Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm

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Horne, Marilyn (Bernice)

(b Bradford, PA, 16 Jan 1929). American mezzo-soprano. She studied at the University of Southern California, taking part in Lotte Lehmann’s masterclasses. She sang the dubbed voice of Dorothy Dandridge in the film Carmen Jones in 1954, the year of her début at Los Angeles (as Háta in The Bartered Bride), then spent three seasons at Gelsenkirchen (1956–9), singing soprano and mezzo roles. In 1960 she first appeared at San Francisco, as Marie in Wozzeck (the role of her Covent Garden début in 1964). An association with Sutherland, which began in New York in 1961 with a concert performance of Beatrice di Tenda in which she sang Agnese, brought many notable performances – as Arsace to Sutherland’s Semiramide (1965, Boston), and as Adalgisa to her Norma (1967, Covent Garden; her Metropolitan début, 1970). She sang Néocles in Le siège de Corinthe at La Scala (1969), Carmen at the Metropolitan (1972), and Handel’s Rinaldo in Houston (1975). Among her other Rossini roles were Malcolm in La donna del lago (1981, Houston; 1985, Covent Garden), Falliero in Bianca e Falliero (1986, Pesaro), Andromache in Ermione (1987, Pesaro), Calbo in Maometto II (1988, San Francisco) and Isabella in L’italiana in Algeri (1989, Covent Garden). In the latter part of her career she sang Mistress Quickly (1988, San Francisco) and Delilah (1988, Théâtre des Champs-Elysées). Horne had a voice of extraordinary range, rich and tangy in timbre, with a stentorian chest register and an exciting top. Her recordings include several Rossini roles, Laura in La Gioconda, Juno in Semele, Gluck’s Orpheus, Anita in Massenet’s La Navarraise and Zerlina. In concert she once achieved the feat of singing in a single programme Rossini arias and Brünnhilde’s Immolation Scene, proof of her exceptional versatility. Throughout her lengthy career she was an admired recitalist, singing lieder, mélodies, Spanish and American songs with equal aplomb. She has written an autobiography, My Life (New York, 1984). She announced her retirement from performing in 1998.


M.R. Scott: ‘Marilyn Horne’, Opera, xviii (1967), 963–7

J.B. Steane: The Grand Tradition (London, 1974/R), 387ff


Horneman, Christian Frederik Emil

(b Copenhagen, 17 Dec 1840; d Copenhagen, 8 June 1906). Danish composer, son of the composer and music dealer Johan Ole Emil Horneman. He studied at the Leipzig Conservatory (1858–60) with Moscheles, Moritz Hauptmann and others, and there he met Grieg, who became a lifelong friend. After his return to Copenhagen he and his father established a music publishing firm (1861) where he issued, sometimes under pseudonyms, his own arrangements and potpourris of popular music (see Horneman & erslev).

Horneman's early compositions include two string quartets and the Aladdin overture (1864), perhaps his best-known work. The overture was first performed by the musical society Euterpe, which he founded in 1865 with other musicians, including Grieg. Horneman was the conductor of this society, which was intended as a platform for modern Danish music to supplement the Music Society controlled by Gade. It lasted for only a few years, but in 1874 Horneman helped to found Koncertforeningen (The Concert Society), which proved far more active and survived for nearly 20 years. In 1876 Horneman was replaced as conductor by P.E. Lange-Müller. Thereafter he devoted his life to teaching and composition. In 1880 he founded a conservatory, which bore his name and was carried on after his death until 1920 by his widow, Angul Hammerich and others. Horneman was nominated titular professor (1888) in the University of Copenhagen.

For more than 20 years (1865–87) Horneman worked on the opera Aladdin, his most important work. It was not well received at its première in 1888, but met with some success when it was performed again in 1902. Musically, Aladdin is distinguished by spectacular choruses, coulourful harmony and rhythmic variety, but it lacks dramatic momentum. He also wrote theatre music to different plays, most effectively in Esther, Kalanus (with a certain orientalism) and Gurre, where the old Danish love story of King Valdemar and Tove (treated by Schoenberg in Gurrelieder) is depicted with glowing orchestral colours. Horneman’s music shows the influence of Beethoven, Weber and Berlioz, displaying freshness, spontaneity and vigour in his dramatic works in particular. However, his gifts as a composer went largely unrecognized in his lifetime. His violent temper brought him into conflict with the leading figures in Danish musical life, Hartmann and Gade, although he admired and was influenced by both of them. Carl Nielsen, whose musical style owed much to Horneman, was impressed in particular by the advanced music of Kampen med Muserne, and characterized him in a speech given at the unveiling of a monument in the Assistents churchyard as ‘the bright flame, the purifying fire in Danish music, doing away with everything artificial, insincere and false’.


all printed works published in Copenhagen

MSS mainly in DK-Kk


incidental music, first perfomed in Copenhagen, unless otherwise stated

Aladdin (op, 4, B. Feddersen, after The Thousand and One Nights and A. Oehlenschlaeger), Royal, 19 Nov 1888 (1893–5)

Esther (H. Drachmann), Dagmar, 31 Aug 1889, songs (1889–90)

Dommeren i Zalamea [The Judge of Zalamea] (P. Calderón), Dagmar, 1 Sept 1892, songs (1892)

Barberen i Sevilla (P.-A. Beaumarchais), Dagmar, 14 Oct 1893, songs (1893)

Kong Hjarne Skjald [King Hjarne Skjald] (K. Gjellerup), Dagmar, 1 Dec 1893, songs (1893)

Gurre (Drachmann), Royal, 9 Feb 1901, ov., entr’actes, songs (1901)

Harlekins Omvendelse [The Conversion of Harlekin] (O. Rode), Dagmar, 10 May 1901, songs (1901)

Kalanus (F. Paludan-Müller), 1880/90, Dagmar, 1 Sept 1906, entr’actes, chorus, song (1904)

Kampen med Muserne [The Fight against the Muses] (Gjellerup), Royal, 9 Feb 1908 (1908–10)


Valfarten (P.L. Møller), Bar, orch, 1876

Lyrisk Suite, 1v, 4vv, orch, 1878

De tre Sange (Uhland), Bar, 4 male vv, orch, 1889

Cants.: at the opening of Tivoli Concert Hall, 1902; at J.P.E. Hartmann's centenary, 1905; at King Christian IX's death, 1906

52 songs, 8 duets, acc. pf


Heldenleben (Ouverture héroïque), orch (1867)

2 str qts, g, 1859 (1945); D, 1861; works for pf

Principal publisher: Samfundet til Udgivelse af Dansk Musik


DBL (E. Abrahamsen)

J. Fabricius: ‘C.F.E. Horneman’, Illustreret Tidende, xxxvii (1895), 115–16

G. Lynge: Danske Komponister i det 20. Aarhundredes Begyndelse (Århus, 1916–17), 145–57

S. Lunn: ‘C.F.E. Horneman’, DMt, xv (1940), 193–200

K.A. Bruun: Dansk musiks historie fra Holberg-tiden til Carl Nielsen, ii (Copenhagen, 1969), 214–42

N. Schiørring: Musikkens historie i Danmark, iii (Copenhagen, 1978), 83–8


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