Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm



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Horusitzky, Zoltán


(b Pápa, 18 July 1903; d Budapest, 25 April 1985). Hungarian composer and pianist. He studied the piano with István Laub and composition with Kodály at the Budapest Academy of Music (1918–26) and concurrently read law at Budapest University, where he took the doctorate in 1927. He then taught the piano at the Budapest Upper School of Music, of which he was director, 1944–9, and at the Budapest Academy, 1946–68. Between 1938 and 1944 he was editor of the journal A zene. He was awarded the Erkel Prize in 1954. The strongest influence on Horusitzky's music was that of Kodály though he also drew on Liszt, Renaissance polyphony (particularly Palestrina) and Finnish as well as Hungarian folk music. In later works he came close to adopting 12-note serial composition. Despite the paucity of his output, his true musical orientation was established during his first stylistic period, namely the corpus of works written before 1945. Vocal works such as the cantata Fekete hold éjszakáján (‘On the Night of the Black Moon’, 1932) and the song cycles after Hungarian and Chinese poets are remarkable for their poetic sense and emphasis on depicting nature. In contrast to his second period, which lasted until 1962 and which coincided with political and cultural repression inside Hungary, the third and final period brought compositional fulfilment, marked by new French and Finnish connections. Horusitzky's most significant works include the historical opera Báthory Zsigmond; the piano sonata A hegy (‘The Mountain’), written for the 1976 Cziffra Piano Competition in Versailles; and the songs composed for Marion Janson.

WORKS


(selective list)

Stage: Báthory Zsigmond [Zsigmond Báthory] (op, 3, Horusitzky and J. Romhányi), 1944–53; Kecskebőr [Goatskin] (ballet), 1962; Csipkerózsika [Sleeping Beauty] (children's op, 1, Romhányi), 1971; Egyetlenegy éjszakán [On a Single Night] (radio op, Romhányi), 1974; Palotai álmok [Palota Dreams] (radio op, T. Török, after G. Krúdy), 1979; Fekete város [Black City] (radio op, 3, J. Erdődy and Horusitzky), 1982

Vocal: Fekete hold éjszakáján [On the Night of the Black Moon] (cant., E. Ady), S, Bar, chorus, orch, 1932; TeD, S, chorus, orch, 1937; Dalok kínai versekre [Songs to Chinese Poems], 1940; Három Shakespeare szonett, 1953; Két kamaraének [2 Chbr Songs] (G. Illyés), S, fl, vc, pf, 1966; Észak [Night] (chbr cant., Horusitzky), T, female chorus, mixed chorus, chbr ens, 1981; Éljetek békében [Live in Peace] (cant., Horusitzky), solo vv, chorus, orch, 1982; Pasztellképek [Pastel Pictures] (chbr cant., S. Harmaja, Horusitzky), female chorus, fl, hp, str qt, 1983; Fantasia spirituale (Horusitzky), Bar, female chorus, male chorus, mixed chorus, orch, 1984; other songs and choruses (Hung.)

Orch: Sym., 1933–42; Pf Conc. no.1, 1941; Vn Conc., 1951; Báthory Szvit, 1952; Pf Conc. no.2, 1962; 4 balettkép [4 Ballet Tableaux], 1964; Conc., pf, chbr orch, 1978

Chbr and solo inst: 7 str qts, 1933–80; Öf derab, pf, 1925; Három derab, pf, 1940; Cassazione, brass trio, 1954; Sonata, va, pf, 1967; Sonata, 2 pf, 1971; A hegy [The Mountain], pf sonata, 1972; Org Sonata, 1974; Sonata, vc, pf, 1980; Sonata, db, pf, 1981; other piano pieces

Principal publisher: Editio Musica Budapest

WRITINGS


Világszemlélet és művészet [World view and art] (Budapest, 1937)

‘Kodály Zoltán szimfóniája’ [Zoltán Kodály's symphony], Magyar zene, iii (1962), 604–11

ANNA DALOS

Horvat, Milan


(b Pakrac, 28 July 1919). Croatian conductor. He graduated in law from Zagreb University, and studied at the Zagreb Music Academy (1939–46) with Svetislav Stančić (piano), Fritz Zaun (conducting) and Zlatko Grgošević (composition). In 1945 he began his career as a pianist and choral conductor, becoming conductor of the Zagreb PO, 1946–53, and a professor of conducting at the academy. He went to Dublin as chief conductor of the Radio Telefís Eireann SO, 1953–8, returning to the Zagreb PO, 1958–69; he acquired an international reputation with tours to other European countries and the USA, and appearances at leading festivals. Horvat was also principal conductor of the Zagreb Opera, 1958–65. He has conducted the premières of many works by Bjelinski, Devčić, Kelemen, Malec, Wellesz and others (and he gave the first Yugoslav performance of Britten’s War Requiem). In 1969 he went to Vienna as principal conductor of the Austrian RSO, and in 1975 became principal conductor of the Zagreb Radio SO. In 1965 he was also appointed musical director of the Dubrovnik Festival and in 1975 a professor of conducting at the Graz Hochschule für Musik. His many recordings include Hindemith's Mathis der Maler Symphony and symphonies by Shostakovich.

RUDOLF LÜCK/R


Horvat, Stanko


(b Zagreb, 12 March 1930). Croatian composer. He studied composition at the Zagreb Academy of Music until 1956 and then with Aubin and Leibowitz in Paris. From 1957 to 1961 he was a teacher at the Vatroslav Lisinski Music School in Zagreb and from 1961 a professor at the Zagreb Academy of Music, becoming dean in 1977. He was president of the Croatian Composers' Association, vice-president of the Zagreb Biennale (1975–9) and is a member of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Horvat's first compositions were mainly orchestral, and conventionally romantic in style and content; the Simphonija and Četiri stavka (‘Four Movements’) are typical works of that period. However, during his studies in Paris he became familiar with other trends in European music. Judiciously selecting elements from these, he wrote the Simfonijski stavak (‘Symphonic movement’, 1961) and the ballet Izabranik (‘The Chosen One’) in the atonal idiom suggested by Leibowitz, and using classical formal principles. The success of these pieces led Horvat to pursue this style in a small body of works of very high quality during the 1960s and early 70s. From the 70s his most important achievements have been a collection of finely crafted chamber and piano works and the powerful opera Preobražaj (‘Metamorphosis’, after Kafka), which opened the 1995 Zagreb Biennale.

WORKS


(selective list)

Dramatic: Izabranik [The Chosen One] (ballet), 1961; Kurir i šuma [The Courier and the Forest] (musical play), 1962; Tri legende [3 legends] (TV op), 1971; Preobražaj [Metamorphosis] (op, after F. Kafka), 1995

Orch: Passacaglia and Fugue, str, 1952; Concertino, str, 1952; Sinfonietta, 1954; Simphonija, 1956; Četiri stavka [4 Movts], str, 1958; Conc. rustico, str, 1958; Simfonijski stavak [Sym. Movt], 1961; Pf Conc., 1966; Koral, str, 1967; Taches, pf, chbr orch, 1968; Hymnus, 1969; Perpetuum mobile, 12 str, 1971; Notturno, 13 str, 1980; Memorial, pf, orch, 1986

Choral: Jama [The Pit] (cant., I.G. Kovačić), B, chorus, orch, 1971; Kolo bola, chorus, 1977; Proslov [Prologue], chorus, 1980; Zapis o očima, chorus, 1980; S podignutom rukom [With Raised Hand] (cant.), male chorus, orch, 1982; 2 poèmes de G. Apollinaire, 12vv, 1991

Solo vocal: Kirk [The Shriek] (F. García Lorca), Mez, orch, 1968; Tišina i uzdasi [Calm and Trust], S, vib, perc, 1992; Šum krila, šum vode [The Noise of a Wing, the Noise of Water] (cant.), S, orch, 1993

Other inst: Koralne varijacije, str qt, 1953; Varijacije [Variations], pf, 1953; Contrasts, str qt, 1953; Varijante [Variants], pf, 1965; Rondo, str qt, 1967; Trialogue, ondes martenot, 1968; Sonnant, pf, 1970; Träumerei, pf, 1975; Accords, pf, 1979; Appel, wind qnt, 1982; Frammenti, tpt, trbn, vb, db, 1982; Ostinati, pf, 1983; Manual, pf, 1984; Quartetto, str, 1988; Toccata, pf, 1990; 3 capriccia, vn, pf, 1990; De diebus furoris, pf, 1992; Duo de l'adieu, 2 vn, 1992; … quasi una Fantasia, pf trio, 12 str, 1992; Drammatico, 4 sax, 1993; Nadsviravanje, 2 ob, 1993; Jeu de cloches, marimbaphone, str qt, 1994

Principal publisher: Udruženje kompozitora Hrvatske (Zagreb)

BIBLIOGRAPHY


K. Kovačević: The History of Croatian Music in the Twentieth Century (Zagreb, 1967)

S. Hovat and E. Sedak: ‘Ispitivati osvojeni teren’, Novi Zvuk, ed. P. Selem (Zagreb, 1972), 303–9 [conversation between Horvat and Eva Sedak]

J. Andreis: Music in Croatia (Zagreb, 1974, 2/1982), 384

T. Reich: Susreti sa suvremenim kompozitorima Jugoslavije [Meetings with contemporary Yugoslav composers] (Zagreb, 1972), 97–8

A. Koci and others: Jugoslovanska glasbena dela [Yugoslav musical works] (Ljubljana, 1980), 162–7

NIALL O’LOUGHLIN


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