1942; Minuet (grace for a fresh egg), bn, pf, 1945; Sonata, cl, pf, 1946; A Near Minuet, cl, pf, 1946, 2 Pieces, fl, vn, unpubd: Air, Alla Menuetto; Lento, assai espressivo, vn, pf, unpubd
Org: Sonata, c, op.1, 1911; Phantasy Ground Bass, c1915, lost; 3 Psalm-Preludes set 1, op.32, 1915–16; Rhapsody, op.17 no.1, 1915; Rhapsody, op.17 no.2, 1918; Rhapsody, op.17 no.3, 1918; Sonata (no.2), 1932; 3 Psalm-Preludes set 2, 1938–39; Fugue, Chorale and Epilogue, 1939; Master Tallis's Testament, 1940; Preludio Sine nomine, 1940; Saraband for the Morning of Easter, 1940; Paean, 1940; Intrata (no.2), 1941; Saraband In Modo Elegiaco, 1945; Siciliano for a High Ceremony, 1952; Prelude De profundis, 1958; Rhapsody no.4, 1958; 2 Pieces, 1959: Dalby's Fancy, Dalby's Toccata; A Flourish for a Bidding, 1969; Partita, 1971–2; Epilogue, c1971; St Louis comes to Clifton, 1977; 6 Short Pieces (1987); 2 Slow Airs (1987); Miniatures (1993)
Pf: 4 Romantic Pieces, 1908, unpubd [only no.2 extant]; Marching song, 1909, unpubd; Summer Idylls, 1911, unpubd; Minuet, a, c1915, unpubd; Snapshots, op.30, 1916–18; Phantasie, 1917, unpubd; Sarum Sketches, op.6, 1917; Procession, op.14 no.1, 1918; Phantasy Minuet, op.27, pianola, 1919; Rhapsody, op.14 no.2, 1919; Jackanapes, op.14 no.3, 1919; The Chosen Tune, 1920; Once upon a time …, suite (London, 1920); Gadabout, c1922; A Mersey Tune, 1924; 2 Pieces, 1926: Slow Dance, Cobler's Hornpipe; Country Pageant (London, 1928); A Little Book of Dances (London, 1928); A Sailor Tune (London, 1930); O Mensch bewein dein Sünde gross (arr. Bach: Chorale prelude,bwv 622); Triumph Tune, 1934, arr. 2 pf, 1941, unpubd; Promenade for Boys (London, 1938); Promenade for Girls (London, 1938); Minuet, 1939, unpubd; Polka, 2 pf, c1939; Puck's Minuet, 2 pf, c1941, unpubd [arr. of 2 Pieces for Small Orch, op.20 no.1]; Musica Sine Nomine, 1959; Pavane and Galliard, 1964, unpubd; Et nunc et semper, 1967, unpubd; Petrus Suite, 1967–73, unpubd; H-plus-H gavotte, 1970, unpubd; Sonatina, 1971
clvd: Lambert's Clavichord, op.41, 1926–7; Howells' Clavichord, 1941–61; My Lady Harewood's Pavane, 1949, My Lord Harewood's Galliard, 1949; Finzi: his rest, 1956
Vocal-Orch: When cats run home (A.L. Tennyson), SS, orch [orig. version 1907]; The Lord shall be my help (fugue), 5vv, str, 1914, unpubd; Sir Patrick Spens (trad.), op.23, Bar, SATB, orch, 1917; Sine nomine: a Phantasy, op.37, S, T, SATB, orch, 1922; The Trial of Jesus (J. Masefield), vv, pf, str, 1926, unpubd; In Green Ways, op.43, S, orch/S, pf, 1928: 1. Under the greenwood tree (W. Shakespeare), 2. The goat paths (J. Stephens), 3. Merry Margaret (J. Skelton), 4. Wanderer's night song (J.W.v. Goethe, trans. Howells), 5. On the merry first of May (Parker, Aveling); A Maid Peerless (medieval poem), SSAA, orch, 1931, rev. 1951; A Kent Yeoman's Wooing Song (T. Vautor, T. Ravenscroft), S, Bar, SATB, orch, 1933; Hymnus Paradisi, S, T, SATB, orch, 1938, rev. 1950; Behold O God, Our Defender (Ps lxxxiv), SATB, orch, 1952; The House of the Mind (J. Beaumont), SATB, org, str, 1954; Missa Sabrinensis, S, A, T, B, SATB, orch, 1954; An English Mass, SATB, orch, 1955; Stabat Mater, T, SATB, orch, 1963–65; Michael: A Fanfare Setting, vv, org, orch, 1970, completed C. Palmer, 1992; TeD (Collegium Regale), SATB, orch, 1977 [version of TeD, 1944]
Sacred Choral: Missa Sine Nomine (Mass in the Dorian Mode), SATB, 1912; Even Such is Time (W. Raleigh), SATB, SATB, 1913; Nunc dimittis, SSAATTBB, 1914; 4 Anthems to the Blessed Virgin Mary, op.9, SATB, c1915 [only Regina coeli and Salve Regina extant]; Haec Dies, SSATB, c1918; Here is the little door (F. Chesterton), SATB, 1918; Mag and Nunc, G, SATB, org, c1918; A Spotless Rose (14th-century carol), SATB, 1919; Blessed are the dead, SATB, SATB, 1920; Sing Lullaby (F. Harvey), SATB (London, 1920); Lord, who created man (G. Herbert), 3vv, pf, 1923; My master hath a garden (anon.), SS, pf, 1923; Morning Service, E, unison vv, org, 1924; Evening Service, E, unison vv, org, 1924; TeD, E, unison vv, 1924; Communion Service, E, unison vv, org, 1924; When first thine eies unveil (H. Vaughan), T, SATB, org, 1925; My eyes for beauty pine (R. Bridges), SATB, org, 1925; Requiem, S, A, T, B, SATB, 1932; Mag and Nunc, TTBB, org, 1935; Mag and Nunc, TB, org, 1941; 4 Anthems, SATB, org, 1941: O pray for the peace of Jerusalem, We have heard with our ears, Like as the hart, Let God arise; Great is the Lord, SATB, org, 1941, unpubd; arr.: Sussex Mummers' Carol, vv, str, org, c1942; God is gone up (Ps xxxxvii), SATB, org, 1944; TeD and Jub (Collegium Regale), SATB, org, 1944; Mag and Nunc (Collegium Regale), SATB, org, 1945; Mag and Nunc (Gloucester), SATB, org, 1946; TeD and Bs (Canterbury), SATB, org, 1946; Where Wast thou? (Motet for Canterbury), Bar, SATB, org, 1948; King of Glory (Herbert), SATB, org, 1949; Mag and Nunc (New College, Oxford), SATB, org, c1947; Long, Long ago (J. Buxton), SATB, 1950; Mag and Nunc (Worcester), SATB, org, 1951; Mag and Nunc (St Paul's), SATB, org, 1951; TeD and Bs (St George's Chapel, Windsor), SATB, org (London, 1952); Mag and Nunc, b, SATB, org, c1955; Office of Holy Comm (Collegium Regale), SATB, org, 1956; Mag and Nunc (St Peter in Westminster), SATB, org, 1957; Mag and Nunc (Collegium Sancti Johannis Cantabrigiense), SATB, org, 1957; Missa Aedis Christi, SATB, 1958; Aubade for a wedding (Levavi oculos meos) (Ps cxxi), S, org, 1959, unpubd; A Hymn for St Cecilia (U. Vaughan Williams), SATB, org, 1960; Coventry Antiphon (Bible: Isaiah, Haggai), SATB, org, 1961; A Sequence for St Michael (Alcuin, trans. H. Waddell), SATB, org, 1961; Take him, earth, for cherishing (Prudentius, trans. Waddell), SATB, 1964; God be in my head (Pynson), SATB, 1965, unpubd; TeD (St Mary Redcliffe), SATB, org, c1965; Mag and Nunc (Sarum), SATB, org, 1966; TeD (Columbia University), SATB, org, 1966; Bs es, Domine (Apocrypha), SATB, org, 1967; Jubilate Deo, SATB, org, 1967; Mag and Nunc (Winchester), SATB, org, 1967; Mag and Nunc (Chichester), SATB, org, 1967; Mag and Nunc (St Augustine, Birmingham), SATB, org, 1967; Preces and Responses, SATB, 1967; One thing have I desired (Ps xxvii), SATB, 1968; The Coventry Mass, SATB, org, 1968; Mag and Nunc (Hereford), SATB, org, 1969; Mag and Nunc (Collegium Magdalenae Oxoniense), SATB, org, 1970; Thee will I love (R. Bridges), SATB, org, 1970; A Grace for William Walton (R. Armstrong), SATB, 1972; Now abideth faith, hope and charity (Bible: 1 Corinthians), SATB, org, 1972; Come my soul (J. Newton), SATB, 1972; Mag and Nunc (York), SATB, org, 1973; TeD (West Riding Cathedrals), SATB, org, 1974, unpubd; Exultate Deo (Pss of David), SATB, org, 1974; Mag and Nunc (Dallas Canticles), SATB, org, 1975; The fear of the Lord (Apocrypha: Ecclesiasticus), SATB, org, 1976; Sweetest of sweets (Herbert), SATB, c1976; Antiphon (Herbert), SATB, c1976; I love all beauteous things (R. Bridges), SATB, org, 1977; Hills of the north, rejoice (Oakley), SSS, org, 1977; Tryste noel (L. Guiney), SATB, pf, c1977; I would be true (H. Walter), SATB, org, c1978; O salutaris hostia, SATB (1933); TeD (Washington Cathedral), SATB, org, no date (London, 1991) [completed J. Buttrey]; Remember O thou man (Ravenscroft), SATB; TeD, Bs, Jub and Comm Service, G, SATB, org [inc.]
Hymn Tunes: God of our England: Hymn for the Coronation (O God of Britain hear today), 1911, unpubd; St Briavel's (My God, I thank thee who hast made the earth so bright), c1925; Father of Men: a hymn for Charterhouse, 1930; Michael (All my hope on God is founded), c1930; Severn (My God, I thank thee who hast made the earth so bright), c1931; David (Hills of the north, rejoice), 1937, unpubd; Twigworth (God is love, let Heav'n adore Him), c1937; Love divine, all loves excelling, c1962, unpubd; Newnham (Lord Christ when first Thou cam'st to men), c1962; Salisbury (Holy spirit, ever dwelling), c1962; Sancta civitas (O holy city seen of John), 1962; Erwin (Lord by whose breath), 1966; In manus tuas (This world, my God, is held within your hand), c1968; Norfolk (With wonder, Lord, we see your works), c1968; Kensington (To the name of our salvation), c1970; Jesu dulcis memoria (Jesu, the very thought is sweet), unpubd; Jesu, guide our way, unpubd; Urbs beata (Blessed city, heavenly Salem), unpubd; 9 Anglican double chants
Secular Choral: To the owl (Tennyson), SS, pf, 1909; 5 Partsongs, op.5, male vv, TTBB, pf, c1914: 1. Love's secret (W. Blake), 2. Is the moon tired? (C. Rossetti), 3. Weep you no more (J. Dowland), 4. The winds whistle cold (D. Terry), 5. A Dirge (Shakespeare) [nos. 1 and 2 lost]; The Tinker's song (trad.), SS, pf, c1916; In youth is pleasure (R. Wever), SSATB, 1915; 5 Partsongs, op.11, female vv, SA, pf, 1915–17: 1. The shepherd (Blake), 2. The pilgrim (Blake), 3. A croon (trad.), 4. A sad story (trad.), 5. Come all ye pretty fair maids (trad.); The Skylark (J. Hogg), SS, pf, 1916; An old man's lullaby (T. Dekker), SS, pf, 1917; 3 Songs, op.24, female vv, SS, pf, 1917: 1. Under the greenwood tree (Shakespeare), 2. A north-country song (trad.), 3. A true story (T. Campian); Before me, careless, lying (A. Dobson), SSATB, 1918; A golden lullaby (T. Dekker), SS, pf, c1920; The duel (E. Field), SS, pf (London, 1922); The wonderful Derby ram (trad.), unison vv, pf, 1922; All in this pleasant evening (trad.), unison vv, pf, 1923; Creep afore ye gang (J. Ballantine), SATB, 1923; The Shadows (S. O'Sullivan), SATB, 1923; Spanish lullaby (trad.), unison vv, pf, 1923; Bells (trad.), SS, pf (London, 1924); First in the garden (trad.), SS, pf, 1924; Holly song (trad.), unison vv, pf, 1924; Irish wren song (trad.), SS, pf, 1924; Mother Mother (trad.), unison vv, pf (London, 1924); Robin Hood's song (A. Munday), SS, pf, 1924; Sing ivy (trad.), SS, pf, 1924; Singe lully by, lully (trad.), SS, pf (London, 1924); Swedish May song (trad.), SS, pf, 1924; The days are clear (C. Rossetti), unison vv, pf, c1925; Eight o'clock the postman's knock (C. Rossetti), unison vv, pf, c1925; Mother shake the cherry tree (C. Rossetti), unison vv, pf, c1925; The Saylor's song (trad.), SS, pf, 1927; Tune thy music (Campion), unison vv, pf, 1927; Good counsel (G. Chaucer), unison vv, pf, 1928; Delicates so dainty (trad.), unison vv, pf, 1931; Sweet content (R. Greene), unison vv, pf, 1931; Bunches of grapes (W. de la Mare), unison vv, pf, 1933; To music bent (Campion), SS, pf (London, 1933); Sea Urchins (song set for children, G. Balcomb), SS, pf (London, 1935); A Song of Welcome (F. Harvey), unison vv, pf, 1935; Piping down the valleys wild (Blake), SS, pf, 1938; The History of an Afternoon (Howells), round for 3vv, 1939; A New Year Carol (trad.), SS, pf, 1939; Shadow March (R.L. Stevenson), SS, pf, 1939; The Key of the Kingdom (de la Mare), SS, pf (London, 1948); Walking in the Snow (Buxton), SATB, 1950; Inheritance (de la Mare), SSAATTBB, 1953; Four Horses (trad.), unison vv, pf (London, 1954); The Scribe (de la Mare), SATB, 1957; I mun be married a Sunday (N. Udall), unison vv, pf, 1957, unpubd; New Brooms (A. Wilson), unison vv, pf, 1957, unpubd; Pink Almond (K. Tynan), SS, pf, 1957; A Christmas Carol (G. Wither), unison vv, pf (London, 1958); The summer is coming (B. Guinness), SATB, 1964; The Poet's Song (Tennyson), SS, pf, unpubd
Songs (for solo voice and piano unless otherwise stated): My Shadow (Stevenson), 1909, unpubd; Longing (Mcleod), c1911, unpubd; 5 Songs, low v, 1911, unpubd: 1. The twilight people (O'Sullivan), 2. The devotee (Gore-Booth), 3. The waves of Breffny (O'Sullivan), 4. The Sorrow of Love (Keohler), 5. The Call (Roberts); 5 Songs, op.7 (Mcleod), 1913, unpubd; The evening darkens over (Bridges), 1913, unpubd; 3 Rondeaux, op.12, 1915: 1. Roses (C. Tarelli), 2. A rondel of rest (A. Symons), 3. Her scuttle hat (F. Sherman); There was a maiden (W.L. Courtney), 1915; The Widow Bird (P.B. Shelley), 1915; A Madrigal (Dobson), 1916; Girl's Song (W. Gibson), 1916; By the waters of Babylon (Ps cxxxvii), Bar, vn, vc, org, 1917, unpubd; Here she lies a pretty bud (Herrick), 1917; Upon a summer's day (M. Baring), 1917, unpubd; arr.: 4 French chansons (trad.), op.29, 1918–19: 1. Sainte Catherine, 2. Le Marquis de Maine, 3. Le petit coutourier, 4. Angèle au couvent; Mally O! (trad.) (London, 1918); Old Skinflint (Gibson), 1918; The Restful Branches (W. Byrne), 1918; By the Hearth-Stone (H. Newbolt), 1919; Gavotte (Newbolt), 1919; King David (de la Mare), 1919; The Mugger's Song (Gibson), 1919; Peacock Pie (de la Mare), 1919: 1. Tired Tim, 2. Alas alack, 3. Mrs MacQueen, 4. The dunce, 5. Full moon, 6. Miss T; A Garland for de la Mare (de la Mare), 1919–73: 1. Wanderers, 2. The Lady Caroline, 3. Before dawn, 4. The old stone house, 5. The three cherry trees, 6. The old soldier, 7. The song of the secret, 8. Some one, 9. A queer story, 10. Andy Battle, 11. The old house; Goddess of night (Harvey), 1920; O garlands, hanging by the door (Strettell), 1920, unpubd; The little boy lost (Blake) (London, 1920); O my deir hert (trad.), 1920; Blaweary (Gibson), 1921; Old Meg (Gibson), 1923; Come sing and dance (trad.), 1927; 2 Afrikaans songs (Celliers), 1929, unpubd: 1. Vrijheidsgees, 2. Eensamheid; arr.: 3 Folksongs, 1931: 1. I will give my love an apple, 2. The brisk young widow, 3. Cendrillon; Flood (J. Joyce), 1933; Lost Love Song (Chin., trans. C. Bax) (London, 1934); Lethe (Doolittle), 1936, unpubd; Sweet Content (R. Greene), unpubd
MSS in GB-Lcm (principal collection), Cjc, Ckc, Lam, Lbbc, Lwa, Ob, Y
Principal publishers: Boosey & Hawkes, Curwen, Novello, OUP, Stainer & Bell, Thames
‘Essay on a Summer Holiday’, R.C.M. Magazine, x (1913), 29–31; repr. in R.C.M. Magazine, lxxiv (1978), 32–3
‘Musical Education’, Athenaeum (Oct 1916), 490–91
‘Younger British Composers’, Athenaeum (Nov 1916), 560–62
‘Words for Musical Settings’, Athenaeum (Dec 1916), 614–15
‘The Funeral of Sir Hubert Parry’, R.C.M. Magazine, xv (1918), 27–9
‘Vaughan Williams’ Pastoral Symphony’, ML, iii (1922), 122–32
‘The Elizabethans: a Significant Revival’, Daily Telegraph (19 Aug 1922)
‘Hubert Parry: Mr Charles Graves' Biography’, R.C.M. Magazine, xxii (1926), 37–43
‘The Late Sir Herbert Brewer’, R.C.M. Magazine, xxiii (1927), 48–9
‘Vaughan Williams’ Concerto Accademico’, Dominant, i/5 (1927–8), 24–8
‘Arthur Benjamin’, Cobbett's Cyclopaedic Survey of Chamber Music, ed. W.W. Cobbetti (London, 1929, enlarged 2/1963) 117
‘Music and the Ordinary Listener: the Modern Problem’ , From Parry to Britten: British Music in Letters 1900–1945, ed. L. Foreman (London, 1987), 195–7
‘Brewer, Sir Alfred Herbert’, DNB, 1922–30 (London, 1937)
‘Ivor Gurney, the Musician’, ML, xix (1938), 13–17
‘Beethoven and his Time’, Rural Music, iii (1939), 29–31
‘Frank Bridge’, ML, xxii (1941), 208–15
‘Percy Carter Buck’, R.C.M. Magazine, xliv (1948), 9–13; repr. in R.C.M. Magazine, lxvii (1971), 94–8
‘A Note on Alan Rawsthorne’, ML, xxxii (1951), 19–28
‘On being British and Musical’, Music Journal [incorporated Society of Musicians], xviii/1 (1952), 3–13
‘Competitive Music Festivals’, Journal of Education, lxxxiv (1952), 114–18
‘Charles Villiers Stanford (1852–1924): an Address at his Centenary’, PRMA, lxxix (1952–3), 283–96
‘Ralph Vaughan Williams’, The Score, no.7 (1952), 55–7
‘Hubert James Foss 1899–1953’, ML, xxxiv (1953), 319–23
‘For Albert Sammons’, MO, lxxxi (1957–8), 171–3
‘Edward Elgar, OM Centenary 1857–1957’, American Guild of Organists Quarterly, ii (1957), 135–7, 156
‘Distribution of Diplomas, January 1959’, Calendar of the Royal College of Organists (1959–60), 27–30
‘Charles Wood’, English Church Music (1966), 59–60
‘Hubert Parry’, ML, l (1969), 223–9
‘Sir William Harris (he being Ninety, 28 March 1973)’, English Church Music (1973), 8–10
‘Charles Villiers Stanford: Fifty Years After’, English Church Music (1974), 5–6
‘Memories from the Twentieth Century’, Two Hundred and Fifty Years of the Three Choirs Festival of Gloucester, Hereford and Worcester, ed. B. Still (Gloucester, 1977), 20–24; repr. in Organists Review, lxxviii (1992), 33–5
DNB (T. Armstrong)
Grove5 (E. Blom)
Grove6 (H. Ottaway)
MGG1 (A. Hutchings)
E. Evans: ‘Herbert Howells’, MT, lxi (1920), 87–91, 156–9
S. Grew: ‘The Folksong Spirit in English Music’, Musical Herald, no.862 (1920), 21–2
M.M. Scott: ‘Herbert Howells’, Music Bulletin, vi (1924), 140–44
J. Holbrooke: Contemporary British Composers (London, 1925), 207–14
H.J. Foss: ‘Herbert Howells: a Brief Survey of his Music’, MT, lxxi (1930), 113–16
M. Cooper: ‘The Three Choirs Festival’, MT, xci (1950), 398 only
R. Jacques: ‘Howells' “Hymnus Paradisi”’, ML, xxxiii (1952), 193–7
M. Cooper: ‘A New Work by Herbert Howells’, MT, xciv (1953), 405–8
G. Finzi: ‘Herbert Howells’, MT, xcv (1954), 180–83
S. Goddard: ‘Howells' Missa Sabrinensis’, MT, xcv (1954), 472–4
F. Howes: ‘A Distinguished Composer for the Anglican Liturgy: Church Music of Herbert Howells’,The Times (25 May 1956)
M. Mather: ‘Herbert Howells: a Force in Modern Composition’, The Canon, x (1957–8), 395–6
H. Ottaway: ‘Herbert Howells and the English Revival’, MT, cviii (1967), 897–9
F. Howes: ‘Herbert Howells and the Anglican Tradition’, English Church Music (1969), 19–23
C. Palmer: ‘Herbert Howells at 80: a Retrospect’, MT, cxiii (1972), 967–70
C. Palmer: ‘The Organ Music of Herbert Howells’, Organists Review, lvii (1972), 10, 12–15
R. Spearing: H.H.: a Tribute to Herbert Howells on his Eightieth Birthday (London, 1972)
L. Palmer: ‘Herbert Howells' Lambert's Clavichord’, The Diapason, lxvi (1974–5), 7–8
C. Palmer: Herbert Howells: a Study (Sevenoaks, 1978/R)
P.O. Hughes: The Post-1940 Canticle Settings of Herbert Howells (diss., U. of Wales, Aberystwyth, 1983)
L. Pike: ‘Tallis–Vaughan Williams–Howells: Reflections on Mode Three’, Tempo, no.149 (1984), 2–13
S. Banfield: Sensibility and English Song (Cambridge, 1985)
R. Wells: ‘Howells' Unpublished Organ Works’, MT, cxxviii (1987), 455–9
L. Foreman: From Parry to Britten: British Music in Letters 1900–1945 (London, 1987)
R.K.R. Thornton, ed.: Ivor Gurney: Collected Letters (Ashington and Manchester, 1991)
Herbert Howells: the Music Manuscripts in the Royal College of Music Library (London, 1992)
P. Andrews: ‘A Howells Discovery in Lancaster’, Brio, xxxii (1992), 83–5
R. Drakeford: ‘Herbert Howells: Some Personal Reminiscences’, MT, cxxxiii (1992), 501–3
R. Dyson and others: ‘Herbert Howells Remembered’, R.C.M. Magazine, lxxxix (1992), 6–18
R.W. Lehman: ‘The Choral Idiom of Herbert Howells’, Choral Journal, xxxiii/3 (1992–3), 11–18
C. Palmer: Herbert Howells: a Centenary Celebration (London, 1992/R)
P. Russill: ‘Herbert Howells and Westminster Cathedral 1912–1918’, Organists Review, lxxviii (1992), 203–7
P. Russill: ‘The Evening Canticles of Herbert Howells 1947–1975: a Personal Survey’,The Organist, iii/1 (1992) [unpaginated]
R. Clark: ‘The Organ Music of Herbert Howells: some General Considerations’, R.C.O. Journal, ii (1994), 43–57
H. van der Mescht: ‘In Search of the Origins of Herbert Howells' Two Afrikaans Songs’, South African Journal of Musicology, xiv (1994), 65–70
P. Andrews: ‘A Matter of National Importance: Herbert Howells and the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust’, Organists Review, lxxxi (1995), 32–5
A. Ridout: A Composer's Life (London, 1995), 51–63
P. Spicer: Herbert Howells (Bridgend, 1998)
P. Andrews: Herbert Howells: a Documentary and Bibliographical Study (diss., U. of Wales, Aberystwyth, 1999) [incl. further bibliography]