Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm

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Horký, Karel

(b Štěměchy u Třebíče, 4 Sept 1909; d Brno, 27 Nov 1988). Czech composer. At the age of 14 he joined the army band in Znojmo as a bassoonist. He then played in various orchestras before joining the theatre orchestra in Brno in 1937. After studying composition with Haas (1937–9) and taking part in Křička’s masterclasses at the Prague Conservatory (1941–4), Horký taught composition at the Brno Conservatory (as professor from 1961 and director, 1964–7) and at the Janáček Academy of Music. His command of orchestral writing and of individual instruments equipped him to compose in large forms, especially opera, in which he showed a natural sense of drama. The music in his operas is essentially written to lend support to the text. He was interested in stories with a strong social-ethical content and often sought parallels between past and present. The quasi-oratorio Jan Hus is a broad fresco expressing opposition to the subjugation of the Czech nation by the Nazis. The exigencies of cultural politics during the 1950s led Horký to compose the romantic folk opera Hejtman Šarovec and, later, Svítání (‘Daybreak’), which is about the birth of the workers’ movement in Czechoslovakia.



Jan Hus, tastura [The Shell] (ballet), 1939–40 (orat-op, 6, V. Kantor), 1944–9, Brno, 27 May 1950, rev. 1959

Král Jecmínek {King Jecmínek] (ballet), 1949–50

Hejtman Sarovec (folk op, 5, F. Kožík), 1951–2, Brno, 5 Dec 1953

Jed z Elsinoru [Poison from Elsinore] (2, V. Renč, after M. Rejnuš and W. Shakespeare), 1967–8, Brno, 11 Nov 1969

Svítání [Daybreak] (4, J. Nezval, after A. Zápotocký), 1975, Brno, 4 July 1975

Atlantida [Atlantis] (4, E. Bezděková, after V. Nezval), 1980–81, Brno, 30 Sept 1983

other works

Orch: Klytia, sym. poem, 1942; Vc Conc., 1953; Vn Conc., 1955; Sym. no.1, 1959; Serenade, str, 1963; Sym. no.2, 1964; Sym. no.3, 1969; Osudová preludia [Prelude of Fate], pf, orch, 1972; Sym. no.4, 1974; Concs. for bn, cl, trbn, hn

Chbr and solo inst: Str Qt no.1, 1938; Str Trio, 1940; Suite, wind qnt, 1943; Sonatina, ob, pf, 1953; Str Qt no.2, 1954; Str Qt no.3, 1955; Cl Qnt, 1960; Sonatina, db, pf, 1961; Sonatina, cl, pf, 1967; 3 skladby [3 Pieces], vc, pf, 1971

Vocal: 2 cants., 9 song cycles, 4 choral pieces

Principal publishers: Český hudební fond, Dilia



K. Horký: ‘Skladatel Karel Horký o sobě’ [The composer Horký on himself], OM, iii (1971), 22–3

J. Vysloužil: ‘Za Karlem Horkým’ [Behind Horký], HRo, xlii (1989), 103–4



(fl ?c1450). Composer. Four three-voice rondeau settings by him appear together in the Escorial Chansonnier (E-E IV.a.24, ff.52v-56). The ascriptions are all written in a broad and rough hand that is not found elsewhere in the manuscript and may well be that of the writer (perhaps the composer himself) who added accidentals to all four songs. (See M.K. Hanen: The Chansonnier El Escorial IV.a.24, Henryville, PA, 1983, i, pp.80–81 and nos.44–7.)


Hörmann, Johann Heinrich

(b 1694; d 1763). German composer. His one surviving publication, Alauda coelestis (Augsburg, 1750), contains six masses which are typical of much church music being published in the mid-18th century, when such music was becoming rather more elaborate than had been usual in the 1720s and 30s. There are also some manuscsript instrumental pieces, some of them scored with the participation of unusual instruments like hurdy-gurdy or jew’s harp as the middle part of the score. An account of his career is given in W. Senn: ‘Der Innsbrucker Hofmusiker Johann Heinrich Hörmann’, Tiroler Heimatblätter [Innsbruck] l (1975), 85–94.



(Fr. cor, cor d’harmonie; cor à pistons [valve horn]; cor simple, cor à main [hand horn]; cor de chasse, huchet, trompe de chasse [hunting horn]. Ger. Horn; Ventilhorn [valve horn]; Naturhorn [hand horn]; Hiefhorn, Hifthorn, Jagdhorn, Waldhorn [hunting horn]. It. corno; corno a macchina [valve horn]; corno a mano, corno naturale [hand horn]; corno da caccia, tromba da caccia [hunting horn]. Sp. trompa; trompa da caza [hunting horn]).

A term that refers, in its broadest sense, to a variety of wind instruments usually of the lip-reed class. A distinction often drawn between horns and trumpets is that the bore of a trumpet is mainly cylindrical, that of a horn mainly conical. In the Hornbostel-Sachs classification system, however, horns are considered to be within the family of trumpets (see Aerophone). Horns used for signalling (and sounding perhaps only one note) have been fashioned from conches, animal horns etc., as well as metal. Horns capable of playing many notes usually consist of a conical brass (or other metal) tube in a curved, coiled or hooped shape. By virtue of its length and slender proportions the horn can be made to sound a larger number of notes in its natural harmonic series than can other brass instruments.

This article is concerned with the European orchestral horn, often referred to as the ‘french horn’, probably in recognition of its country of origin, but nowadays the adjective is normally omitted. For a discussion of non-European horns and further details relating to horns as members of the trumpet family see Trumpet, §§1–2.

See also Organ stop.

1. General.

2. History to c1800.

3. History from c1800.

4. Notation and transposition.

5. Repertory.



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