Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm

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Horn, Karl Friedrich.

See Horn, Charles Frederick.

Horn band [Russian horn band].

In 1751 J.A. Mareš, a horn player of Bohemian birth attached to the court of Empress Elizabeth of Russia, conceived the idea of forming a band composed entirely of hunting horns. The instruments, later described as Russian horns, were largely straight with a wide conical bore and were played with a cupped trumpet-type mouthpiece. 37 different-sized horns would have been required for the three-octave compass that Mareš employed early on, as each player sounded only one note; the number was later increased to 60, giving five octaves. Most of the players in the bands were serfs with little or no musical training, thus Mareš devised a simplified rhythmic notation to enable them to play their single note on cue (see Tablature, fig.9 for an example from 1796). The difficulty of playing with precision must have been enormous; nevertheless, the first public concert near Moscow in 1753 was a huge success. Horn bands were popular among the Russian nobility, who often sold them to one another, players as well as horns.

The horn band was said to have been heard for miles and it was frequently dubbed a ‘living organ’. Though originally made of brass, by about 1774 more subdued wooden horns intended for indoor performance were constructed, the inside lacquered, the outside covered with leather. Performers in some bands played more than one horn and also obtained extra tones by using an added key to raise the pitch by a semitone or by overblowing to produce higher harmonics. In 1777 a tuning mechanism was added by Mareš. Travelling bands were received in western Europe and the British Isles as novelties, being both lauded as ‘ravishing’ and criticized for ‘reducing man to the level of a machine’.

Horn bands played arrangements of standard concert repertory such as overtures, symphonies, fugues, Russian airs and dances, as well as original pieces. Y.I. Fomin even included an offstage horn band in his melodrama Orfey i Evridika (1792). Though totally eclipsed by valved brass ensembles later in the 19th century, the horn band provided an early sonic model for the complete brass texture that was employed by many later composers.

Large Russian horn bands died out after the 1830s, but smaller bands of about 13 horns came into use in Bohemia and Saxony, especially by the miners of the Erzgebirge. In these bands each player could sound the fundamental note, its octave and (by placing one hand over the bell) the octave’s leading note; A.F. Anacker was among those who composed for such an ensemble. These bands disappeared at the end of the 19th century only to be revived as a folk instrument curiosity in the 1960s.

Bands of trumpets that play in a similar hocketing style are common throughout much of Africa, from Uganda and West Africa southwards (see Rwanda and Burundi and Uganda).


J. von Stählin: ‘Nachrichten von der Musik in Russland’, Musikalische Nachrichten und Anmerkungen auf das Jahr 1770 (Leipzig, 1770/R), 185–9

H.P.C. Bossler and J.F. Christmann, eds.: Musikalische Realzeitung für das Jahr 1788 (Speyer, 1788/R), i, 83–6, 95–6, 102–4

J.C. Hinrichs: Entstehung, Fortgang und jetzige Beschaffenheit der russischen Jagdmusik (St Petersburg, 1796/R)

‘Russian Horn Music’, The Harmonicon, ix (1831), 11–12

J.G. Dalyell: Musical Memoirs of Scotland with Historical Annotations (Edinburgh, 1849), 170–72

G. Seaman: ‘The Russian Horn Band’, MMR, lxxxix (1959), 93–9

R. Ricks: ‘Russian Horn Bands’, MQ, lv (1969), 364–71

M. Blechschmidt: Russische Hörner im Bergbau des Sächsischen Erzgebirges (Vienna, 1973)

D. Gerhardt: Die sogenannten russischen Hörner: Musik zwischen Kunst und Knute (Göttingen, 1983)


Hornbostel, Erich M(oritz) von

(b Vienna, 25 Feb 1877; d Cambridge, 28 Nov 1935). Austrian scholar. His parental home was a focus of Viennese musical life (his mother was the singer and Brahms devotee Helene Magnus) and in early youth he studied harmony and counterpoint under Mandyczewski; by his late teens he was an accomplished pianist and composer. After studying natural sciences and philosophy at the universities of Heidelberg and Vienna (1895–9) he took the doctorate in chemistry in Vienna (1900) and then moved to Berlin, where, under the influence of Stumpf at the university, he became absorbed in the study of experimental psychology and musicology, particularly tone psychology. He was an assistant to Stumpf at the Psychological Institute (1905) until its archives became the Berlin Phonogramm-Archiv, of which he was director from 1906 to 1933. In 1917 he was appointed professor at the university and in recognition of his achievements he was also given a lectureship without having to write a Habilitationsschrift. His pupils and assistants at the achive who later became prominent scholars included Fritz Bose, George Herzog, Hickmann, Husmann, Kolinski, Lachmann, Marius Schneider, Sachs, Wiora and the American composer Henry Cowell. Collectively they were known as the Berlin School. On being dismissed in 1933 (his mother was Jewish) he fled to Switzerland and then emigrated to New York with his wife and son to accept a lectureship at the New School for Social Research, but failing health obliged him to move to London in 1934. He spent the last months of his life in Cambridge working on a collection of ‘primitive’ recordings at the Psychological Laboratory.

With Stumpf and Otto Abraham, Hornbostel initiated the application of the concepts and methods of acoustics, psychology and physiology to the study of non-European musical cultures. Their efforts were decisive in achieving recognition for the newly developed discipline ‘vergleichende Musikwissenschaft’ (comparative musicology). With Abraham, Hornbostel published a series of essays on non-European music (Japanese, Turkish, Indian, Amerindian) based on materials at the Phonogramm-Archiv, and suggested a method for transcribing music from recordings. In 1904 they outlined a programme in comparative musicology similar to that of comparative linguistics. At the Second Congress of the International Musical Society (Basle, 1906) Hornbostel provided sufficient evidence for the use of empirical musicological data in ethnological research. Also in 1906 he undertook field research among the Pawnee Indians in North America, and in subsequent years concentrated on building up the collection at the Phonogramm-Archiv. During World War I his work with the psychologist Max Wertheimer on the physical and psychological basis of sound detectors took him to the major battle fronts and gave him the opportunity to record folk music in prison camps. In 1932 he was a leading participant at the Congress of Arabian Music in Cairo.

Despite the breadth and scope of his writings (86 articles and 59 reviews) Hornbostel never published a synthesis of his investigations. Some of his ideas, such as the theory of blown 5ths and the study of scale systems, have met with severe criticism (the former theory was attacked by Bukofzer, Lloyd and Schlesinger, but defended by Kunst). Yet his classification system of instruments (with Sachs, 1914, based on a system earlier proposed by V.-C. Mahillon) and his studies on the psychology of musical perception, the cross-cultural implications of tuning systems, and folk polyphonies remain important to ethnomusicology. His early writings, along with invaluable review articles up to 1960, have been collected and translated in Hornbostel: Opera omnia (1975–). Hornbostel's papers are housed with Max Wertheimer's papers in the special collections of the Library and Museum of the Performing Arts, Music Division, New York Public Library.


ed. C. Stumpf and E.v. Hornbostel: Abhandlungen zur vergleichenden Musikwissenschaft (Munich, 1922) [S]

ed. K.P. Wachsmann and others: Hornbostel: Opera omnia, i (The Hague, 1975) [W]

with O. Abraham: ‘Studien über das Tonsystem und die Musik der Japaner’, SIMG, iv (1902–3), 302–60 [S, 179–231; Eng. trans., W, 1–84]

‘Melodischer Tanz: eine musikpsychologische Studie’, ZIMG, v (1903–4), 482–8 [Eng. trans., W, 203–15]

with O. Abraham: ‘Phonographierte indische Melodien’, SIMG, v (1903–4), 348–401 [S, 251–90; Eng. trans., W, 115–82]

with O. Abraham: ‘Phonographierte türkische Melodien’, ‘Über die Bedeutung des Phonographen für die vergleichende Musikwissenschaft’, Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, xxxvi (1904), 203–21 [S, 233–50], 222–50 [Eng. trans., W, 91–113, 183–202]

‘Die Probleme der vergleichenden Musikwissenschaft’, ZIMG, vii (1905–6), 85–97 [Eng. trans., W, 247–70]

with O. Abraham: ‘Über die Harmonisierbarkeit exotischer Melodien’, SIMG, vii (1905–6), 138–41 [Eng. trans., W, 271–8]

with O. Abraham: ‘Phonographierte Indianermelodien aus Britisch Columbia’, Boas Anniversary Volume: Anthropological Papers, ed. B. Laufer (New York, 1906), 447–74 [S, 291–310; Eng. trans., W, 299–322]

‘Über den gegenwärtigen Stand der vergleichenden Musikwissenschaft’, IMusSCR II: Basle 1906, 50–60

‘Phonographierte tunesische Melodien’, SIMG, viii (1906–7), 1–43 [S, 311–48; Eng. trans., W, 323–80]

‘Notiz über die Musik der Bewohner von Süd-Neu-Mecklenburg’, in E. Stephan and F. Gräbner: Neu-Mecklenburg (Berlin, 1907), 131–7, musical suppls. i–iii [S, 349–58]

‘Fragebogen über bosnische und dalmatinische Doppelflageoletts und Doppelschalmeien’, Zeitschrift für österreichische Volkskunde, xiv (1908), 208–10

‘Über die Musik der Kubu’, in B. Hagen: Die Orang-Kubu auf Sumatra (Frankfurt, 1908), 245–56 [S, 359–77]

‘Phonographierte Melodien aus Madagaskar und Indonesien’, in A. Krämer: Anthropologie und Ethnographie, v: Forschungsreise S.M.S. ‘Planet’ 1906/07 (Berlin, 1909), 139–52

‘Über Mehrstimmigkeit in der aussereuropäischer Musik’, IMusSCR III: Vienna 1909, 298–303

with O. Abraham: ‘Vorschläge für die Transkription exotischer Melodien’, SIMG, xi (1909–10), 1–25; Eng. trans. in EthM, xxxviii (1994), 125–56

‘Wanyamwezi-Gesänge’, Anthropos, iv (1909), 781–800, 1033–52

‘Musikpsychologische Bemerkungen über Vogelgesang’, ZIMG, xii (1910–11), 117–28 [corrections 331–2]

with C. Stumpf: ‘Über die Bedeutung ethnologischer Untersuchungen für die Psychologie und Ästhetik der Tonkunst’, IV. Kongress für experimentelle Psychologie: Innsbruck 1910, 256–69; repr. in Beiträge zur Akustik und Musikwissenschaft, vi (1911), 102–15

‘Über einige Panpfeifen aus Nordwestbrasilien’, in T. Koch-Grünberg: Zwei Jahre unter den Indianern, ii (Berlin, 1910), 378–91

‘Über vergleichende akustische und musikpsychologische Untersuchungen’, Zeitschrift für angewandte Psychologie und psychologische Sammelforschung, iii (1910), 465–87; repr. in Beiträge zur Akustik und Musikwissenschaft, v (1910), 143–67

‘U.S.A. Nationale Music’, ZIMG, xii (1910–11), 64–8

‘Notizen über kirgisische Musikinstrumente und Melodien’, in R. Karutz: Unter Kirgisen und Turkmenen (Leipzig, 1911), 196–218

‘Über ein akustisches Kriterium für Kulturzusammenhänge’, Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, xliii (1911), 601–15

‘Arbeit und Musik’, ZIMG, xiii (1911–12), 341–50

‘Die Musik auf den nordwestlichen Salomo-Inseln’, in R. Thurnwald: Forschungen auf den Salomo-Inseln und dem Bismarck-Archipel, i (Berlin, 1912), 461–504

‘Melodie und Skala’, JbMP 1912, 11–23

with K.T. Preuss: ‘Zwei Gesänge der Cora-Indianer’, in K.T. Preuss: Die Nayarit-Expedition, i (Leipzig, 1912), 367–81

‘Die Musik der Pangwe’, in G. Tessmann: Die Pangwe, ii (Berlin, 1913/R), 320–57

‘Bemerkungen über einige Lieder aus Bougainville’, in E. Frizzi: Ein Beitrag zur Ethnologie von Bougainville und Buka (Leipzig, 1914), 53–6

with C. Sachs: ‘Systematik der Musikinstrumente: ein Versuch’, Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, xlvi (1914), 553–90; Eng. trans., in GSJ, xiv (1961), 3–29; repr. in Ethnomusicology: an Introduction, ed. H. Myers (London, 1992), 444–61

‘Gesänge aus Ruanda’, in J. Czekanowski: Forschungen im Nil-Kongo-Zwischengebiet, i (Leipzig, 1917), 379–412

‘Ch'ao-t'ien-tzě: eine chinesische Notation und ihre Ausführungen’, AMw, i (1918–19), 477–98

‘Erste Mitteilung über die Blasquinten-Theorie’, Anthropos, xiv–xv (1919–20), 569–70

‘Formanalysen an siamesischen Orchesterstücken’, AMw, ii (1920), 306–33

with M. Wertheimer: ‘Über die Wahrnehmung der Schallrichtung’, Sitzungsbericht der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (1920), 388–96

‘Musikalischer Exotismus’, Melos, ii (1921), 175–82; repr. in Der Auftakt, iv (1924), 274–6

‘Beobachtungen über ein- und zweiohriges Hören’, Psychologische Forschung, iv (1923), 64–114

‘Musik der Makuschí, Taulipáng und Yekuaná’, in T. Koch-Grünberg: Von Roroima zum Orinoco, iii (Stuttgart, 1923), 397–442; Eng. trans., M. Herndon, Inter-American Music Bulletin, no.71 (1969), 1–42

‘Die Entstehung des Jodelns’, Musikwissenschaftlicher Kongress: Basle 1924, 203–10

‘Die Einheit der Sinne’, Melos, iv (1924–5), 290–97; Eng. trans., Psyche, xxviii (1927), 83–9

‘Physiologische Akustik’, Jahresbericht über die gesamte Physiologie und experimentelle Pharmakologie: 1922, i (1925), 372–96

‘Die Musik der Semai auf Malakka’, Anthropos, xxi (1926), 277 only

‘Psychologie der Gehörserscheinungen’, in A. Bethe and others: Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie, xi (Berlin, 1926), 701–30

with O. Abraham: ‘Zur Psychologie der Tondistanz’, Zeitschrift für Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnersorgane, no.98 (1926), 233–49

‘Ethnologisches zu Jazz’, Melos, vi (1927), 510–12; repr. in Deutsche Tonkünstler-Zeitung, xxvi/468 (1928), 30–31

‘Laut und Sinn’, Festschrift Meinhof (Hamburg, 1927), 329–48

‘African Negro Music’, Africa, i (1928), 30–62; repr. in International Institute of African Languages and Cultures: Memorandum, iv (London, 1928), 1–35

‘Die Massnorm als kulturgeschichtliches Forschungsmittel’, Festschrift: publication d'hommage offerte au P.W. Schmidt, ed. W. Koppers (Vienna, 1928), 303–23

‘Tonart und Ethos’, Musikwissenschaftliche Beiträge: Festschrift für Johannes Wolf, ed. W. Lott, H. Osthoff and W. Wolffheim (Berlin, 1929/R), 73–8

‘Gestaltpsychologisches zur Stilkritik’, Studien zur Musikgeschichte: Festschrift für Guido Adler (Vienna, 1930/R), 12–16

‘Phonographierte isländische Zwiegesänge’, Deutsche Islandforschung, i, ed. W.H. Vogt (Breslau, 1930), 300–20

‘Phonographische Methoden’, Handbuch der biologischen Arbeitsmethoden, v, ed. E. Abderhalden (Berlin, 1930), 419–38

with K. Lindström, ed.: Musik des Orients: ein Schallplattenfolge orientalischer Musik von Japan bis Tunis, Odeon 04490–04491 (1931) [reissued as Music of the Orient, Decca SX 107 DL 9505 (1951)]

with R. Lachmann: ‘Asiatische Parallelen zur Berbermusik’, Zeitschrift für vergleichende Musikwissenschaft, i (1933), 4–11

with R. Lachmann: ‘Das indische Tonsystem bei Bharata und sein Ursprung’, Zeitschrift für vergleichende Musikwissenschaft, i (1933), 73–91

‘Carl Stumpf und die vergleichende Musikwissenschaft’, Zeitschrift für vergleichende Musikwissenschaft, i (1933), 25–8

‘The Ethnology of African Sound-Instruments’, Africa, vi (1933), 129–57, 277–311 [comments on C. Sachs: Geist und Werden der Musikinstrumente]

‘Zum Kongress für arabischen Musik – Kairo 1932’, Zeitschrift für vergleichende Musikwissenschaft, i (1933), 16–18

‘Fuegian Songs’, American Anthropologist, new ser., xxxviii (1936), 357–67; enlarged as ‘The Music of the Fuegians’, Ethnos, xiii (1948), 62–102

with G. Tessmann and K. Haddon: ‘Chama String Games (Peru)’, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, lxix (1939), 163–86

‘Geburt und erste Kindheit der Musik’, Jb für musikalische Volks- und Völkerkunde, vii (1973), 9–17 [posth. pubn of lecture delivered in 1928]


E. Closson: ‘E.M. von Hornbostel et l'ethnographie musical’, Guide musicale, lx (Brussels, 1914), 335–44

R. Lach: Die vergleichende Musikwissenschaft, ihre Methoden und Probleme (Vienna, 1924)

A. Wellek: ‘Die Aufspaltung der “Tonhöhe” in der Hornbostelschen Gehörpsychologie und die Konsonanztheorien von Hornbostel und Krueger’, ZMw, xvi (1934), 481–96, 537–53

G. Albersheim: Zur Psychologie der Ton- und Klangeigenschaften (unter Berücksichtigung der ‘Zweikomponenten-Theorie’ und der Vokalsystematik) (Strasbourg, 1939, 2/1975)

W. Danckert: ‘Musikwissenschaft und Kulturkreislehre’, Anthropos, xxxii (1937), 1–14

L.S. Lloyd: ‘Hornbostel's Theory of Blown Fifths’, MMR, lxxvi (1946), 3–6, 35–8

J. Kunst: ‘Around von Hornbostel's Theory of the Cycle of Blown Fifths’, Proceedings of the Royal Tropical Institute, lxxvi (Amsterdam, 1948)

A. Liebe and E.H. Meyer: ‘Prof. Dr. Erich M. von Hornbostel’, MG, ii (1952), 59–61

J. Blacking: ‘Some Notes on a Theory of African Rhythm Advanced by Erich von Hornbostel’, AfM, i/3 (1955), 12–18

J. Kunst: Ethnomusicology (The Hague, 3/1959), 86–9 [with bibliography, 134]

K. Reinhard: ‘Das Berliner Phonogrammarchiv’, Baessler-Archiv, new ser., ix (1961), 83–94

K. Reinhard and G. List.: disc notes, ‘Die Demonstrationssamlung von E.M. von Hornbostel und das Berliner Phonogramm-Archiv’, Ethnic Folkways Library, FE 4175 (1963)

V. Ernst: Die wissenschaftsgeschichtliche und philosophische Position von Erich M. von Hornbostel (Habilitationsschrift, U. of Berlin, 1970)

W. Graf: ‘Die vergleichende Musikwissenschaft in Österreich seit 1896’, YIFMC, vi (1974), 15–43

W. Wiora: Ergebnisse und Aufgaben vergleichender Musikforschung (Darmstadt, 1975)

N. Christensen, ed.: Hornbostel: Opera omnia: Bibliographies (The Hague, 1976)

A.P. Merriam: ‘Definitions of “Comparative Musicology” and “Ethnomusicology”: an Historical-Theoretical Perspective’, EthM, xxi (1977), 189–204

B. Nettl: The Study of Ethnomusicology (Urbana, IL, 1983)

C. Kaden and E. Stockman, eds.: E.M. von Hornbostel: Tonart und Ethos: Aufsätze zur Musikethnologie und Musikpsychologie (Leipzig 1986)

C. Kaden: ‘Erich Moritz von Hornbostel und die Berliner Schule der systematischen Musikwissenschaft’, Studien zur Berliner Musikgeschichte: vom 18. Jahrhundert bis zur Gegenwart, ed. T. Ebert-Obermeier (Berlin, 1989), 256–64

D. Christensen: ‘Erich M. von Hornbostel, Carl Stumpf, and the Institutionalization of Comparative Musicology’, Comparative Musicology and Anthropology of Music: Essays on the History of Ethnomusicology, ed. B. Nettl and P.V. Bohlman (Chicago, 1991), 201–9

A. Schneider: ‘Psychological Theory and Comparative Musicology’ in Comparative Musicology and Anthropology of Music: Essays on the History of Ethnomusicology, ed. B. Nettl and P.V. Bohlman (Chicago, 1991), 293–317

A.J. Racy: ‘Historical Worldviews of Early Ethnomusicology: an East-West Encounter in Cairo, 1932’, Ethnomusicology and Modern Music History, ed. S. Blum (Urbana, IL, 1991), 68–91

E. Stockman: ‘Ethnomusicology in Berlin: Aspects and Perspectives’, European Studies in Ethnomusicology: Historical Development and Recent Trends, ed., M.P. Baumann and others (Wilhelmshaven, 1992), 13–25

O. Elschek: ‘Systematische Musikwissenschaft und Persönlichkeitsgeschichte’, Sytematische Musikwissenschaft, i (1993), 309–38

A. Schneider: ‘Musikwissenschaft in der Emigration: zur Vertreibung von Gelehrten und zu den Auswirkungen auf das Fach’, Musik im Exil: Folgen des Nazimus für die internationale Musikkultur, ed. H.W. Heister and others (Frankfurt, 1993), 187–211

M.A. Weber: ‘Zum Wandel der Ethnomusikologie’, SMw, xlii (1993), 441–50

P. Simon: Die Hornbostel-Sachs'sche Systematik der Musikinstrumente: Merkmalarten und Merkmale (Siegburg, 1994)

K. Blaukopf: ‘Erich M. von Hornbostel, oder die Partnership der Spezialisten’, ÖMz, liii (1998), 31–4

S. Klotz, ed.: ‘Vom tönenden Wirbel menschlichen Tuns’: Erich M. von Hornbostel als Gestaltpsychologe, Archivar und Musikkwissenschaftler (Berlin, 1998)


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