Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm



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Hotteterre [Haulteterre, Hauterre, Hauteterre, Hoteterre, Hoterre, Obterre, etc.].


French family of woodwind instrument makers, instrumentalists and composers. The founder of the family (see family tree), Loys de Haulteterre (d by 1628) was a ‘tourneur en boys’ in La Couture, Normandy; his sons Louis Hotteterre (i) [père] (d by 1670), (1) Jean Hotteterre (i) and (6) Nicolas Hotteterre (i) established three branches of the family. During the 17th century various members of the family moved to Paris, where they gained fame as instrument makers and players, serving royal music-making. They are credited with developing early prototypes of the Baroque oboe, bassoon, musette and flute. Their talents in instrument making, playing, composition and pedagogy converged to form the foundation of the French school of woodwind playing. The Hotteterre family was related by marriage to several other important families of instrument makers including Buffet, Chédeville, Cornet, Delérablée, Deschamps, Hérouard and Lot, and to the court musician Jean-Noël Marchand (i). Marks used by the family include: ‘hotteterre/anchor’ (line of (1) Jean Hotteterre (i)); ‘fleur-de-lis/hotteterre’ (line of Louis Hotteterre (i), possibly also used by (8) Louis Hotteterre (ii)); and ‘six-pointed star/n/hotteterre’ (line of (6) Nicolas Hotteterre (i)). There are about 18 extant instruments, which include treble, tenor and bass recorders, transverse flutes, and oboes, most of which are made from maple or boxwood mounted with ornate ivory ferrules. The workshop inventories also list flageolets, musettes and bassoons, and it was as makers of flutes, flageolets and musettes that the family first became prominent. The branch of (6) Nicolas (i) was most recognized for oboes.

(1) Jean Hotteterre (i) [père]

(2) Jean Hotteterre (ii) [fils aîné I]

(3) Martin Hotteterre

(4) Jean Hotteterre (v) [fils aîné II]

(5) Jacques (Martin) Hotteterre (ii) [‘le Romain’]

(6) Nicolas Hotteterre (i) [père]

(7) Nicolas Hotteterre (ii) [l'aîné]

(8) Louis Hotteterre (ii) [frère]

(9) Nicolas [Colin] Hotteterre (iii) [le jeune]

(10) Jean Hotteterre (iv) [le jeune]

(11) Jacques Hotteterre (i)

(12) Louis Hotteterre (iii)

(13) Louis Hotteterre (iv) [fils]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

TULA GIANNINI



Hotteterre

(1) Jean Hotteterre (i) [père]


(b La Couture, c1610; d ?Paris, c1692). Son of Loys de Haulteterre. He moved to Paris shortly after his marriage to Marguerite Delalande on 22 October 1628; about 1635 he established a woodwind instrument making workshop in the rue Neuve Saint-Louis. He was a member of the King's hautbois et musettes de Poitou, a post he acquired from Pierre Varin on 4 January 1651; the post passed to his son (3) Martin Hotteterre in 1659. Jean or one of his sons, (2) Jean Hotteterre (ii) and Martin, was probably the ‘Osteterre’ cited in about 1656 by Michel de Marolles for his ravishing flageolet playing. In 1657 father and sons played in a performance of the ‘Concert champestre de l'Epoux’ in Lully's L'Amour malade. In 1658 Jean père formed a woodwind chamber music association with his son Martin and with Jean Brunet, François Pignon and Michel Herbinot, members of the hautbois et musettes de Poitou; rehearsals were held at Jean's house each Saturday. An inventory of his workshop taken in 1654 on the marriage of his son Jean lists ‘flûtes’, flageolets, musettes and tools for their manufacture. According to Borjon de Scellery (Traité de la musette, 1672), Jean père was ‘a man unique for the construction of all sorts of instruments of wood, ivory and ebony, such as musettes, “flûtes” flageolets, haubois and cromornes; and even for the perfect tuning of these instruments’.

Hotteterre

(2) Jean Hotteterre (ii) [fils aîné I]


(b ?Paris, c1630; d Paris, 1668). Son of (1) Jean Hotteterre (i). On his marriage in 1654 he joined his father's workshop, inheriting half its contents. He played with his father and brother (3) Martin Hotteterre at court in 1657 and held the post of ‘hautbois et violon du roi’ in the grande écurie. He and his brother were considered by Borjon de Scellery as ‘in no way inferior’ to their father in the art of instrument making, ‘to which they have contributed a complete understanding and still a more admirable mastery of the playing of the musette in particular’. His career was cut short when he was murdered by François Cothereau, an oboist to the king, shortly before 9 May 1668 (the date Cothereau paid his widow a settlement of 1500 livres).

Hotteterre

(3) Martin Hotteterre


(b Paris, c1635; d Paris, 15 Nov 1712). Son of (1) Jean Hotteterre (i). He played with his father and brother (2) Jean Hotteterre (ii) at court in 1657. In 1659 he received the survivance of his father's post in the hautbois et musettes de Poitou. After the murder of his brother in 1668 he also took over the latter's post as ‘hautbois et violon du roi’ and succeeded to his father's workshop and mark. In 1668 the workshop was moved to l'enclos du palais sur la petite porte à l'enseigne de la musette in the parish of St Berthélemy and in 1678 to the rue de Harlay in the same parish. An inventory of Martin's workshop taken in 1711 refers to him as a ‘master maker of instruments’ and lists, among some 70 instruments: transverse flutes, including quinte de flûte, grosse taille de flûte and petite flûte, as well as flageolets, recorders, oboes, bassoons and musettes. It was probably in this workshop about 1670 that the three-piece transverse flute was first provided with a key for D/E and given the characteristic profile illustrated in the Principes de la flûte traversière published in 1707 by Martin's son (5) Jacques Hotteterre (ii). Both Borjon de Scellery (Traité de la musette, 1672) and Jacques Hotteterre (ii) (Méthode de musette, 1737) credited Martin with adding to the musette a petit chalumeau (little chanter) with six keys, which extended the range of the instrument by a 12th. Two of his compositions have survived: a Marche du régiment de sur l'aube printed in Jacques Hotteterre's Méthode de musette and a four-part Air des Hautbois in the Philidor manuscript Partition de plusieurs marches (F-Pc Rés.F.671).

Hotteterre

(4) Jean Hotteterre (v) [fils aîné II]


(b Paris, ? after 1666; d Paris, 5 March 1720). Son of (3) Martin Hotteterre. He served in the hautbois et musettes de Poitou. On his father's death in 1712 he succeeded to the business, continuing the workshop on the rue de Harlay until his death. His collection of Pièces pour la muzette was published by his brother (5) Jacques Hotteterre (ii) in 1722.

Hotteterre

(5) Jacques (Martin) Hotteterre (ii) [‘le Romain’]


(b Paris, 29 Sept 1673; d Paris, 16 July 1763). Son of (3) Martin Hotteterre. He was the most celebrated member of the family, and had a brilliant career as a player, teacher and composer. Several years before his mother's death in 1708, Jacques's father gave him 3000 livres to acquire the post of ‘grand hautbois du roy’. He obtained the reversion of the post of ‘flutte de la chambre de roy’ on 26 August 1717 (for 6000 livres) on the retirement of René Pignon Descoteaux, although he is referred to as such on the title page of his Premier livre de pièces, published nine years earlier. In 1747 his court posts passed to his eldest son, Jean-Baptiste Hotteterre (b Paris, 1 Aug 1732; d Paris, 9 Sept 1770), a maker and player of woodwind instruments. On 2 January 1763 Jacques's daughter, Marie-Geneviève, married the organist Claude-Bénigne Balbastre; the many signatures of illustrious musicians and aristocrats on the contract testify to Jacques's high social standing at the end of his life. His estate included several grand houses in Paris, his wealth derived from family inheritance and marriage as well as his popularity as a teacher of amateurs of the fashionable world. The frontispiece of his Principes de la flûte traversière is presumed to be a portrait of him, playing a three-piece flute from his father's workshop (see Flute, §II, 4(ii), fig.13). Titon du Tillet (Orchestre de Parnasse, 1743) placed him among the most important musicians of France. If he did make flutes, as is claimed in the diary of J.F.A. von Uffenbach (1715), it was probably in association with the family workshop on the rue de Harlay; neither the inventory taken at his marriage nor that taken after his death list woodwind instruments or tools for their manufacture.

The inventory of Jacques's music library contained within his marriage contract defines his circle of musical influence. Both French and Italian vocal and instrumental music are represented and include sonatas by Corelli (opp.1–5), Mascitti and Senaillé, Pièces by Marais, song collections by Ballard (Parodies bachique, Les tendresses bachiques and Brunettes), operas by Lully, Collasse and A.C. Destouches, motets and cantatas by Bernier, T.-L. Bourgeois, André Campra and L.-N. Clérambault, and two English operas. Jacques drew upon these composers' music for examples in L'art de préluder and Méthode pour la musette, pt ii, which consists of 32 pages of popular songs and dances, especially brunettes, vaudevilles and airs. Lully's music is prominent in his settings for transverse flutes of Airs et brunettes à deux et trois dessus. Equally at home in both the French and Italian styles, his nickname ‘le Romain’ underscores his association with Italian music which is apparent in his arrangements of Italian sonatas by Robert Valentine and Francesco Torelio, and his Sonates en trio reflecting the manner of Corelli.

The introductory comments to Principes and to the Premier livre de piéces, which contain the first pieces to be published for two unaccompanied flutes, make clear his intentions to dedicate his musical career to establishing a pedagogy, performing practice and repertory for the transverse flute which he described as ‘one of the most pleasant and one of the most fashionable instruments’. That he allowed for his music to be played on other treble instruments was but a practical way of broadening his audience. His Principes, the earliest published method for flute, which also includes sections on playing the oboe and recorder, covers posture, embouchure, fingering of notes and trills, tonguing and ornamentation. Appearing in several editions from 1707 to 1741 and posthumously in 1765, it has served as a model for flute methods up to the present day. A review in Journal de trevoux (August 1707), noted that ‘the name of the author vouches for the excellence of the book. This skilful flautist does not ignore any secrets of his art’. In 1715 he published a second book of Pièces which marked the first appearance of multi-movement works for flute and bass designated as sonatas, and also brought out a new edition of the Premier livre. The second edition offered the rearrangement of the original three suites, each of 11 or 12 movements, into five suites, each of seven or eight movements, the addition of bass parts for the Pièces for two flutes, and the insertion of many ornaments, making it a valuable early source on their use. This edition concludes with a table of ornaments and ‘demonstrations’ on how to play them. Jacques extended his theories on the correct manner of playing to the creative process of preluding with the publication in 1719 of L'art de prèluder sur la flûte traversière. This highly original work, the first to detail the practice of preluding, then in vogue, presents preludes in all keys to illustrate tempo (movements), style (caractère) and the function of cadences and modulation.

Jacques's music and theoretical works remained popular throughout his long career, even though by the time he married in 1728 he was approaching retirement, while Blavet, his successor as France's leading flautist, had just published his op.1, six sonatas for transverse flute, signalling the end of the era of the three-piece baroque flute, the instrument for which Jacques's music was written, and the rise of the four-piece flute with corps de rechange. Jacques confirmed his continued attachment to the charm of the musette and its aristocratic associations with the publication in 1722 of La guerre, pièce de musette followed by his highly acclaimed Méthode pour la musette in 1737. That year his nephew, E.P. Chédeville, a musette maker and composer, acquired the post of hautbois et musette de Poitou from J.S. Mangot, the brother-in-law of Rameau who had acquired it from Jacques's brother, (4) Jean Hotteterre (iii). No doubt Chédeville well appreciated Jacques's richly illustrated Méthode.

A composer capable of expressing both pastoral and passion, Jacques's works are filled with the innocence and charm associated with song texts of the time, while his sonatas display a purely musical expression. A master of early Baroque style, his scoring is beautifully crafted to display the best qualities of the flute. Although he was surely influenced by Michel de La Barre's Premier livre de pièces (1702), the first published works for solo flute and continuo, Jacques's Premier livre, taken together with his Principes, constitute more than simply new pièces, but rather the birth of the French flute school for which Jacques himself became emblematic of a new era of solo flute playing. Thus, by the time the Concert Spirituel began in 1725, the flute rivalled the violin for centre stage.

WORKS


all published in Paris

op.


2

Pièces, fl, other insts, bc (1708, rev. 2/1715)

3

Sonates en trio, 2 fl/rec/vn/ob/other insts, bc (1712)

4

Première suitte de pièces à 2 dessus, 2 fl/rec/viols/other insts (1712)

5

Deuxième livre de pièces, fl/other insts, bc (1715)

6

Deuxième suitte de pièces à 2 dessus, 2 fl/rec/viols/other insts, bc ad lib (1717)

8

Troisième suitte de pièces à 2 dessus, 2 fl/rec/ob/musettes (1722)

9

Concert du rossignol (n.d.), lost

Arr.: Sonates à 2 dessus par le Sigr. Roberto Valentine, op.5 [actually opp.4, 6], 2 fl/other insts (1721); Airs et brunettes à 2 et 3 dessus … tiréz des meilleurs autheurs, 2/3 fl (1721); Sonates à 2 dessus par le Sigr. Francesco Torelio, op.1, 2 fl/other insts (1723); also trios by Albinoni, titles and music lost




Suitte de pièces par accords, and La guerre, musette, in Jean Hotteterre, Pièces pour la muzette (1722)




Carillons, 2 tr insts, bc, in Recueils de simphonies de plusieurs opéras modernes, & fanfares & prélude, 1743, F-Pn Vm7.3644




1 air in Ballard's Recueil d'airs sérieux et à boire (1715); 1 other in (1715) and 2 in (1701), attrib. ‘Hotteterre’, possibly by Jacques



WRITINGS


Principes de la flûte traversière, ou flûte d'Allemagne, de la flûte à bec, ou flûte douce, et du haut-bois, diviséz par traitéz op.1 (Paris, 1707/R, 7/1741; repr. Paris, c1765, as Méthode pour apprendre à jouer en très peu de tems de la flûte traversière, de la flûte à bec et du hautbois, with fingering charts for cl and bn; Eng. trans., 1968, 2/1983)

L'art de préluder sur la flûte traversière, sur la flûte-à-bec, sur le haubois, et autres instruments de dessus. Avec des préludes tous faits sur tous le tons dans différens mouvemens et différens caractères, accompagnés de leurs agréments et de plusieurs difficultées propres à exercer et à fortifier. Ensemble des principes de modulation et de transposition; en outre une dissertation instructive sur toutes les différentes espèces de mesures, &c. op.7 (Paris, 1719/R)

Méthode pour la musette, contenant des principes, par le moyen desquels on peut apprendre à joüer de cet instrument, de soy-même au défaut de maître. Avec un nouveau plan pour la conduite du souflet, & plusieurs instructions pour le toucher, &c. Plus un recueil d'airs, & quelques préludes, dans les tons les plus convenables op.10 (Paris, 1737/R)

Hotteterre

(6) Nicolas Hotteterre (i) [père]


(b La Couture, c1615; d Versailles, 15 May 1693). Son of Loys de Haulteterre. He and his son (7) Nicolas Hotteterre (ii) established a woodwind instrument making workshop on the rue des Arcis in Paris about 1660. In 1668, on the marriage of his son Nicolas (ii), Nicolas père was described as a ‘master maker of musical instruments’. In 1679 he moved with another son, Jean Hotteterre (iii) (d 1683), to the Quai Pelletier in the parish of St Gervais. He retired to Versailles in 1688. A declaration made by his wife in connection with a dispute over his estate states that three of her sons worked with their father making instruments, teaching and playing at the Opéra and that the sons were more skilled in tuning instruments than their father.

Hotteterre

(7) Nicolas Hotteterre (ii) [l'aîné]


(b La Couture c1637; d Versailles, 10 May 1694). Son of (6) Nicolas Hotteterre (i). He established a workshop in Paris with his father about 1660. By 1667 he was listed among the hautbois et violons du roi. From 1679 he resided in Saint Germain-en-Laye, where he participated in royal music-making; he had returned to his father's house on the Quai Pelletier by 1683. He then moved to Versailles, where the king, as a show of gratitude to a deserving royal musician, granted him permission in 1685 to build a house on the Place de Bourgogne. An inventory made after his death reveals that he earned 180 livres a year as oboist to the king and 225 livres for the first four and a half months of 1694 as a musician of the king's chapel.

Hotteterre

(8) Louis Hotteterre (ii) [frère]


(b La Couture, c1645; d Ivry, Aug 1716). Son of (6) Nicolas Hotteterre (i). He joined his father's workshop in Paris about 1664. From 1665 until his retirement to Ivry in 1714 he held the post of ‘saquebout et basse de violon de la chambre et grande Ecurie du roi’ (to which his great nephew Pierre Chédeville obtained the survivance on 26 September 1713). From 1679 to 1694 he had his own workshop on the rue des Lombards, moving to the rue des Ecrivains and then to the rue Marmousets (1709). Du Pradel listed him in 1692 as a maker of all types of woodwind instruments.

Hotteterre

(9) Nicolas [Colin] Hotteterre (iii) [le jeune]


(b La Couture, 19 Feb 1653; d Paris, 14 Dec 1727). Son of (6) Nicolas Hotteterre (i). He moved to Paris in 1667, working initially in the instrument making workshop of his father and brother. In that year he also joined the hautbois et violons du roi, retaining his position there until his death. In 1679 he established his own workshop on the rue St Honoré. About 1690 he moved to the rue d'Orléans; from about 1700 to 1712 he was on the rue de Bourbon ditte des Fossés; in 1712 he moved to the rue Jean Pain Molet in the parish of St Merri. An inventory made after his death lists a large number of tools as well as materials for making instruments, also musettes, bassoons, two dozen unfinished flutes and oboes, and a further 36 unfinished oboes. His vast library of books and music reveals that he was a highly educated man of wealth and social standing.

Hotteterre

(10) Jean Hotteterre (iv) [le jeune]


(b La Couture, 1648; d Paris, 20 Feb 1732). Son of Louis Hotteterre (i). In the 1670s he played for Lully's operas Atys and Isis at St Germain-en-Laye. He obtained the position of ‘basse de hautbois et taille de violon’ in the grande écurie on the death of his cousin Jean Hotteterre (iii) in 1683; on his retirement on 24 October 1724 the post passed to Nicolas Chédeville. The excellence of his work as a maker was noted by Du Pradel and Sauveur.

Hotteterre

(11) Jacques Hotteterre (i)


(b La Couture, c1650; d ?Paris, c1731). Son of Louis Hotteterre (i). A contract of 27 May 1675 for the sale of land in La Couture indicates that he was at that time living in London and employed as an ‘officer to the music of the King of Great Britain’. He may have brought Hotteterre instruments to Britain; their influence is manifest in instruments by Stanesby and Bressan. By 1689 Jacques had returned to France and was listed in the grande écurie as ‘basse de hautbois et basse de violon’. In January 1692, on the death of Jean Ludet, he gained the reversion of that post.

Hotteterre

(12) Louis Hotteterre (iii)


(fl 1691–1712). The identity of this Louis Hotteterre is unclear; he was probably a grandson of Louis Hotteterre (i). In 1691, when he sold land to his ‘brother-in-law’ Martin Hotteterre, he was described as a player of the oboe and other instruments, living at the end of the Pont Marie Thérèse, Paris. He was at the same address in 1712 according to a letter written by the oboist Louis Rousselet, who mentioned that Louis Hotteterre had repaired his musette and was a musician at the Opéra.

Hotteterre

(13) Louis Hotteterre (iv) [fils]


(b La Couture, 1717; d La Couture, 1801). Great grandson of Louis Hotteterre (i) and son of Philippe Hotteterre (1681–1736). He was the last known woodwind instrument maker of the family. In 1748 he married Marie-Anne Lot, a member of a prominent family of woodwind instrument makers also from La Couture. An oboe marked ‘L/Hotteterre’ and dating from about 1750 (now in a music school collection in Tokyo) is probably by him.

Hotteterre

BIBLIOGRAPHY


BenoitMC

FétisB

Waterhouse-LangwillI

YoungHI

[C.-E. Borjon]: Traité de la musette (Lyons, 1672)

A. du Pradel [N. de Blegny]: Le livre commode des addresses de Paris pour 1692 (Paris, 1692); ed. E. Fournier (Paris, 1878/R)

[J.] Sauveur: ‘Principes d'acoustique et de musique, ou systême général des intervalles des sons’, Histoire de l'Academie royale des sciences année 1701, avec les memoires de mathematique & de physique pour la même année, tirés de registres de cette Academie (Paris, 1704), 197–364 in Memoires

M. de Marolles: ‘De l'excellence de la ville de Paris’, Mémoires (Paris, 2/1755); repr. in Paris, ou Description de cette ville, ed. V. Dufour (Paris, 1879)

Comte d'Adhémar: ‘Un hautbois de Hotteterre’, RGMP, xlvi (1879), 253–4

E. Thoinan: Les Hotteterre et les Chédeville: célèbres joueurs et facteurs de flûtes, hautbois, bassons et musettes des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles (Paris, 1894)

N. Mauger: Les Hotteterre: célèbres joueurs et facteurs de flûtes, hautbois, bassons et musettes des XVIIe & XVIIe siècles: nouvelles recherches (Paris, 1912) [suppl. to Thoinan]

J.-G. Prod'homme, ed.: ‘Mémoire de M. de la Barre: sur les musettes et hautbois etc.’, Ecrits de musiciens (XVe–XVIIIe siècles) (Paris, 1912/R), 242–5

E. Preussner: Die musikalischen Reisen des Herrn von Uffenbach aus einem Reisetagebuch des Johann Fredrich A. Von Uffenbach, 1712–1716 (Kassel, 1949)

D. Lasocki: Introduction to J. Hotteterre le Romain: Principles of the Flute, Recorder and Oboe (New York, 1968)

J.M. Bowers: The French Flute School from 1700 to 1760 (diss., U. of California, Berkeley, 1971)

J.M. Bowers: ‘The Hotteterre Family of Woodwind Instrument Makers’, Concerning the Flute, ed. R. De Reede (Amsterdam, 1984), 33–54

M. Benoit and others: ‘Les Hotteterre, facteurs et musiciens du Roi de France’, La facture instrumentale européenne, Musée de la Musique, 6 Nov 1985 – 1 March 1986 (Paris, 1985), 99–119 [exhibition catalogue]

J.L. Schwartz and C.L. Schlundt: French Court Dance Music: a Guide to Preliminary Source Writings, 1643–1789 (New York, 1987)

T. Giannini: ‘Life in Paris, 1763: Newly Found Documents at the Minutier Central: Hotteterre and Balbastre’, Encore, iii/4 (1989), 4, 7–8

M. Benoit: Dictionnaire de la musique en France aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles (Paris, 1992)

T. Giannini: Great Flute Makers of France: the Lot and Godfroy Families, 1650–1900 (London, 1993)

T. Giannini: ‘Jacques Hotteterre le Romain and his Father Martin: a Re-Examination of the Evidence’, EMc, xxi (1993), 377–95

T. Giannini: The Baroque Flute in France (forthcoming)
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