Hopwood & Crew.
One of the music publishing companies that amalgamated to form Ascherberg, hopwood & crew.
(b St Gallen, c1515; d 1572). Swiss humanist. He was a school teacher in St Gallen from 1546 to 1553. Later he was a preacher in Grub, Trogen and (from 1563 until his death) in Arbon. Of his works, four partbooks survive (CH-Zz Car.V. 169a–d) and an organ tablature (Zz Z.XI.301, ed. in SMd, vii, 1970). According to the partbooks’ dedication he had ‘studied and practised compositions’. They contain Isaac’s Missa in tempore pascali, with simple four-part settings added by Hör for the parts of the text not set polyphonically by Isaac. The tablature book is musicologically more interesting. Hör devised it for his own use and it is found as an appendix to a printed treatise on medicine. Written in German organ tablature it contains 47 intabulations, of which 13 are probably unica. For his vocal models Hör used lied settings by Adam von Fulda, Josquin, Sixt Dietrich, Greiter, Hofhaimer, Isaac, Senfl and Zwingli.
HANS JOACHIM MARX
(b Prague, 7 Dec 1936). Czech organist and teacher. He studied the organ from 1951 to 1956 at the Prague Conservatory with J.B. Krajs and at the Prague Academy of Musical Arts from 1956 to 1960 with Jiří Reinberger, and undertook postgraduate study in 1965 at the Franz Liszt Hochschule in Weimar with J.-E. Köhler. A début recital in 1955 at the church of St Martín in Prague led to a distinguished performing career specializing in Baroque music, old Czech music and Czech composers of the 20th century. Among his premières are works by Jiří Teml (1972, 1977, 1984) and Milan Slavický (1988, 1994). In 1965 Hora was appointed to teach the organ at the Prague Conservatory, and in 1977 was appointed professor of organ at the Prague Academy of Musical Arts. Significant recordings include the organ concertos of Brixi and the organ part of Janáček's Glagolitic Mass with the Czech PO. He has also edited Czech music and written scholarly articles.
Horace [Quintus Horatius Flaccus]
(b 8 Dec 65 bce; d 27–8 Nov 8 bce). Roman lyric poet. After secondary schooling at Rome, Horace went to Athens for higher studies. He enlisted in Brutus’s forces and shared their defeat at Philippi. Pardoned and once more back in Rome, he began to write poetry. Some of his works secured him an introduction to Maecenas, patron of Virgil and other poets. This marked the beginning of his success; he was esteemed and sought after by prominent men, including the Emperor Augustus.
The works of Horace include four books of odes, predominantly sapphic and alcaic in metre; two books each of satires and epistles, in hexameters; a book of epodes, almost entirely iambic or dactylic-iambic; and a commissioned festival work, the Carmen saeculare, written in sapphic strophes. References to music and the Muses abound in his poetry, although they are very seldom technical. There can be no doubt of his wish to ally himself with the great tradition of Greek lyric poetry written on the island of Lesbos, in particular the work of Sappho and Alcaeus. He made his intention clear in the odes by a preferential use of their characteristic metres and by direct allusions to them or to their art, especially in book 1. It is the ‘barbitos of Lesbos’ that he mentioned at the close of the dedicatory ode (1.i.34–6), when he voiced the hope that he would be ranked with the nine lyric poets of the Greek canon.
There is unassailable literary and epigraphical evidence that the Carmen saeculare was sung; no comparable proof can be cited for sung performance of the odes. Many factors, however, combine to suggest that such performance was possible and indeed probable. Horace would have heard Greek lyric poetry sung on many occasions during his student years at Athens. Moreover, it is now known that the level of musical sophistication among upper-class Romans would easily have ensured an intelligent and appreciative reception of lyrics with a musical setting. Horace's many allusions to music, particularly to the lyre, take on much greater naturalness and force under such a suggestion than a merely decorative or symbolic role allows.
The hypothesis that the odes were sung also suggests an explanation of the poet's self-description as ‘the first to have composed Aeolian poetry to the [?]melodies [modos] of Italy’ (Odes, 3.xxx.13–14). These words, long a puzzle, have usually been taken to refer to metre. Such an interpretation strains the sense of modos, and it is in some measure contradicted by Catullus’s metrical experimentation, most notably with sapphics. Horace may actually be referring to the birth of a new art form, the Latin lyric poem as a unified combination of text and music.
In his Ars poetica (written c20 bce and published a few years later), Horace aligns himself with the conservative tradition and is particularly biting in his association of the aulos (tibia) with the new style, which he decries as vulgar: ‘So to the early art the aulete added movement and display, and, strutting o'er the stage, trailed a robe in train. So, too, to the sober lyre new tones were given, and an impetuous style brought in an unwonted diction; and the thought, full of wise saws and prophetic of the future, was attuned to the oracles of Delphi’ (Ars poetica, 202–19; Fairclough, 466–9). Horace also confirms the central dramatic role of the chorus (cf Euripides) and states that it should ‘sing nothing between acts that does not advance and aptly fit the plot’ (Ars poetica, 194–5; Fairclough, 466).
E.C. Wickham and H.W. Garrod, eds.: Q. Horati Flacci opera (Oxford, 1912/R)
H.R. Fairclough, trans.: Horace: Satires, Epistles and Ars poetica (London and Cambridge, MA, 1926, 2/1929/R)
H. Thomas: ‘Musical Settings of Horace's Lyric Poems’, PMA, xlvi (1919–20), 73–97
L.P. Wilkinson: Horace and his Lyric Poetry (Cambridge, 1945, 2/1968)
E. Fraenkel: Horace (Oxford, 1957/R)
N. Collinge: The Structure of Horace's Odes (Oxford, 1961)
G. Wille: ‘Singen und Sagen in der Dichtung des Horaz’, Eranion: Festschrift für Hildebrecht Hommel, ed. J. Kroymann and E. Zinn (Tübingen, 1961), 169–84
S. Commager: The Odes of Horace (London, 1962)
E. Pöhlmann: ‘Marius Victorinus zum Odengesang bei Horaz’, Philologus, cix (1965), 134–40
G. Wille: Musica romana (Amsterdam, 1967), 234ff
A.J.W. Holleman: ‘Horace (Odes, 1, 17) and the “Music of Love”’, Latomus, xxix (1970), 750–55
G. Wille: ‘Horaz als politischer Lyriker’, Festschrift für Konstantinos Merentitis, ed. A.D. Papanikolaou (Athens, 1972), 439–81
D.A. Russell: ‘Ars poetica’, Horace, ed. C.D.N. Costa (London and Boston, 1973), 113–34, esp. 120
G. Wille: Einfürung in das römische Musikleben (Darmstadt, 1977), 118–20, 125–31
For further bibliography see Rome, §I.
WARREN ANDERSON/THOMAS J. MATHIESEN