Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm

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Howard, Leslie

(b Melbourne, 29 April 1948). Australian pianist and composer. He studied with June McLean, Donald Britton and Michael Brimer in Melbourne, and made his début with the Melbourne SO in 1967. He taught at Monash University (1970–73) and in 1972 settled in London, where he studied composition with Franco Donatoni and piano with Noretta Conci; he also participated in Guido Agosti’s piano masterclasses in Siena. From 1987 to 1992 he taught at the GSM, London. Howard has performed throughout Europe and Australia, and is an acknowledged exponent of Liszt. In 1985 he began recording Liszt’s complete solo works and transcriptions, and a year later performed Liszt’s complete original works in a series of concerts to mark the composer’s centenary. He has been awarded the Ferenc Liszt Medal of Honour (1986 and 1989) and the Liszt Grand Prix du Disque (Budapest); in 1989 he became president of the Liszt Society in London. His extensive discography also includes the complete piano music of Grainger and Rachmaninoff, as well as virtuoso works such as the Rubinstein sonatas. Howard has composed several works, among them two operas, Hreidar the Fool and Prague Spring, chamber works and a sonata for piano, and has contributed several articles to the Liszt Society Journal.


Howard, Samuel

(b 1710; d London, 13 July 1782). English composer and organist. As a boy he was a pupil of Croft in the Chapel Royal and had lessons from Pepusch. He sang tenor in the chorus for Handel from 1732 (a revival of Esther) until 1735 (Alcina), but later became an organist, holding appointments at both St Clement Danes and St Bride’s. Apparently he did not write much church music. Three short anthems survive and a few hymn tunes were printed, including ‘St Bride’. This is the day the Lord hath made, a splendid anthem for soloists, chorus and full orchestra was published posthumously in full score; as the title-page states that it was performed ‘in the two universities’, it was probably the exercise he composed in 1769 for his MusD degree at Cambridge. The style is Handelian, and the opening chorus, largely fugal, is remarkably vigorous. Howard helped Boyce prepare the three-volume anthology of English cathedral music (1760–73).

Most of Howard’s published music is secular, and his early theatre music is so good that his later mediocrity is puzzling. The music for Robin Goodfellow, a pantomime, is lost, except for one song and three ‘comic tunes’ (music for miming), published with those in Lampe’s Orpheus and Euridice. However, much of Howard’s music for another pantomime, The Amorous Goddess (1744), appeared in vocal score, including a charming song in gavotte rhythm and an outstanding overture. The latter, almost alone among English overtures of the period, was published in parts, and republished 20 years later in Walsh’s set of Medley Overtures (though not in medley form). The powerful fugue owes something to the one in Handel’s Concerto grosso op.3 no.4, and the attractive musette and minuet were so popular that they were soon arranged as songs. About 1785 Harrison & Co. published a new vocal score of The Amorous Goddess, though it had never been revived; presumably the music was still in demand.

Apart from one new song for Arne’s pastiche Love in a Village (1762) and two songs for Richard Cumberland’s The Summer’s Tale (1765), Howard never again wrote for the playhouses. He continued to compose single songs for Vauxhall Gardens, but their merit declined as he grew older. ‘This honest Englishman’, wrote Burney, ‘preferred the style of his own country to that of any other so much, that he never staggered his belief of its being the best in the world, by listening to foreign artists or their productions.’ Howard was clearly unable to switch from the Handelian style in which he excelled to the galant style of Galuppi and Piccinni so admired in London in the 1750s and 60s.

Howard had admirable personal qualities, ‘being ever ready to relieve distress, to anticipate the demands of friendship, and to prevent the necessities of his acquaintance’ (SainsburyD). He was one of the founder-members of the Society of Musicians.


(selective list)

Robin Goodfellow (pantomime), London, Drury Lane, 30 Oct 1738

The Amorous Goddess (pantomime), London, Drury Lane, 1 Feb 1744 (London, 1744)

A Cantata and English Songs (London, 1745)

This is the day which the Lord hath made (anthem), c1769 (London, 1792; parts, GB-Lcm)

Blessed is the man, Let my complaint, Wherewithal shall a young man (anthems), GB-Ob

Numerous single songs, some rounds, hymn tunes, chants


Howarth, Elgar

(b Cannock, Staffs., 4 Nov 1935). English conductor. He studied at Manchester University and the RMCM and began his career as a trumpeter in the Royal Opera House and other London orchestras, while also composing works for brass. An unplanned conducting début with the London Sinfonietta in Italy and further concert work led to his engagement by Ligeti to conduct Le Grand Macabre at its première at the Stockholm Royal Opera (1978); he then conducted the same work in Hamburg and Paris and in the ENO production (1982). He made his Covent Garden début with King Priam (1985), and was principal guest conductor for Opera North, 1985–8, where he also conducted the first British professional production of Nielsen’s Maskarade (1990). A close association with Harrison Birtwistle led to his conducting the premières of The Mask of Orpheus (1986) for the ENO, Gawain (1991) for the Royal Opera and The Second Mrs Kong (1994) for Glyndebourne Touring Opera. In 1996 he was much praised for his conducting of the first British production of Bernd Alois Zimmermann’s Die Soldaten for the ENO. Howarth has recorded Le Grand Macabre and Gawain, together with orchestral works by Ligeti, Copland, Birtwistle and Keuris. His conducting is marked by powerful concentration, dramatic excitement, and clarity and precision in often complex scores. Howarth’s own compositions (some written under the anagrammatical pseudonym W. Hogarth Lear) include concertos for trumpet and trombone, various instrumental pieces and works for brass band, notably a widely performed arrangement of Musorgsky’s Pictures at an Exhibition.


T. Higgins: ‘A Brassy Conductor’, Classical Music (14 April 1990), 37 only


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