(b New York, 12 Feb 1948). American writer on music and music administrator. He studied at Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania (BA 1970). He was a music critic for the New York Times (1976–80) and programme editor and principal annotator for the Kaumann Auditorium of the 92nd Street Young Men’s–Young Women’s Hebrew Association, New York (1981–93). In 1992 he became artistic adviser to the Brooklyn Philharmonic; he was named executive director in 1994. Under his administration the subscription concerts of the Philharmonic have developed into a series of interdisciplinary thematic festivals, and the educational programming of the organization has expanded, particularly in the public schools. Horowitz has served as visiting professor at the Institute of Studies in American Music, Brooklyn College, and he is also on the faculty of the Mannes College of Music.
Horowitz’s writings focus on the institutional history of concert music and opera in the USA, particularly from the post-Civil War period to the present. In Understanding Toscanini he writes not only about the conductor but also about how the concert orchestra developed and was influenced by him. Wagner Nights is both a history of Wagnerism in America and the story of cultural life in New York in the 1890s. Horowitz has also written for the New York Review of Books, The Times Literary Supplement, Opera News, High Fidelity and the New York Times Magazine.
Conversations with Arrau (New York, 1982, 2/1992)
Understanding Toscanini (New York, 1987)
The Ivory Trade: Music and the Business of Music at the Van Cliburn International Piano Competition (New York, 1990)
‘Anton Seidl and America’s Wagner Cult’, Wagner in Performance, ed. B. Millington and S. Spencer (New Haven, CT, 1992), 168–81
‘Mozart as Midcult: Mass Snob Appeal’, MQ, lxxvi (1992), 1–16
‘Dvorak and the New World: a Concentrated Moment’, Dvorak and his World, ed. M. Beckerman (Princeton, NJ, 1993), 92–103
‘Finding a “Real Self”: American Women and the Wagner Cult of the Late Nineteenth Century’, MQ, lxxviii (1994), 189–205
Wagner Nights: an American History (Berkeley, 1994)
The Post-Classical Predicament: Essays on Music and Society (Boston, 1995)
Horowitz, Richard (Michael) [Ztiworoh, Drahcir]
(b Buffalo, NY, 6 Jan 1949). American composer. He studied piano from 1955 to 1966 with Daniel Kay, Fine and Florence Pelton. In 1968 he moved to Paris where he remained until 1974, studying piano and composition with Ariel Kalma, as part of the Groupe de Recherches Musicales, and synthesized music with George Aragada. He also performed jazz and avant-garde pieces with such musicians as Lacy, Braxton and Baikida Carroll and formed the ensemble Free Music Formation with Hugh Levick. In 1972 he travelled in Turkey and Morocco, where he settled in 1975 and studied microtonal modal modulation systems (with Abdelatif Kartuma and Hamid Ben Brahim) and the nāy, a bamboo flute of North African origin (with Kasim Nacquisabundi and Louis Soret). He also studied and made recordings of Berber music with the ethnomusicologist Philip Schuyler. In 1980 he returned to the USA and later settled in San Francisco.
Horowitz’s first compositions are film scores dating from the late 1960s and early 1970s, including Walls by Deide Von Slaven and Valparaiso by Ivery Getlis. His studies in North Africa led to music for the nāy, composed in both traditional and contemporary styles. Some of these works are improvisatory (e.g. Oblique Sequences, 1972–9), while others use the instrument in ensembles with voice (Queen of Saba, 1981), instruments (Mémoire, 1974–81), electronics (Saharazona, 1980), or synthesizer. After his return to the USA he composed music for Joey Shmerda (1980–83), a series of three radio dramas produced by the theatre group Mabou Mines and played nāy in David Byrne’s The Catherine Wheel (1981) for the choreographer Twyla Tharp. In 1981 he recorded Eros in Arabia, a collection of his music using ethnic instruments (nāy and bendīr), voice, synthesizer and prepared piano, and that year also completed Out of Thin Air, for the violinist Daniel Kobialka.
Since 1984, Horowitz has collaborated extensively with Sussan Deyhim on ballets, film projects and theatre pieces; he has also worked with Jaron Lanier. During the 1990s his attention has focussed on film scores. He received both the Golden Globe and the Los Angeles Film Critics Association awards for his scoring of Bertolucci’s The Sheltering Sky in collaboration with Ryiuchi Sakamoto.
Vocal (all wordless): Queen of Saba, 1v, nāy, 1981; Never Techno Foreign Answer, 1v, synth, chorus [collab. S. Deihim]; Desert Equations, 1v, nāy, bendīr, 1984 [collab. Deihim]
Nāy: Oblique Sequences (Solo Nāy Improvisations no.1), 1972–9; Mémoire, vn, nāy, synth, 1974–81; Solo Nāy Improvisations no.2, 1979–82; Saharazona, nāy, elec, 1980; Baby Elephant Logic, nāy, synth, 1981; Bandit Narah Master of Rajasthan, nāy, synth, 1981; Eros Never Stops Dreaming, nāy, bendīr, synth, 1981; Elephant Dance, nāy, synth, 1981; Solo Nāy Improvisations no.3, 1984; Au pays des arabes, nāy, synth, collab. A. Kalma
Synth and inst: Out of Thin Air, vn, synth, 1974–81; 23/8 for Conlon Nancarrow, prepared pf, 1981; Tamara Alexa Interdimensional Travel Agent, synth, 1981
Film scores: Valparaiso (I. Getlis), c1970; Walls (D. Von Slaven), c1970; Saharazona, 1983; The Sheltering Sky (dir. B. Bertolucci), 1990, collab. R. Salkamoto; Majoun, 1994–6; Verse per verse, 1998
Other works incl. Joey Shmerda (incid music for radio drama, J. Strahs), 1980–83, collab. B. Spencer; DP, mixed-media works, collab. S. Edery
STEPHEN RUPPENTHAL/DAVID PATTERSON