See Woodblock. See also Chinese woodblock.
Holzbogen, Johann [Joseph] Georg
(b Schwandorf, bap. 15 Aug 1727; d Munich, 7 Sept 1775). German violinist and composer. He was a supernumerary violinist in the Munich court orchestra (1751–2), and soon afterwards (c1752) became a chamber virtuoso in the orchestra of Duke Clemens Franz von Paula in Bavaria. In 1759 the duke sent him to study the violin and composition with Tartini in Padua. After his return in 1762 his technical prowess was admired, but he was said to lack ‘noble taste’. He composed concertos and symphonies for the Munich court and undertook several concert tours, including a trip to Frankfurt with the horn player Joseph Leutgeb (1769–70), and one to the court of Ansbach with the bassoonist Felix Rheiner (1771). After the death of Duke Clemens in 1770, Holzbogen received a pension but rejoined the Munich court orchestra in 1771. He had fewer opportunities to appear as a soloist there, but in 1772 was heard at a private concert by Burney, who passed a very favourable judgment on his playing. Holzbogen’s compositions include sacred works as well as symphonies, concertos and chamber pieces which reflect the strong Italian influence on Munich’s instrumental music before the arrival of the Mannheim court in 1778.
Vocal: 3 meditations, 1760–73, frags. D-FS, IN; Mass, G, FS; Quodlibetum, B, 2 vn, va, b, lost
Inst: c15 syms., A-Gd, ST, D-Mbs, I-Gl; Divertimento, vn, orch, A-Gd, 13 trios, 2 vn, b, D-Mbs, ZL, US-BEm; Vn Conc., 2 fl concs., 2 concs. for 2 hn, 12 orch minuets, 6 sonatas for bn, b, trio for hn, ob, bn, all lost
V. Duckles and M. Elmer: Thematic Catalog of a Manuscript Collection of Eighteenth-Century Italian Instrumental Music in the University of California, Berkeley, Music Library (Berkeley, 1963)
R. Münster: ‘Johann Georg Holzbogen’, Oberpfälzer Heimat, ix (1964), 43–8
B.S. Brook, ed.: The Breitkopf Thematic Catalogue, 1762–1787 (New York, 1966)
R. Münster and R. Machold: Thematischer Katalog der Musikhandschriften der ehemaligen Klosterkirchen Weyarn, Tegernsee und Benediktbeuern (Munich, 1971)
(b Budapest, 2 Sept 1813; d Vienna, 3 Dec 1883). Austrian bass-baritone. The son of an actor-singer, he made his stage début at the age of 16 in Sopron, then sang in Graz, Berlin and Zürich. Engaged at the Vienna Hofoper in 1840, he remained there for more than 20 years. In 1843 at the Kärntnertortheater he created Di Fiesco in Donizetti’s Maria di Rohan. Dismissed from the Hofoper in 1863 for altering the words of Friar Tuck’s song in Marschner’s Der Templer und die Jüdin, he appeared at Darmstadt, Nuremberg, the Theater an der Wien and the Munich Hofoper, where he created Beckmesser in Die Meistersinger in 1868. In New York he took part in the American première of Der Schauspieldirektor (1870). An excellent comic actor, he sang Baculus (Der Wildschütz) at his farewell performance in 1877. Other roles included Leporello, Don Basilio and Van Bett (Zar und Zimmermann).
German family of organ builders. Alexander Holzhey (b Rappen, Upper Swabia, 30 Sept 1722; d Tussenhausen, 25 March 1772) worked with his father-in-law, Augustin Simnacher, in Tussenhausen and later succeeded him. After Simnacher’s death he completed the organ in Brixen (now Bressanone) Cathedral (1756–8). In 1760 he collaborated with his brother-in-law Joseph Antoni Simnacher to build the double organ in the Augustinian abbey of Neustift (now Novacella). The specification of the latter organ, especially in the second manual, shows a predilection for 8' stops (including strings), and in both manuals not less than four 4' stops, some only in the treble, thus offering a wide range of possibilities for ‘gallant’ registrations. Alexander’s son Franz Xaver (1757–1821) worked with J.B. Kronthaler and J.E. Feyrstein; he later owned a workshop in Kaufbeuren, but was less important than his father.
Johann Nepomuk Holzhey (b Rappen, 26 Feb 1741; d Ottobeuren, 18 Sept 1809), nephew of Alexander, was probably apprenticed to his uncle. He worked with Karl Joseph Riepp in Ottobeuren and later took over the Ottobeuren workshop of his father-in-law Joseph Zettler. He was the most important southern German organ builder of his time. There are surviving instruments by him at Ursberg (1777; with Choir organ), Ober-marchtal (1782–4), Weissenau (1787), Rot an der Rot (1792–3) and Neresheim (1794–7). J.N. Holzhey’s organs are characterized by a synthesis of southern German and French elements, with rich palettes of foundation stops and reeds in all manuals and in the Pedal. The third manual is an Echo within the lower case, without a Principal chorus, but with Cornet IV and divided reeds. He gave up building Choir organs. His organ cases reflect the transition from the Baroque to classicism. J.N. Holzhey had no successor; his son Alois Michael (1784–1805) died in Maribor before he could establish himself as an independent organ builder.
Franz Joseph Holzhey (b Oberegg, 11 Oct 1764; d Reschen [now Resia], 6 July 1823), nephew of Johann Nepomuk, was a joiner and organ builder. The era in which he lived, after the Napoleonic Wars and the Secularization, was very disadvantageous for organ building and he had no opportunity to build new organs. His son Johann Kaspar (1801–67) eventually worked as a joiner. Another son, Johann Georg (1805–35), worked with Josef Pröbstl until 1831. After this date the family ceased to build organs.
R. Weber: Die Orgeln von Joseph Gabler und Johannes Nepomuk Holzhey (Kassel, 1933)
W. Supper and H. Meyer: Barockorgeln in Oberschwaben (Kassel, 1941)
U. Höflacher: Johann Nepomuk Holzhey: ein oberschwäbischer Orgelbauer (Ravensburg, 1987)
U. Höflacher: ‘Johann Nepomuk Holzheys Leistung im süddeutschen Orgelbau’, Acta organologica, xxiv (1994), 191–208
A. Reichling: ‘Die Orgelbauer Holzhey und ihre Beziehungen zu Tirol’, Acta organologica, xxiv (1994), 209–46