Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm



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Hopak [gopak].


A Ukrainian folkdance and folksong. It is danced by one person or by a group of people dancing the same steps, and is in strongly marked duple metre with a robust character. Musorgsky’s hopak music in his Sorochintsy Fair (1874–80) is a good example of its style; one of his satirical songs is entitled Hopak (1866).


Hope-Jones, Robert


(b Hooton Grange, nr Hooton, Cheshire, 9 Feb 1859; d Rochester, NY, 13 Sept 1914). English electrical engineer and organ builder. In 1892, abandoning a career as a telephone engineer, he created the Hope-Jones Electric Organ Co. Ltd (36737) and in 1895 its successor the Electric Organ Co. Ltd (44344); based in Birkenhead and from 1898 Norwich, the companies built a total of about 100 organs. Hope-Jones's magnum opus, his organ at Worcester Cathedral (1896), had a detached console with stop keys instead of stop knobs and a sophisticated (but unreliable) electro-pneumatic action. It had no mixtures or mutations and only three registers above 4'. The Pedal included a heavily-blown open wood flute (Tibia Profunda) and a valvular reed thought to have been invented by Hope-Jones (Diaphone; see Organ, §III, 4). On the manuals, novel voices included a large-scale open Diapason (Diapason Phonon) with high cut-ups and leathered upper lips, voiced on heavy wind (250 mm); wooden flutes of similar treatment (Tibia Plena, Tibia Clausa); and an exceptionally narrow string (a Viol d'Orchestre with a diameter at C of 27 mm). In a letter in Musical Opinion (Nov 1896), Hope-Jones said ‘the 8ft. instrument commonly called an orchestra possesses sufficient brilliancy … [to make unnecessary the addition of] “chorus work” in the form of a few hundred piccolos playing fifths, thirds and octaves’: he believed that the exaggerated scales, heavy pressures, quintadenas and octave couplers compensated for absent choruses. The organs at the McEwan Hall, Edinburgh (one of a number of examples of brewers' patronage), St Mary's, Warwick, and St George's, Hanover Square, London (all 1897), were characteristic examples of Hope-Jones's mature style. From 1899 he increasingly used extension and duplexing (see Extension organ): the organs at St Modwen's, Burton upon Trent (1899), and Warwick Castle (1902) exemplified this markedly different approach. In 1899 Norman & Beard bought the second company and occasionally made electric organs under Hope-Jones's supervision (e.g. Battersea Town Hall, London, 1900). In 1901 Hope-Jones went into partnership with Eustace Ingram, but in 1903 he emigrated to America where he worked briefly for Austin, L.C. Harrison and Skinner before forming his own firm in 1907. His increasing difficulties with Wurlitzer, to whom he sold his interests in 1910, brought about his suicide. Major instruments in America included those at Park Church, Elmira, New York (1906), and the Auditorium, Ocean Grove, New Jersey (1908).

Hope-Jones was important for grasping the potential of electricity in organ design. He was the first to adopt extensively the ‘unit’ principle (the basis of the Wurlitzer–Hope-Jones Unit Orchestra, and, later, the Cinema organ) and his voicing style influenced John Compton, Arthur Harrison and others. The organs at St Mary's, West Croydon; Battersea; Scofton, Nottingham; Llanrhaeadr, near Denbigh; and Alwalton, Peterborough, are among the few reasonably intact survivors, mechanical unreliability having led to the rebuilding of most of the others. The Worcester organ retains Hope-Jones's Viol and the 32' octave of the Diaphone (now disconnected).


BIBLIOGRAPHY


T. Elliston: Organs and Tuning (London, 1894, enlarged 3/1898, repr. with addenda 1903, 1911, 1916, 1924)

C.W. Pearce: ‘Worcester Cathedral’, Organist and Choirmaster, xii (1904–5), 78–9

Dotted Crotchet’: ‘Worcester Cathedral’, MT, xlvi (1905), 705–14



A. Freeman: ‘The Organs of Worcester Cathedral’, The Organ, v (1925–6), 65–77

M. Sayer: ‘New Light on Hope-Jones’, The Organ, lx (1980–81), 20–38

R. Clark: ‘An Apparently Controversial Instrument’, JBIOS, xvii (1993), 48–63

R. Clark: Robert Hope-Jones, MIEE: an Interim Account of his Work in the British Isles (diss., U. of Reading, 1993)

RELF CLARK


Hopekirk [Wilson], Helen


(b Edinburgh, 20 May 1856; d Cambridge, MA, 19 Nov 1945). American pianist, composer and teacher of Scottish origin. Following early studies in piano and composition in Edinburgh, she attended the Leipzig Conservatory from 1876 until 1878. There she studied with Carl Reinecke, Salomon Jadassohn (composition), Louis Maas (piano) and E.F. Richter (counterpoint), and formed lifelong friendships with fellow students Carl Muck and George Chadwick. Following successful débuts with the Leipzig Gewandhaus (28 Nov 1878) and at the Crystal Palace (15 March 1879), London, she toured England and Scotland. She married the music critic, painter and businessman William A. Wilson in 1882, and, with her husband as manager, made her American début on 7 December 1883 with the Boston SO. Following three highly successful years touring the USA, she felt the need for further development; in Vienna she studied the piano with Theodor Leschetizky and composition with Karel Navrátil. In 1892 they moved to Paris to enable further composition study with Richard Mandl. After her husband's severe injury in a traffic accident, Hopekirk accepted Chadwick's offer of a teaching post at the New England Conservatory in 1897. She became involved at every level of music-making in Boston, and promoted Edward MacDowell's piano works as well as introducing works by Fauré, Debussy and d'Indy. In 1901 she left the Conservatory to teach privately. She continued to perform, making her last appearance in April 1939 playing only her own compositions. Her music is characterized by Gaelic folk music, neoclassical tendencies and strong formal organization.

WORKS


(selective list)

Orch: Conzertstück, pf, orch, 1894; Pastorale, 1899; Pf Conc., 1900; Légende, 1910

Vocal: 100 songs, incl. 5 Songs (F. Macleod) (New York, 1903), 6 Songs (Macleod) (New York, 1907), 70 Scottish Songs (arrs.) (Boston, 1905); choral works

Other inst: Suite, pf (Boston, 1917); A Norland Eve, pf (Boston, 1919); 2 sonatas, vn, pf, e, 1891, D, 1893

BIBLIOGRAPHY


A.G. Cameron: Helen Hopekirk: a Critical and Biographical Sketch (New York, 1885)

C.H. Hall and H.I. Tetlow: Helen Hopekirk, 1856–1945 (Cambridge, MA, 1954) [incl. list of works]

D. Muller: Helen Hoperkirk (1856–1945): Pianist, Composer, Pedagogue. A Biographical Study; a Thematic Catalogue of her Works for Piano; a Critical Edition of her Conzertstück in D minor for Piano and Orchestra (diss., U. of Hartford, 1995)

PAMELA FOX


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