Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm

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Horsley, Imogene

(b Seattle, 31 Oct 1919; d Palo Alto, CA, 28 Oct 1981). American musicologist. She took the BA at the University of Washington in 1943 and the MA at Mills College in Oakland, California, in 1949. In 1954 she received the PhD from Radcliffe College with a dissertation on the variation before 1580. She taught at Carleton College (1954–69) and the University of Washington (1961–2). In 1969 she joined the faculty of Stanford University. Imogene Horsley specialized in the theory and performing practice of the music of the 16th and 17th centuries and wrote authoritative articles on the improvised ornamentation of this period. Her monograph on the fugue (1966) is a textbook for fugal writing with a thorough historical and analytical study of fugal theory and literature from the 15th century to the 19th.


‘Improvised Embellishment in the Performance of Renaissance Polyphonic Music’, JAMS, iv (1951), 3–19

The Variation before 1580 (diss., Radcliffe College, 1954)

‘The 16th-Century Variation: a New Historical Survey’, JAMS, xii (1959), 118–32

‘The Sixteenth-Century Variation and Baroque Counterpoint’, MD, xiv (1960), 159–65

‘The Solo Ricercar in Diminution Manuals: New Light on Early Wind and String Techniques’, AcM, xxxiii (1961), 29–40

‘The Diminutions in Composition and Theory of Composition’, AcM, xxxv (1963), 124–53

Fugue: History and Practice (New York, 1966)

‘Symposium on Seventeenth-Century Music Theory: Italy’, JMT, xvi (1972), 50–61

‘Full and Short Scores in the Accompaniment of Italian Church Music in the Early Baroque’, JAMS, xxx (1977), 466–99

‘Monteverdi's Use of Borrowed Material in “Sfogava con le stelle”’, ML (1978), 316–28

‘Has Musicology Destroyed the Historical Process?’, Essays on Music for Charles Warren Fox, ed. J.C. Graue (Rochester, NY, 1979), 126–31


Horsley, William

(b London, 15 Nov 1774; d London, 12 June 1858). English composer, organist and teacher. At the age of 16 he was articled for five years to Theodore Smith, pianist and composer; but a more important influence was his friendship with John Wall Callcott, who stimulated him to concentrate on the composition of vocal music. In 1794 he became organist of Ely Chapel, Holborn. In 1798 he was one of the founders of the Concentores Sodales, a glee-singing organization, and at about the same time began to assist Callcott as organist to the Asylum for Female Orphans, succeeding him in the post in 1802. On 18 June 1800 he graduated BMus at Oxford. On the revival of the Vocal Concerts Horsley began to supply them with compositions. He was one of the founders of the Philharmonic Society in 1813. In addition to his position at the asylum, which he held until 1854, he was organist at Belgrave Chapel (1812–37) and at the Charterhouse (from 1838). Having met Mendelssohn on the composer’s visit to London in 1829, he remained on friendly terms with him. He was a member of the Catch Club, the Royal Society of Musicians, and in 1847 was made a member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Music at Stockholm. On 12 January 1813 Horsley married Callcott’s daughter, Elizabeth Hutchins Callcott (1793–1875). Their elder son, J.C. Horsley, was a well-known painter and a Royal Academican; the other son was the composer Charles Edward Horsley.

For over 50 years, beginning in about 1797, Horsley produced compositions in a variety of forms. Nothing can now be found of the three symphonies he is said by Sainsbury to have composed for the Vocal Concerts, but his piano sonatas, especially no.2 (1814), are not to be despised. His anthems are forgotten, but two of his hymn tunes, ‘Belgrave’ (1819) and ‘Horsley’ (1844), maintain considerable popularity. His greatest achievement was as a glee composer: Baptie called him ‘one of the most elegant, learned and artistic of all the excellent glee composers our country has produced’, and named 80 out of a total of 124 glees. Barrett wrote of him: ‘In addition to a fine and powerful dramatic vein he possessed the special attribute of an elegant taste, and it may be added, that in the expression of passion he was almost unrivalled’. Among the most justly renowned examples are By Celia’s arbour (ATTB), Cold is Cadwallo’s tongue (ATTBB), Beauty, sweet love (SSATB), See the chariot at hand (SATB) and Mine be a cot (ATTB). Four of his partsongs have the title ‘madrigal’, though they show only a superficial familiarity with the true character of this form.

Horsley wrote also a number of songs and ballads; Gentle Lyre and The Sailor’s Adieu once enjoyed high esteem. In his theoretical writings, which had a considerable influence, Horsley was conservative and even pedantic, a stickler for the traditional rules of musical grammar. Knowing this, Samuel Wesley once wrote a composition that purposely broke the rules, and dedicated it ‘without permission to William Horsley Esquire, Mus.Bac., fifth and eighth catcher in ordinary and extraordinary to the Royal Society of Musicians’. As one of the judging committee of the Gresham Prize, Horsley applied what he believed to be immutable rules of music to condemn such progressive compositions as S.S. Wesley’s The Wilderness. A similarly narrow outlook can be seen in the preface to his edition of book 1 of Byrd’s Cantiones sacrae, prepared for the Musical Antiquarian Society, and in earlier essays and reviews contributed (anonymously and pseudonymously) to R.M. Bacon’s Quarterly Musical Magazine and Review. Horsley had taught theory to Bacon’s daughter Jane, and eventually became a regular collaborator in the magazine, writing on church music (Roman Catholic as well as Anglican), older English composers (Purcell, Blow and Croft were among his highest models) and instrumental works. In return, he enjoyed flattering coverage of his own music by Bacon. Horsley also served as Bacon’s inside connection to the London professional scene; most probably it was he who wrote the journal’s despairing review of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony in 1825, as well as several of its ‘State of Music in London’ reports.


printed works published in London unless otherwise indicated

9 anthems, 2 motets (Lat.), 1797–1837, GB-Lbl

24 Psalm Tunes and 8 Chants (1841); 6 Hymns from Henry VIII’s Primer (1847)

124 glees, pubd separately and in A Collection of Glees (1801); A 2d Collection, 3–6vv, op.4 (1804); 6 Glees, 2 S, B, op.3 (?1806); A 3d Collection (1811); A 4th Collection (1827); A Collection of Glees, ed. C.E. Horsley (Liverpool, 1873)

A Collection of Canons, 2–6vv, op.9 (1817)

22 songs, pubd separately and in Airs of the Rhine, 1–4vv, pf acc. (1828)

Pf works: 5 sonatas (1812–17), 3 Duettinos (1814), 113 Preludes (1845)

Edns.: A Set of Easy Lessons, pf, op.5 (?1812); J.W. Callcott’s A Musical Grammar (3/1817); Callcott’s A Collection of Glees, Canons and Catches [with a memoir] (1824); A Collection of Psalm Tunes (1828); Byrd’s Cantiones Sacrae, Bk 1 (1842)


Contributions to the Quarterly Musical Magazine and Review (London, 1818–28)

An Explanation of the Musical Intervals, op.8 (London, 1825)

An Introduction to the Study of Practical Harmony and Modulation (London, 1847)


DNB (R.F. Sharp); MGG1 (N. Temperley); SainsburyD

[W. Horsley, probably]: ‘Sketch of the State of Music in London’, Quarterly Musical Magazine and Review, v (1823), 241–75

W.A. Barrett: English Glee and Madrigal Writers (London, 1877), 38

D. Baptie: Sketches of the English Glee Composers (London, 1895), 82–5

J.C. Horsley: Recollections of a Royal Academician (London, 1903)

R.B. Gotch, ed.: Mendelssohn and his Friends in Kensington (London, 1934)

V. Opheim: The English Romantic Madrigal (diss., U. of Illinois, 1970)

L. Langley: The English Musical Journal in the Early Nineteenth Century (diss., U. of North Carolina, 1983), esp. 254–61


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