Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm

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Hörwart, Johann Heinrich.

See Herwart, Johann Heinrich.

Horwood [Horwod, Horwode, Horwud], William

(d ?1484). English composer. First listed as a member of the Fraternity of St Nicholas (a guild of parish clerks in London) in 1459, he became master of the guild in 1474. In 1476 he is listed among the vicars-choral of Lincoln Cathedral, where on 29 March 1477 he was appointed informator, being required to instruct the choristers in ‘plainsong, pricksong, faburden, discant and counter’ as well as in playing the organ and clavichord. The administration of his estate was granted to Robert Symes, vicar, on 17 July 1484; thus he cannot be identified with John Horwood, a chorister and Fellow of King's College, Cambridge in the 1480s and 90s.

Horwood's surviving compositions must have been written between about 1460 and 1484, and thus provide valuable information about a sparsely documented phase in the history of English music. They are among the earliest examples of the full-choral style associated with the Eton Choirbook which contains four of his five known works. These four compositions are all in five voices; the Magnificat (on the tone 8 faburden) has an overall compass of 23 notes, while the other three span 21 notes. Salve regina is in many ways the most old-fashioned: the two lowest parts still share the same clef and range, and cross continually like a tenor-contratenor pair; the dissonance treatment and cadence forms are redolent of Dunstaple; consecutive 5ths and octaves are unusually prominent in the five-part writing; and the breve in duple metre seems to move hardly more slowly than the semibreve in triple metre. Gaude flore virginali and the Magnificat are rather more technically assured and up-to-date in style, particularly in the greater contrast between the reduced-voice and fully scored sections. On the other hand, the triadic imitation at ‘et sanctum’ in the Magnificat is reminiscent of John Plummer and occurs also in the Magnificat by John Nesbet, another of the older Eton Choirbook composers. ‘Horwods Gaude’ is mentioned in an inventory from King's College, Cambridge, dated 1529.


Edition: The Eton Choirbook, ed. F.Ll. Harrison, MB, x–xii (2/1967–73) [H]

Kyrie ‘O Rex clemens’, inc., ?4vv, GB-Ybi

Magnificat, 5vv, H (on tone 8 faburden)

Gaude flore virginali, 5vv, H

Gaude virgo mater Christi, inc., 5vv, H

Salve regina, 5vv, H



A.F. Leach: ‘Schools’, Victoria County History: Lincolnshire, ed. W. Page (London, 1906), ii, 436–7

F.Ll. Harrison: ‘The Eton Choirbook: Its Background and Contents’, AnnM, i (1953), 151–76

H. Baillie and P. Oboussier: ‘The York Masses’, ML, xxxv (1954), 19–30

H. Baillie: ‘A London Gild of Musicians, 1460–1530’, PRMA, lxxxiii (1956–7), 15–28

H. Baillie: ‘Some Biographical Notes on English Church Musicians, Chiefly Working in London (1485–1569)’, RMARC, no.2 (1962), 18–57, esp. 40

H. Benham: Latin Church Music in England c. 1460–1575 (London, 1977)


Horzizky [Horsitzky, Horschitzky, Horschky], Franz [Franziskus, Franciscus]

(b Berlin, c1756; d Berlin, 25 Oct 1805). German singer and composer of Bohemian origin. By 1770 he was a waldhorn player in the Kapelle of Prince Heinrich of Prussia in Rheinsberg. He was taught singing and the violin but not the waldhorn, as it allegedly harmed the voice. He studied for a year at Halle University, after which the prince sent him to Paris, where he lived and studied with Denis Diderot. On his return (c1773) he became private secretary to Prince Heinrich. After the building of a new theatre in Rheinsberg (1773), operas and French classic dramas were performed at the court; the prince wrote the opera texts and Horzizky some of the music. He also participated as a singer, together with his wife and his brother Johann. Horzizky’s operas from this period are unfortunately lost. He remained at court as singer and musician until 1797. His only extant printed works consist of collections of arias and a cantata, Achille sur le corps de Patrocle (Berlin and Amsterdam, 1791).

Franz’s father, Johann Ignaz, was a waldhorn player in the Kapelle of the Prussian Crown Prince Frederick (later Frederick the Great) in Rheinsberg, and later in Berlin when Frederick became king in 1740. Franz’s brother Johann (b Berlin, c1757; d Berlin, 4 Dec 1837) also played the waldhorn, first in the service of Prince Heinrich of Prussia and then in Berlin after the prince’s death (1802). His son Louis Johann Alexander (b Berlin, 25 Aug 1798; d Berlin, 19 Oct 1829), a gifted flautist and pianist, appeared as a soloist in Berlin as early as 1808. In 1815 he joined the royal Kapelle as a flautist, and published flute and piano pieces and songs.




MGG1 suppl. (F. Lorenz)

F.W. Marpurg: Historisch-kritische Beyträge zur Aufnahme der Musik, i (Berlin, 1754/R)

C. von Ledebur: Tonkünstler-Lexicon Berlin’s (Berlin, 1861/R)

C.H. Bitter: Carl Philipp Emanuel und Wilhelm Friedemann Bach und deren Brüder (Berlin, 1868/R), i

E. Breest: ‘Acht Jahre am Hof des Prinzen Heinrich (1770–78) aus den Memoiren eines alten Franzosen’, Der Bär, vii (1881), 161–6

J.-J. Olivier: Les comédiens français dans les cours d’Allemagne au XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1901–5/R)

H.A. Frenzel: Brandenburg-preussische Schlosstheater (Berlin, 1959)

H. Kindermann: Theatergeschichte Europas, iv (Salzburg, 1961)


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