See Barra, hotinet.
Hotman [Autheman, Haultemant, Hautman, Otteman], Nicolas
(b Brussels, before 1614; d Paris, April 1663). French composer, viol and theorbo player and lutenist of Flemish birth. He moved to Paris by 1626, when he received letters of naturalization. In 1632 he was described as ‘maître joueur de luth’, and in 1635–6 Mersenne (Harmonicorum libri ) praised Maugars and Hotman as the two leading viol virtuosos. Annibal Gantez, in L'entretien des musiciens (1643), singled him out among Parisian musicians skilled on both the lute and the viol. Hotman sent Constantijn Huygens viol and theorbo pieces in 1659, which the latter ridiculed to Henry Du Mont, but others in the Low Countries must have valued his works: three manuscripts copied in Utrecht in the 1660s contain 26 of his pieces for viol and eight for theorbo. He and Sebastien Le Camus became treble viol and theorbo players at court in 1661, replacing Louis Couperin. Hotman's viol pupils included Machy and Sainte-Colombe; he thus initiated an illustrious line of French viol players and composers which included the Marais family and perhaps the Forquerays and Caix d'Hervelois.
Hotman was one of the most successful of the versatile instrumentalists favoured in French court and aristocratic circles; he wrote for voices, viol, lute and theorbo. The pieces for viol exhibit an elegance of melody and phrase structure similar to that in the music of Chambonnières, with a balance of both textures appropriate to the viol: ‘jeu d'harmonie’, inherited from lute music, and the vocally derived ‘jeu de mélodie’. His Airs à boire were published posthumously by Ballard in 1664. A 1667 inventory of his effects included two bass viols, a treble viol, three theorbos and a lute.
Airs à boire à 3 parties (Paris, 1664)
2 préludes, 12 allemandes, 6 courantes, 7 sarabandes, 10 gigues, 4 ballets, 1 bouré, 1 boutade, b viol; 1 courante, 1 sarabande, 2 b viols; 1 prélude, 3 allemandes, 3 courantes, 2 sarabandes, 2 gigues, 1 chaconne, theorbo; 1 courante, lute; principal sources A-ETgoëss, F-B, Pn, GB-Ob, PL-Wtm
Y. de Brossard: ‘La vie musicale en France d'après Loret et ses continuateurs (1650–1688)’, RMFC, x (1970), 117–94
H. Bol: La basse de viole du temps de Marin Marais et d'Antoine Forqueray (Bilthoven, 1973)
F. Moureau: ‘Nicolas Hotman: bourgeois de Paris et musicien’, RMFC, xiii (1973), 5–22
D. Beecher: ‘Aesthetics of the French Solo Viol Repertory, 1650–1680’, JVdGSA, xxiv (1987), 10–21
See Khoikhoi music.
(b Offenbach am Main, 19 Jan 1909). German bass-baritone. He studied philosophy and music in Munich then worked as a church singer and later as an organist and choirmaster. He learnt singing with Matthäus Roemer, made his operatic début at Troppau (1930) and after a brief engagement at Breslau spent the seasons 1932–4 in Prague. He then moved to Hamburg and in 1937 was offered a guest contract at Munich; he finally settled in Munich in 1940 but continued to appear regularly with other leading German companies, and in Vienna (where he made his début as Jochanaan in 1939).
Hotter's international fame was delayed by the war, but from his first appearances at Covent Garden (as the Count and Don Giovanni with the Vienna Staatsoper during the September 1947 season) he became a favourite with British audiences, especially in Wagner; he sang his first Hans Sachs at Covent Garden in 1948, in English (see illustration). In 1950 he was invited to the Metropolitan Opera, and in 1952 his association with Bayreuth began. During the 1950s and 1960s he was generally recognized as the world's leading Wagnerian bass-baritone, renowned especially as Hans Sachs and as Wotan, embodying the grandeur of Wagner's conception in a style at once rhetorical and noble. Though his voice could be unsteady and lack focus, its unmistakable quality, matched by his intense declamation and his commanding physical presence, made him one of the greatest operatic artists of the mid-20th century. Although he made many recordings, it is to be deplored that he did not in his prime record Wotan, or such other of his finest parts as Borromeo in Palestrina, Sachs and the Dutchman. However, ‘pirated’ recordings exist of his Dutchman, in a German broadcast under Krauss in 1944, King Mark, in Karajan's 1952 Bayreuth performance, and Gurnemanz, live from Bayreuth under Knappertsbusch in 1962; although technically disappointing, they reveal the full glory of his voice. His La Roche was captured in Sawallisch's studio recording of Capriccio. Among the roles he created are the Kommandant in Strauss's Friedenstag (1938, Munich), Olivier in Capriccio (1942, Munich) and Jupiter in Die Liebe der Danae at the unofficial première (1944, Salzburg).
Hotter produced the Ring at Covent Garden (1961–4) and appeared elsewhere as a producer. He was also a distinguished concert and recital artist; his retirement from the operatic stage in 1972 was not accompanied by a reduction in his other activities. An artist of intelligence and dedication, he was able without loss of quality to reduce his warm, ample voice to convey the intimacy and subtlety of lieder and of roles requiring a lightness and flexibility generally unattainable by singers best known in heavier roles. He recorded Winterreise with Raucheisen in 1942 (and then with Moore in 1955 and in two further versions) and made superb recordings of lieder by Schubert, Schumann, Loewe, Brahms, Wolf and Mahler.
GV (R. Celletti; R. Vegeto)
B.W. Wessling: Hans Hotter (Bremen, 1966)
D. Cairns: ‘Hotter’s Farewell’, Responses (London, 1973), 155–7
P. Turing: Hans Hotter: Man and Artist (London, 1983)
P. Dusek and V. Parschalk: Nicht nur Tenöre: das Beste aus der Opernwerkstatt, i (Vienna, 1986) [incl. discussion with Hotter]
A. Blyth: ‘Hans Hotter at 90’, Opera, i (1999), 36–42 [Survey of his recordings]