Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm

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Horn, Charles Frederick [Karl Friedrich]

(b Nordhausen, Saxony, Feb 1762; d Windsor, 3 Aug 1830). English teacher, editor, organist and composer of German birth. According to memoirs by his son Charles Edward (MS Yomiuri Symphony Orchestra, Japan), Horn defied his father’s opposition to a career in music by taking lessons secretly from the Nordhausen organist Christoph Gottlieb Schröter and by leaving home in 1782 to become a musician in Paris. On his way, a stranger persuaded him to travel to London instead and after accompanying him there stole most of his money. When Horn confessed his plight to a German-speaking passer-by he was taken into a music shop, whose proprietor introduced him to the Saxon ambassador. Through this contact he was subsequently employed as a music master in the household of the 1st Marquess of Stafford. There he met Diana Dupont, a governess, whom he married on 28 September 1785; in consequence of her pregnancy, the couple moved to London where in May 1786 Horn published his six Sonatas op.1 with an impressive subscription list including the musicians Clementi and Salomon and members of the nobility. One subscriber, Lady Caroline Waldegrave, recommended Horn to Queen Charlotte, who had not employed a music master since J.C. Bach’s death in 1782. Horn instructed the royal princesses in music from June 1789 to October 1812 and attended the queen twice a week from 20 October 1789 to 9 October 1793. His connection with the royal family continued in his last years: in June 1824 George IV appointed him organist of St George’s Chapel, Windsor, where he died and is buried.

Horn’s compositions do not stand out from those of his contemporaries. He arranged works by Haydn, Mozart and Pleyel; his transcription of 12 J.S. Bach fugues for four instruments appeared in 1807. The following year he met Samuel Wesley and the two planned an extensive publication programme including an English translation by Horn’s friend Edward Stephenson of Forkel’s biography of Bach. According to Wesley, who described Horn as ‘indefatigable’, Horn proposed a complete edition of J.S. Bach’s music; however, only his adaptation of six Bach organ trios for the pianoforte and his ‘new and correct’ edition of the ‘48’ appeared, both in collaboration with Wesley. He also wrote A Treatise on Harmony with Practical Examples (London, ?1821).


all published in London

Inst: 6 sonatas, pf/hpd, vn, vc, op.1 (1786); 3 sonatas, pf/hpd, vn/fl, op.2 bk 1 (1791); 3 sonatas, pf, fl/ob/vn, op.3 (1794); 12 Country Dances, pf (1796); A Collection of Divertimentos, pf, vn (1804); The Boatman, 3vv, pf (1817); [12] Themes with Variations, pf (?1823); other rondos, songs etc.

Edns/arrs.: A Favorite Overture by Giuseppe Haydn [Sym. no.76], pf/hpd, vn (1786); Sinfonia for a Grand Orchestra composed by Mozart [k320], hpd/pf, vn, vc (c1790); Pleyel’s Celebrated Concertante, pf, vn (?1790); A Sett of 12 Fugues Composed for the Organ by Sebastian Bach arranged as Quartettos, 2 vn, va, vc/pf (1807); [with S. Wesley] A Trio composed originally for the organ by John Sebastian Bach and now adapted for 3 hands, pf (1809) [6 trios issued]; [with S. Wesley] New and correct edition of the Preludes and Fugues of John Sebastian Bach, pf, 4 bks (1810–13)


C.F. Horn: Autobiographical letter to Sainsbury (MS, 31 October 1823, GB-Gu) [incl. details omitted from SainsburyD]

E. Wesley, ed.: Letters of Samuel Wesley to Mr. Jacobs … relating to the introduction into this Country of the Works of John Sebastian Bach (London, 1875/R), 6–8

[C.E. Horn:] ‘Biographical Notice of the lately deceased Charles Frederick Horn’, Harmonicon, new ser., xxxiv (1830), 400–01

E.H. Fellowes: Organists and Masters of the Choristers of St George’s Chapel in Windsor Castle (Windsor, 1939), 68–70


Horn, Johann Caspar

(b Feldsberg, Lower Austria [now Valtice, Czech Republic], c1630; d Dresden, c1685). Austrian physician and amateur composer, active in Germany. What little is known of his life is found primarily in the preface to his collections of ballets, Parergon musicum. He practised as a physician, having completed his studies in Freiburg about 1651. He later studied law in Leipzig, where he spent most of his adult life. For at least nine years from 1663 he belonged to a fraternity of musical amateurs led by Sebastian Knüpfer, Kantor of the Thomaskirche. In 1680 he stayed briefly in Dresden, where he published the two parts of his cantata cycle Geistliche Harmonien.

Horn’s output is dominated by his six volumes of instrumental music, Parergon musicium, at least two of which were reprinted during his lifetime. Their musical contents offer a cross-section of approaches taken to the suite in the Germany of his day, while their prefaces are informative with regard to performance practice. The first volume, composed in the ‘Italian manner’, comprises fifteen suites, each made up of an identical sequence of dances. Two of the later volumes contain ballets in which the French style is explicitly emulated. Their subjects, like those of their French prototypes, are based either on mythology, as in Bal de Saturne déposé de son royaume, or on quasi-philosophical subjects, as in Bal des Affects avec la Raison. One of the largest, Bal d’Orphée, is divided into five acts and requires 100 performers. The music consists of a series of binary dances. Horn indicated which characters were to perform each dance by adding brief sub-titles to the first violin part, e.g. the third act of Bal d’Orphée begins with a ‘Gavotte (Les serviteurs d’Orphée)’. The dances are simple and restrained. They are rarely more than 20 bars long. The interest lies largely in the violin parts which generally move in parallel 3rds. Harmonic interest is minimal and there is virtually no counterpoint. Of the other volumes, one features intradas at the start of suites; in another, following a tradition then establishing itself in various parts of Germany, each suite begins with an abstract peice (entitled sonatina). Whatever their various stylistic leanings, all of the first five volumes are scored for five parts (with the violins occasionally in unison); the sixth, however, makes use of polychoral techniques involving up to twelve parts.

The Musicalische Tugend- und Jugend-Gedichte consists in part of a poem of nine stanzas portraying six folk characters, among them a scissors-grinder, a news-vendor and a thief. Each character sings one strophe, and the piece concludes with a chorus of the entire group. It can be assumed that this music, like that of the ballets, was intended for amateur performance, either by a collegium musicum, such as the one in Frankfurt (to whom Horn dedicated this collection), or by a Pindusgesellschaft, a precursor of the student societies which later performed Christmas operettas. The Geistliche Harmonien, in the style of the sacred concerto, was one of the last to be based entirely on biblical texts and one of the first to require instruments in addition to the continuo.


Parergon musicum, oder musicalisches Neben-Werck, 5–12 insts, 6 vols. (Leipzig, 1663–1676); 1 suite ed. in Nef; 1 gavotte ed. in Mw, xxvi (1964)

Scherzende Musenlust, in allerhand Arien, Madrigale, Canzonetten, 5vv 5 vn, bc (Leipzig, 1673)

Musikalische Tugend- und Jugend-Gedichte, 1–6vv, 5 vn/fl, bc (Frankfurt, 1678)

Geistliche Harmonien über die gewöhnlichen Evangelia, 4vv, 2 vn, 2 va, bc, 2 vols. (Dresden, 1680–81)

A solis ortus cardine, cant., 4vv, 4 inst, org, D-Bsb

Sonata, 2 ob, bc, Bsb; authenticity questioned by EitnerQ


K. Nef: Geschichte der Sinfonie und Suite (Leipzig, 1921/R)

A. Schering: Musikgeschichte Leipzigs, ii (Leipzig, 1926/R)

H.J. Moser: Die mehrstimmige Vertonung des Evangeliums, i (Leipzig, 1931/R)

H.J. Moser: Corydon, das ist Geschichte des mehrstimmigen Generalbass-Liedes und des Quodlibets im deutschen Barock (Brunswick, 1933/R), i

Å. Davidsson: Catalogue critique et descriptif des imprimés de musique des 16e et 17e siècles conservés à la bibliothèque de l’Université royale d’Upsala (Uppsala, 1951)

R. Schaal: Die Musikhandschriften des Ansbacher Inventars von 1686 (Wilhelmshaven, 1966)


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