Hotteterre, Elisabeth de.
See Haulteterre, Elisabeth de.
The best-known collection of rare violins of the mid-20th century, formed in New York by Henry Hottinger (b New York, 4 Feb 1885; d Stamford, CT, 19 March 1979), a founder and member of Wertheim & Co., a firm of investment bankers. He had an early interest in the violin, and bought his first Stradivari in 1935. His ambition after the war was to acquire one outstanding example of each of the old Cremonese masters, and in the case of Stradivari and Guarneri ‘del Gesù’, one example from each significant period of their production. An illustrated catalogue (R. Wurlitzer: The Henry Hottinger Collection, 1967) was published following the collection's sale to Rembert Wurlitzer, Inc., in 1965. The instruments (about 30 violins in all) were subsequently dispersed all over the world.
(b Orléans, 26 Dec 1952). French organist. He studied with Pierre Cochereau and Michel Chapuis (organ) and Pierre Lantier (harmony and counterpoint), and gave his first concert in 1969. He subsequently held a number of church appointments before becoming organist of the Madeleine in Paris in 1979; in 1980 he was appointed professor of organ at the Orléans Conservatoire. Houbart commands a vast repertory which includes French and German works of the 17th and 18th centuries, Romantic symphonic organ music and contemporary works, a range reflected in his many recordings, among them an award-winning disc of Vierne and Widor. Houbart is also known as an improviser, and has composed organ music including Zemyorka (1984). He has written articles on organ builders of Orléans as well as a book, Les grandes orgues de Sainte-Croix d’Orléans (Orléans, 1980), and is a member of the organ commissions of the French Ministry of Culture and the city of Paris.
Houbfeldt [Houpfeld], Bernhard.
See Hupfeld, Bernhard.
Houdard, Georges Louis
(b Neuilly-sur-Seine, 30 March 1860; d Paris, 28 Feb 1913). French scholar of Gregorian chant. He studied composition under Massenet at the Paris Conservatoire, but his interest soon turned to medieval chant, particularly to the study of the early theorists and Gregorian notation. With Le rythme du chant dit grégorien (1898) he established himself as one of the most important early mensuralists. He advocated a modern restoration of Gregorian chant rhythm based on the fixed mensural principle that a neumatic group in early Gregorian notation is a rhythmic beat. According to this theory, known as ‘neume-temps’, each individual neume structure is equivalent in time value to a modern crotchet. Such single-note neumes as the punctum and virga have the duration of a crotchet; each note of the two-note neumes podatus and clivis are quavers; the three-note climacus is a triplet; in the various four-note neumes each note has the value of a semiquaver, etc. Like most of the early mensuralists and the Solesmes scholars, Houdard based most of his work on the early St Gallen manuscripts. His rhythmic theories quickly brought him into direct opposition with the Solesmes school, and ‘le rythme houdardiste’ was sharply attacked by Adrien Vigourel (1842–1927). Houdard also wrote a definitive two-volume history of the château of Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
L’art dit grégorien d’après la notation neumatique (Paris, 1897)
Le rythme du chant dit grégorien d’après la notation neumatique (Paris, 1898; appx 1899)
L’évolution de l’art musical et l’art grégorien (Paris, 1902)
La richesse rythmique musicale de l’antiquité (Paris, 1903)
La question grégorienne en 1904 (Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 1904)
La cantilène romaine: étude historique (Paris, 1905)
Les châteaux royaux de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 1124–1789: étude historique d’après les documents inédits recueillis aux Archives nationales et à la Bibliothèque nationale (Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 1909–11)
‘La notation musicale dite neumatique’, Revue archéologique, 4th ser., no.18 (1911), 45–72
Textes théoriques extraits de musique de Hucbald, Odon, Gui et Aribon, traduits et commentés avec examples notés, vade-mecum de la rythmique grégorienne des Xe et XIe siècles (Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 1912)
A. Vigourel: Reviews in Revue du chant grégorien, vi (1897–8), 112–16, 133–4, 153–6, 161–4; reply by Houdard, vii (1898–9), 10–14, 23–8; reply by Vigourel, 223–8
L. David: ‘A propos du Système Houdard’, Revue du chant grégorien, xxiv (1920–21), 125–7
Obituary, Le ménestrel (15 March 1913)
JOHN A. EMERSON
See Haudek, Carl.
Houen, Carl van der.
See Hoeven, Carl van der.
(b Heswall, 22 Nov 1961). English pianist. He studied at Chetham’s Hospital School, the RNCM and the Juilliard School with Heather Slade-Lipkin, Gordon Green, Derrick Wyndham and Adele Marcus. He made his Wigmore Hall début in 1982 and, after winning the Terence Judd International Award the same year and the Naumburg International Piano Competition in 1983, gave his New York début recital in Alice Tully Hall in 1984. Appearances with most of the world’s leading orchestras, including the LSO, Chicago SO, Philadelphia Orchestra and Los Angeles PO, followed, heralding an intensive international career. Hough is the dedicatee of Lowell Liebermann’s Second Piano Concerto (of which he gave the première, with Rostropovich, in 1992) and first and second piano sonatas. His repertory is immense and ranges from contemporary works and rarities of the Romantic period to standard classics. His award-winning recordings include the Hummel A minor and B minor concertos, Xaver Scharwenka’s Fourth Concerto and Emil von Sauer’s First Concerto. Hough’s breadth of taste, technical mastery and discerning musicality are also revealed in his many other recordings, among them an album entitled ‘New York Variations’ (including first recordings of John Corigliano’s Etude Fantasy and George Tsontakis’s Ghost Variations), both the Brahms concertos, the complete Beethoven and Brahms violin sonatas (with Robert Mann), two albums of Liszt (a composer central to his repertory) and recitals of music by Franck and York Bowen.