Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm



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Hovhaness [Hovaness], Alan [Chakmakjian, Alan Hovhaness]


(b Somerville, MA, 8 March 1911; d Seattle, 21 June 2000). American composer of Armenian and Scottish descent. He began composing in early childhood and took a youthful interest in meditation and mysticism. In the early 1930s he studied with Converse at the New England Conservatory and was exposed to the music of India, then little known in the West, through musicians in the Boston area. His early, ‘first-period’ works show little of this influence but reflect that of Renaissance music, and, especially in works composed before 1936, employ a harmonic language reminiscent of late Romanticism. In 1943 Hovhaness rethought his style, influenced by his meditative activities and the disappointments he had experienced that summer at the Berkshire Music Center, where his music was criticized by Bernstein and Copland. He destroyed or suppressed many works and studied Armenian music – especially the works of the priest-composer Komitas Vardapet – which he had until then neglected. The music of this second period is more active rhythmically and contrapuntally, but it is significant that the stylistic attitude and the harmonic and melodic vocabulary remain more or less the same. Hovhaness attained a considerable reputation in the 1950s, a decade during which he travelled widely and embarked on a third stylistic period. This combined elements of the first two periods as well as various experimental and non-Western procedures. These international tendencies continued into a fourth period, beginning about 1960, in which East Asian elements, particularly Japanese and Korean, predominate. The fifth period, beginning about 1971, was marked by a return to Western influences; the works are particularly rich in scoring and chordal sonority, longer in duration than their predecessors, and generally more spacious and less active.

Although most of Hovhaness’s major compositions are instrumental, almost every work is religious in nature. This does not, however, inhibit stylistic and psychological variety; tranquility, fear, ecstasy, mystery and epic chaos find expression by means of divergent and ever-changing techniques. Hovhaness’s melodies are clear, often largely conjunct, and generally confined to the notes of a particular mode. The modes range from diatonic scales to exotic rāgas; the use of the rāga increased in the later periods. Wind Drum (1962), for voices and small orchestra, uses one six-note mode for the entire 35-minute work. His harmonies are often quite consonant, but progress modally or chromatically rather than tonally. In the works of his second and fourth periods long sections may be completely static chordally. Hovhaness also uses strong dissonances formed by adding semitone-removed pitches to a consonant chord. This collapses the functions of nonharmonic tones and of resolutions into one chord. A surprising harmonic fingerprint, found in the very early and very late works, but entirely absent from 1940 to 1970, is the traditional half-diminished chord (a diminished triad with an added minor 7th) elevated in some fifth-period works to a predominant role. In this Hovhaness acknowledged the influences of Wagner’s operas and the idiom of music for the shō, a Japanese mouth organ.

Hovhaness rarely used standard formal and motivic procedures, but he made frequent and rigorous use of counterpoint throughout his life. For example, the first period has many richly beautiful modal fugues (as in the Missa brevis), the second abounds in vigorous polymodal canons (‘St Vartan’ Symphony), and the fourth features slow dissonant canons at the unison (The Holy City). Rhythmic organization is equally strict, often including complex repeated metric patterns related to both Indian tāla and Western isorhythm. A variant of this procedure, which Hovhaness devised in 1944, assigns different short patterns, with pitches and rhythm specified, to several parts, with instructions that players perform the passages repeatedly at their own speed without coordination with the rest of the ensemble. The resultant blur is hardly aleatory, since exact pitches are carefully controlled and any two performances will be substantially the same. Hovhaness uses these sections, which he calls ‘rhythmless’, in many ways, ranging from gentle murmuring accompaniments (in such works of the second period as Lousadzak, 1944) to cataclysmic orchestral crescendos (as in Fra Angelico, 1967, of the fourth).

Despite his high mystical intentions, Hovhaness wrote quickly and produced many works of Gebrauchsmusik (Symphony for Metal Orchestra, for flutes, trombones, and percussion, 1963, was written for a metallurgical society’s convention). He sometimes reworked material for new works, a practice consistent with that of his favourite Western composers, those of the Baroque, especially Handel and Bach, and Renaissance. He was also concerned to make his works easily playable. Just as Hovhaness tended to avoid Classical and Romantic forms, he normally rejected traditional Western orchestration. Many works, particularly of the second period, use small orchestras, and keep instruments and instrumental groups clearly distinct. In later works requiring larger forces he tended to cultivate polyrhythmic or polymodal techniques so that tuttis, when they do occur, are accumulations of differentiated colours rather than homogeneous aggregates. There are exceptions in the third period, particularly in the symphonies of the 1950s, where Romantic tuttis can be found.

Among the most prolific composers of the 20th century, his surviving corpus of works numbers well over 400, despite his destruction of dozens of works. Age did not impede his productivity; in fact the years after his 60th birthday were the most productive of all, yielding over 30 symphonies. In 1977 he became a member of the Institute of the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters.

Hovhaness composed extensively for full orchestra, chamber orchestra and band. A capable pianist, he wrote many piano works and songs with piano accompaniment. His chamber works often use instruments of diverse types, occasionally including oriental instruments. The short chamber operas are suggestive of mystery plays and drama. Of his many choral works, the psalm settings have gained a permanent place in the repertory of many church choirs.



WORKS

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ARNOLD ROSNER



Hovhaness, Alan

WORKS


stage

symphonies

other orchestral works

accompanied choral

unaccompanied choral

solo vocal

chamber and solo instrumental

piano

Hovhaness, Alan: Works

stage


Ops (libs by Hovhaness unless otherwise stated): Etchmiadzin, op.62, 1946; Afton Water (operetta, after W. Saroyan), 1951; Blue Flame (chbr op), op.172, 1959; The Burning House (chbr op, 1), op.185, 1960; Spirit of the Avalanche (chbr op, 1), op.197, 1962; Pilate (chbr op, 1), op.196, 1963; Travellers (chbr op), op.215, 1965; The Leper King (music-drama), op.219, 1965; Lady of Light (op-orat), op.227, 1969; Pericles (after W. Shakespeare), op.283, 1975; Tale of the Sun Goddess Going into the Stone House, op.323, 1978; The Frog Man (chbr op, M. Hamma), op.407, 1987

Ballets: Ardent Song (choreog. M. Graham), 1954; A Rose for Miss Emily, op.229/2, 1969; Dream of a Myth, op.257, 1973; Plains Daybreak (E. Hawkins), 1977; Killer of Enemies (Hawkins), op.383, 1983; God, the Reveller (Hawkins), op.408, 1987

Hovhaness, Alan: Works

symphonies


no.1 ‘Exile’, op.17, 1937; no.2 ‘Mysterious Mountain’, op.132, 1955; no.3, op.148, 1956; no.4, op.165, wind, 1958; no.5, op.170, 1953, rev. 1963; no.6 ‘Celestial Gate’, op.173, chbr orch, 1959, rev. 1960; no.7 ‘Nanga Parvat’, op.175, wind, 1959; no.8 ‘Arjuna’, pf, chbr orch, 1947; no.9 ‘St Vartan’, op.80 (op.180), chbr orch, 1950; no.10, chbr orch, op.184, 1944, rev. 1965; no.11 ‘All Men are Brothers’, op.186, 1960, rev. 1969; no.12, op.188, SATB, orch, 1960; no.13, op.190, 1954, rev. 1960

no.14 ‘Ararat’, op.194, wind, 1961; no.15 ‘Silver Pilgrimage’, op.199, 1962; no.16, kayagǔm, op.202, Korean perc, str, 1962; no.17 (Sym. for Metal Orch), op.203, 6 fl, 3 trbn, perc, 1963; no.18 ‘Circe’, op.204a, 1963; no.19 ‘Vishnu’, op.217, 1966; no.20 ‘Three Journeys to a Holy Mountain’, op.223, band, 1968; no.21 ‘Etchmiadzin’, op.234, 2 tpt, str, 1970; no.22 ‘City of Light’, op.236, 1971; no.23 ‘Ani’, op.249, band, 1972; no.24 ‘Majnun’, T, SATB, op.273, tpt, str, 1973; no.25 ‘Odysseus’, op.275, small orch, 1973

no.26 ‘Consolation’, op.280, str, 1975; no.27, op.285, 1976; no.28, op.286, 1976; no.29, op.289, 1976; no.30, op.293, small orch, 1976; no.31, op.294, 1976; no.32 ‘The Broken Wings’, op.296, 1977; no.33, op.307, 1977; no.34, op.310, 1977; no.35, op.311, with Korean orch, 1978; no.36, op.312, fl, orch, 1978; no.37, op.313, 1978; no.38, op.314, S, small orch, 1978; no.39, op.321, gui, orch, 1978; no.40, op.324, 1979; no.41, op.330, 1979; no.42, op.332, 1979; no.43, op.334, ob, tpt, timp, 1979; no.44, op.339, 1980; no.45, op.342, 2 pf, large orch, 1979

no.46 ‘To the Green Mountains’, 1980–81; no.47 ‘Walla-Walla, Land of Many Waters’, 1981; no.48 ‘Vision of Andromeda’, op.355, 1982; no.49 ‘Christmas Sym.’, op.356, str, 1981; no.50, ‘Mount St. Helens’, op.360, 1982; no.51, op.364, tpt, str, 1982; no.52 ‘Journey to Vega’, op.372, 1982; no.53, op.378, 1982; no.54, op.379, 1982; no.55, op.380, 1982; no.57 ‘Cold Mountain’, op.381, T/S, cl, str, 1983; no.58 ‘Sym. Sacra’, op.389, S, Bar, SATB, fl, hn, tpt, timp, chimes, hp, str, 1985; no.59, op.395, str, hp, timp, 4 perc, 1985; no.60 ‘To the Appalachian Mountains’, op.396, str, hp, timp, 4 perc, 1985; no.61, op.397, str, hp, timp, 4 perc, 1986; no.62 ‘Oh Let Man not Forget these Words Divine’, op.402, Bar, tpt, str, 1988; no.64 ‘Agiochook’, op.422, tpt, str; no.65, op.427, str, hp, timp, 4 perc, 1991; no.66, op.428, str, hp, timp, 3 perc, 1992; no.67, op.429, str, hp, timp, 3 perc, 1992

Hovhaness, Alan: Works

other orchestral works


Full orch: Monadnock, op.2, 1935, rev. 1936; Boreas and Mount Wildcat, op.2a, 1931, rev. 1936; Variations and Fugue, op.18, 1964; Suite no.1, op.26, 1937; Hymn to Shasta, op.31, 1938; Conc. no.1 ‘Arevakal’, op.88, 1951; Island Sunrise, op.107, 1965; Conc. no.7, op.116, 1953; Conc. no.8, op.117, 1957; Vision from High Rock, op.123, 1954; Prelude and Quadruple Fugue, op.128, 1936, rev. 1954; 3 Greek Folk Dances, op.150/2; Meditation on Orpheus, op.155, 1957; Mountain of Prophecy, op.195, 1961; Meditation on Zeami, op.207, 1964; Floating World ‘Ukiyo’, op.209, 1964; Ode to the Temple of Sound, op.216, 1966; The Holy City, op.218, 1965; Fra Angelico, op.220, 1967; Shambala, conc., op.228, vn, sitar, orch; And God Created Great Whales, op.229/1, taped whale sounds, orch, 1970; Ov. to Pericles, op.261, 1973; Ode to the Cascade Mountains, op.279, 1974; Ode to Freedom, op.284, vn, orch; Rubaiyat, op.308, spkr, accdn, orch; 2 gui concs., op.325, op.330, 1979; Copernicus, op.338, 1980; Greek Rhapsody no.2, op.341, 1980; Gui Conc. no.2, op.394, 1985

Chbr orch: Tzaikerk, op.53, 1945; Anahid, op.57, 1945; Vosdan, 1945, rev. 1948; Is There Survival? (King Vahaken), op.59, 1949; Kohar, op.66, 1946; Agori, 1946, version for 2 chbr orch, 1950; Sosi (The Forest of Prophetic Sound), op.75, 1948; Zartik Parkim, op.77, pf, chbr orch, 1949; Janabar, op.81, 1950; Harmonica Conc., op.114, 1952; Accdn Conc., op.174, 1959; Fantasy on Jap. Woodprints, op.211, with xyl, 1965; Ob Conc., op.430, 1992; Vn Conc., op.431, 1993

Str orch: Conc., op.27 (op.17/2), vc, str, 1937; Psalm and Fugue, op.40a, 1941; Alleluia and Fugue, op.40b, 1941; Celestial Fantasy, op.44, 1944; 3 Armenian rhapsodies, opp.45, 51, 189, 1944; Lousadzak, op.48, pf, str, 1944; Khrimian Hairig, op.49, tpt, str, 1944; Elibris, op.50, fl, str, 1944; Prayer of St. Gregory, op.62b, tpt, str, 1946; Haroutiun, op.71, tpt, str, 1948; Artik, op.78, hn, str, 1949; Conc. no.2, op.89a, vn, str, 1951; Talin, op.93, va, str, 1952; Diran, op.94, bar hn/trbn, str, 1949; Partita, op.98, pf, str, 1953; Conc. no.4, op.98b, 1953; Conc. no.5, 1953; Conc. no.6, 1953; In Memory of an Artist, op.163, 1958; Vibration Painting, op.226, 13 str; Hp Conc., op.267, 1973; Dawn at Mount Tahoma, op.272, 1973; Conc., op.344, sax, str; Conc. no.9, op.412, pf, str, 1954; Conc. no.10, op.413, pf, str, 1988

Wind ens: Tapor no.1, op.14, band, 1949; Suite, op.15, band, 1949; 3 Improvisations of Folk Tunes, band, 1951; Hymn to Yerevan, op.83, wind orch, 1969; Khaldis, op.91, pf, 4 tpt, perc, 1951; Tower Music, op.129, large wind ens, 1954; Return and Rebuild the Desolate Places, op.213, tpt, wind orch, 1944, rev. 1965; Requiem and Resurrection, op.244, brass, perc, 1968; Ode to Mount Hood, op.370, band; Star Dawn, op.377, band

Hovhaness, Alan: Works

accompanied choral


Missa brevis, op.4, SATB, org, str, 1935; Easter Anthem, op.18, S, SATB, org, 1937; O Lord our Lord, op.23, B, SATB, org, 1937; Why hast thou forsaken me?, op.24, S, SATB, org, 1937; The Voice of the Lord, op.25, T, SATB, org, 1937; O Lord rebuke me not, op.28, SATB, org; Christmas Song (Watchman, tell us of the night), op.34, B, SATB, org/small orch, 1927, rev. 1962; The Lord’s Prayer, op.35, SATB, org, 1958; Protest and Prayer, op.41, T, TTBB, pf, 1941, rev. 1968; I will rejoice in the Lord, op.42, SATB, org; Jesus, lover of my soul, op.53, 1v, SATB, org; 30th Ode of Solomon, op.76, Bar, SATB, small orch, 1948; I have seen the Lord, op.80, SATB, tpt, org, 1963

I will lift up mine eyes, op.93, SATB, org, 1969; Ave Maria, op.100/1a, SSAA, 2 ob, 2 hn, hp, 1952; The Beatitudes, op.100/2, SATB, small orch, 1955; Easter Cant., op.100/3, S, SATB, small orch, 1953; Make a Joyful Noise, op.105, SATB, brass, org, 1967; Glory to God, op.124, S, A, SATB, brass, perc, 1954; The Stars, op.126, S, SATB, small orch, 1954; Immortality, op.134, S, SATB, org, 1960

O God our help in ages past, op.137, SATB, org, 1963; The God of Glory Thundereth, op.140, T, SATB, org, 1935, rev. 1960; Anabasis, op.141, nar, S, B, SATB, org, 1953; Out of the Depths, op.142/3a, 1v, SATB, org, 1938, rev. 1960; Ad lyram, op.143, solo vv, SSAATTBB, orch, 1955; To the God who is in the fire, op.146, T, TTBB, perc, 1956, rev. 1965; Mag, op.157, solo vv, SATB, orch, 1958; Look toward the sea, op.158, Bar, SATB, trbn, org, 1957; Alleluia, op.158/11, SATB, org/pf, 1935, rev. 1957

Ps cxlviii, op.160, B, SATB, org, 1958; O for a shout of sacred joy, op.161, SATB, org, 1958; Ps xxviii, op.162, SATB, org, 1958; Glory to Man, op.167, SAB, org, 1958; From the end of the Earth, op.177, SATB, org, 1952; Fuji, op.182, female vv, small orch, 1960; Wind Drum, op.183, unison vv, small orch, 1962; In the beginning was the word, op.206, solo vv, SATB, orch, 1963; Adoration, op.221, (S, A, female vv)/(T, B, male vv), orch; Praise the Lord with psaltry, op.222, SATB, orch, 1968; The Hermit Bell-Ringer of the Tower, op.256, male vv, fl, chimes, 1972

The Way of Jesus, folk mass, op.278, SATB, unison vv, 3 gui, orch, 1974; A Simple Mass, op.282, solo vv, chorus, org, 1975; Songs, op.315, 1978; On Christmas Eve a child cried out, op.337, chorus, fl, hp, 1979; Revelations of St Paul, orat, op.343, S, T, Bar, SATB, 1981; God is our refuge and strength, op.359, SATB, orch, 1981; The waves unbuild the wasting shores, op.376, T, SATB, org; CanD, op.385, SATB, org; Bless the Lord (cant.), op.401, T, SATB, org, 1986; The Aim was Song, op.410, double chorus (SAB/SATB), 2 fl, pf, 1987; Out of Silence (cant.), op.418, SATB, tpt, str, 1989; Pastime with Good Company, op.432/1, SATB, fl, drum, timp; The Baby’s Dance, op.432/2, SATB, fl, hp; How Lovely are Thy Dwellings, op.433, SATB, gui: see symphonies [no.58 ‘Sym. Sacra’, op.389]

Hovhaness, Alan: Works

unaccompanied choral

for SATB unless otherwise stated


Hear my prayer, O Lord, op.16, 1935; Behold, God is my help, op.26, 1940, rev. SATB, org/pf, 1967; O Lord God of Hosts, op.27, 1940, rev. SATB, org/pf, opt. brass, 1967; To the blessed there is joy, op.32, S, female vv, 1937; Let us love one another, op.46, T/Bar, SATB, 1941, rev. 1968; Sing aloud, op.68, 1951; Transfiguration, op.82, T, SATB, 1950; And as they came down from the mountain, op.82/13–16, T, SATB

Make haste, op.86, 1951; 4 Motets, op.87, 1951; The Brightness of our Noon, op.131, 1954; Hear my prayer, O Lord, op.149, SSATBB, 1935, rev. 1960; 4 Motets, op.246, 1971, rev. 1972; For the waters are come, male vv, op.257, 1973; 3 Madrigals, op.258, 1972; 3 Motets, op.259, 1972; 4 Motets, op.268, 1973; 3 Motets, op.269, 1973; Teach me thy Way, op.320, female vv, 1978

Hovhaness, Alan: Works

solo vocal


With orch: Angelic Song (anon.), op.19, S, hn, str, 1948; Avak the Healer, op.64, S, tpt, str, 1945, rev. 1946; As on the night (Christmas Ode), op.100/1b, S, cel, str, 1952; Canticle (Hovhaness), op.115, S, small orch, 1953; Shepherd of Israel, op.192, 1v, orch, 1951; Adoration, op.221, 1v, orch, 1978 [version of acc. choral work, op.221]; Lalezar, op.353, B, orch, 1981: see symphonies [no.62 ‘Oh let Man not forget these words Divine’, op.402]

With insts: 2 Motets, op.12, S, fl, 1936; Christmas Song, op.34, 1v, org, 1927; Hercules, op.56/4, S, vn, 1956; O Lady Moon, op.139, 1v, cl, pf, 1955; Out of the depths, op.142/3, 1v, org, 1938, rev. 1958; Live in the sun, op.169, 1v, cel, 1954, rev. 1960; Saturn, op.243, 1v, cl, pf, 1971; Glory sings the setting sun, op.292, S, cl, pf, 1977; How I love thy law, op.298, S, cl, pf, 1977; Stars Sing Bell Songs, op.350/1, S, gamelan, 1981

with pf unless otherwise stated


3 Odes of Solomon, op.5 (op.30), 1935, rev. 1937; How I adore thee, op.7, 1936; 3 Songs, op.19, 1936; Lament, op.20a, 1936; Yar Nazani (Armenian), op.24, 1939; I will extol thee, op.28, 1937; Layla (Persian), medium v, pf, op.29, 1935, rev. 1937; 2 Shakespeare Sonnets, op.31, 1942; 2 Songs, op.32; Love Songs of Hafiz, op.33, first version, 1935, rev. 1938, second version, 1957; 4 Songs, op.35, 1938; 2 Songs, op.42, 1938; Pagan Saint (C. Cloos), op.74/1, 1948; Lullaby of the Lake (Cloos), op.74/4, 1948; I heard thee singing (Cloos), op.74/5, 1948; Raven River (Cloos), op.74/8, 1948

Black Pool of Cat (J. Harper), op.84/1, 1949; Innisfallen (Harper), op.84/2, 1949; 3 Songs (Harper), op.95, 1949; O Goddess of the Sea (Hovhaness), op.151, 1957; Dawn at Laona (Hovhaness), op.153, 1957; Persephone (Hovhaness), op.154, 1957; The moon has a face (R.L. Stevenson), op.156, 1930; Live in the Sun (Hovhaness), op.169, 1v, cel/pf; Songs with Armenian Words, op.238, 1948; The Flute Player of the Armenian Mountains, op.239, 1946, rev. 1971; 4 Songs, op.242, 1971; Spirit Cat, op.253; 2 Songs, op.254, 1972; 3 Sasa Songs, op.274, 1973; Shiguré, op.365

A Presentiment, op.304, 1977; Celestial Canticle, op.305, 1977; Songs for High S, unacc., op.315, 1978; Shigue (H. Sato), op.365, S, 1982; Love’s Philosophy (P.B. Shelley), op.370, 1984; The Spirit’s Map (J. Harper), 3 songs, op.391, 1977: Distant Age, The Day, Their Ways; A Friendly Mountain (Hovhaness), op.400, B, 1986; 3 Songs, op.425, low v, pf, 1934: Foothills, The Lake, Fog; Why is my verse so barren of new pride? (W. Shakespeare), op.417, Bar, pf, 1988; Dream Flame, op.426, low v, pf

Hovhaness, Alan: Works

chamber and solo instrumental

for 5 or more instruments


Suite, op.1, str qnt, pf, 1928, rev. 1934; Pf Qnt no.1, op.9, 1927, rev. 1962; Sharagan and Fugue, op.58, brass choir, 1949; 5 Fantasies, op.70, brass choir, 1943, rev. 1967; 6 Dances, op.79, brass qnt, 1967; Pf Qnt no.2, op.103, 1953, rev. 1963; Sextet, vn, perc, op.108, 1967; The World Beneath the Sea no.1, op.133, sax, hp, 3 perc; October Mountain, op.135, 6 perc, 1942; Sextet, op.164, rec, perc, str qt, 1958; Bacchanale, op.203a, 5, perc; Mountains and Rivers without End, op.225, 10 insts, 1968

Khorhoot Nahadagatz, op.251, ud, str qt, 1972; Shah-Nameh, op.252/1, fl, ob, 2 shawms, oriental insts, 1972; Suite, op.290, 4 tpt, trbn, 1976; Septet, op.295, 5 wind, db, perc, 1976; Sunset on Mount Tahoma, op.319, hn, 2 tpt, trbn, org, 1978; 2 Sonatas, op.326, 3 tpt, 2 trbn, 1979, op.328, 1979; Pleiades, op.350/2, gamelan, 1981; Lake Winnipesaukee, op.363, fl, ob, vc, 2 perc, pf; Mountain Under the Sea, op.392, a sax, timp, vib, tam-tam, hp, 1984; Sno Qualmie, op.416, cl, timp, chimes, hp, db

for 4 instruments


Str Qt no.1, op.8, 1936; 4 Bagatelles, op.30, str qt, 1964; Divertimento, op.61/5, wind qt/4 cl, 1949; Canzona and Fugue, op.72, hn, 2 tpt, trbn/tuba, 1943, rev. 1967; Upon Enchanted Ground, op.90/1, fl, hp, tam-tam, vc, 1951; Orbit no.1, op.90/2, fl, hp, cel, tam-tam, 1952; Qt no.1, op.97, fl, ob, hpd, vc, 1952; Hanna, op.101, 2 cl, 2 pf, 1952; Qt no.2, op.112, fl, ob, hpd, vc, 1952; The Flowering Peach, op.125, cl, sax, hp, perc, 1954; The World Beneath the Sea no.2, op.133/2, cl, hp, perc, db, 1965; Str Qt no.2, op.147, 1951; Wind Qt, op.159, 1960, rev. 1965; Str Qts nos.3–4, op.208/1–2, 1964; Island of Mysterious Bells, op.244, 4 hp, 1971; Ruins of Ani, op.250, 4 cl, 1972; Cl Qt, op.262, 1973; Adagio and Fugue, str qt, op.265, 1973; Ps to St Alban, op.281/2, 4 brass, 1974; Str Qt no.5, op.287, 1976; Ps, op.358, brass qt, 1981; Prelude and Fugue, op.373, brass qt; Chomulungma (Sonata for Brass Qt), op.404, 1986

for 3 instruments


Pf Trio, e, op.3, 1935; Suite, op.99, vn, pf, perc, 1952; Sonata, op.130, 2 ob, org, 1963, rev. 1964; Koke no niwa (Moss Garden), op.181, eng hn, hp, perc, 1954, rev. 1960; Str Trio, op.201, 1962; Spirit of Ink, op.230, 3 fl; St Nerses the Graceful, op.235, 3 cl, 1970; Firdausi, op.252, cl, hp, perc, 1972; Tumburu, op.264/1, pf trio, 1973; Varuna, op.264/2, pf trio, 1973; Starry Night, op.288, fl, hp, xyl, 1978; Trio, op.331, a sax, t sax, bar sax, 1979; Music, op.384, fl, hp, xyl; Trio, op.403, vn, va, vc, 1986; Trio ‘Lake Samish’, op.415, vn, cl, pf, 1988

for 2 instruments


Oror (Lullaby), op.1, vn, pf, 1927; Prelude and Fugue, op.10, fl, cl, 1936; Prelude and Fugue, op.11, fl, ob, 1936; Sonata, op.11, vn, pf, 1938; Prelude and Fugue, op.13, ob, bn, 1935, rev. 1937, rev. 1967; Nocturne, op.20/2, fl, hp, 1956; Suite, d, op.21, eng hn, bn, 1935, rev. 1937, rev. 1967; Suite, op.23, ob, bn, 1949, rev. 1967; O World, op.32b, trbn, pf, 1948; Varak, op.47, vn, pf, 1944; Arshalouis, op.47b, vn, pf, 1943; Invocations to Vahaken, op.54, pf, perc, 1945; Sonata ‘Hakhpar’, op.54/2, pf, perc; Shatakh, vn, pf, op.63, 1948

Saris, op.67, vn, pf, 1946; Kirghiz Suite, op.73, vn, pf, 1951; Sonata, op.121, (ryūteki, shō)/(fl, org); Duet, op.122, vn, hpd, 1954; 7 Greek Folk Dances, op.150, harmonica, pf, 1956; Sonata, op.171, (hichiriki, shō)/(ob, org); Suite, op.193, vc, pf, 1927, rev. 1961; Yakamochi, op.193/2, vc, pf, 1965; 3 Visions of St Mesrob, op.198, vn, pf, 1962; Sonata, op.200, tpt, org, 1962; Mysterious Horse Before the Gate, op.205, trbn, perc, 1963; Fantasy on Jap. Wood Prints, op.211, xyl, pf; Nagooran, op.237, db, perc, 1971

The Garden of Adonis, op.245, fl, hp/pf, 1971; Hermes Stella, op.247, pf, tam-tam, 1971; 7 Love Songs of Saris, op.252/3, vn/fl, pf, 1972; Sonata, op.255, vc, pf, 1972; Night of a White Cat, op.263, cl, pf, 1973; Sonata, op.266, 2 bn, 1973; Pastoral and Fugue, op.271, 2 fl, 1973; Fantasy, op.277, db, pf, 1974; Suite, op.291, sax, gui, 1976; Sonata, op.297, 2 cl, 1977; Suite, op.300, fl, gui, 1977; Sonata, op.302, ob, bn, 1977; Sonata, op.322, cl, hpd, 1976; 4 Nocturnes, op.334, s sax, pf, 1979; Campuan Sonata, op.371, va, pf; Sonata ‘Spirit of Trees’, op.374, gui, hp; Sonata, op.375, cl, pf; Sonata, op.387, a rec, hpd, 1984; Dawn on a Mountain Lake, op.393, db, pf, 1977; Srpouhi, op.398, 2 vn, pf, 1977; Sonata, op.406, fl, hp, 1987, Duet, op.409, vn, vc, 1987a

for 1 instrument


Nocturne, op.20, hp, 1938; Lament, op.25, cl, 1935; Chahagir, op.56/1, va, 1945; Yeraz, op.56/2, vn, 1945; Sanahin, op.69, org, 1951, rev. 1968; Gamelan and Jhala, carillon, op.106, 1951; 2 Sonatas, op.110, koto/hp, 1962; Sonata, op.118, fl, 1964; Sonata, op.119, ch’in, 1962; Hp Sonata, op.127, 1954; Dawn Hymn, op.138, org, 1954; Suite, op.166, accdn, 1958; Suite, op.270, hp, 1973; 5 Sonatas, hpd: op.306, 1977, op.318, 1978, op.337, 1979, op.357, 1981, op.361; 2 Sonatas, gui: op.316, 1978, op.329, 1979; Sonata, op.317, a fl/b fl, 1978; Sonata, op.352, org, 1981; Sonatina, op.382, org; Org Sonata no.2 ‘Invisible Sun’, op.386; Sonata no.6, op.414, hpd, 1988; Sonata no.7 ‘Journey to Sanahin’, op.420, hpd, 1950; Gui Sonatas no.3, no.4, no.5, op.421; Sonata, op.423, vn; Sonata ‘Hermit Thrush’, op.424, org; Habakkuk, op.434, org

Hovhaness, Alan: Works

piano


3 Preludes and Fugues, op.5 (op.10), 1935; Toccata and Fugue, op.6, 1935, Toccata, rev. 1970; Toccata and Fugue on a Kabardin Tune, op.6/2, 1951; 2 Suites, opp.9, 14, 1936; Sonata ricercare, op.12, 1935; Fantasy, op.15, 1936; Fantasy, op.16, 1953; Lament, op.20b, 1937; Mystic Flute, op.22, 1937; Sonata, op.22, 1937; Ghazal, op.36, 1938; Mazert nman rehani [Thy hair is like basil leaf], op.38, 1944; Artinis, op.39, 1945; 12 Armenian Folk Songs, op.43, 1943; Lousnag Kisher, op.52/1, 1943; Slumber Song, op.52/2, 1938; Siris Dance, op.52/3, 1943

Mountain Idylls, opp.52/4–6, 1953, 1949, 1932; Lullaby, op.52/7, 1951; 2 Pieces, op.55, 1945; Sandra’s Dance, op.58, 1941; Dance Ghazal, 1941; Greek Rhapsody no.1, op.63, 1946; Achtamar, op.64/1, 1948; Fantasy on an Ossetin Tune, op.85, 1951; Suite, op.96, 1954, rev. 1967; Orbit no.2, op.102, 1952; Jhala, op.103, 1952; Allegro on a Pakistan Lute Tune, op.104/6, 1951; Pastoral no.1, op.111/1, 1952; Hymn to a Celestial Musician, op.111/2, 1952; 3 Haiku, op.113, 1964; Sonatina, op.120, 1962; 2 Macedonian Mountain Dances, op.144, no.2 rev. 1962; Sonata, op.145, 1956; Do you Remember the Last Silence?, op.152, 1957

Child in the Garden, op.168, 1958; Lake of Van Sonata, op.175, 1946, rev. 1959; Madras Sonata, op.176, 1946, rev. 1960; Yenovk [The Troubadour], op.176/2, 1948, rev. 1951, rev. 1958; Shalimar, op.177, 1949, rev. 1960; Poseidon Sonata, op.191, 1957; Bardo Sonata, op.192, 1959, rev. 1960; 2 Ghazals, op.36a–b, 1963; Bare November Day, pf/hpd/org/clvd, op.210; Dark River and Distant Bell, pf/hpd, op.212; 5 Visionary Landscapes, op.214, 1965; All the World’s a Dance of Snobbery, op.233, 1970; Komachi, op.240, 1971; Tsamicos nos.1–2, Tsamico and Fugue, op.241, 1971; Dawn on the Mountain of Initiation, op.248, 1972

3 Sonatas, op.299, 1977; Sonata ‘Fred the Cat’, op.301, 1977; Sonata ‘Ananda’, op.303, 1977; Sketch Book of Mr Purple Poverty, op.309, 1977; Love Song Vanishing into Sounds of Crickets, op.328, 1979; Sonata ‘Mount Chocorua’, op.335; Sonata ‘Blue Job Mountain’, op.340, 1979; Sonata ‘Caramount’, op.345; Corruption in Office, op.351, 1981; Sonata ‘Journey to Arcturus’, op.354, 1981; Cascade Mt Dances, op.362; Sonata ‘Hiroshige’s Cat Barhing’, op.366; Sonata ‘On the Long Total Eclipse of the Moon July 6, 1982’, op.367; Sonata ‘Tsugouharu Fujita’s Cat’, op.368; Sonata ‘Lake Sammamish’, op.369; Lilydale, op.388, 1986; Sonata ‘Cougar Mountain’, op.390, 1985; Sonata, op.399, 1986; Sonata ‘Mt Katahdin’, op.405, 1987; Consolation, op.419, 1989

For 2 pf: Vijag, op.37, 1946; Mihr, op.60/1, 1945; Ko-Ola-U, op.136, 1962; O Lord, Bless thy Mountains, op.276, 2 pf tuned 1/4tone apart, 1974

Principal publishers: Associated, Peer, Peters

Hovhaness, Alan

BIBLIOGRAPHY


CBY 1965

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VintonD

O. Daniel: ‘Alan Hovhaness’, Bulletin of American Composers Alliance, ii/3 (1952), 3

A. Rosner: Analytical Survey of the Music of Alan Hovhaness (diss., New York U., 1972)

B. Silver: ‘Henry Cowell and Alan Hovhaness: Responses to the Music of India’, Contributions to Asian Studies, xii (1978), 54–79

R. Howard: The Works of Alan Hovhaness, a Catalogue: Opus 1 – Opus 360 (New York, 1983)

V. Wolverton: ‘The Choral Psalm Settings of Alan Hovhaness’, The American Organist, xxv/12 (1991), 102–6

V.D. Wolverton: ‘The Solo Vocal Music of Alan Hovhaness’, NATS Journal, xlvii/5 (1991), 4–9, 32–3

V. Wolverton: ‘From Mountain Climbing to Composing: an Interview with Alan Hovhaness’, Choral Journal, xxxiv/3 (1993), 29–36
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