(b Osnabrück, 15 Aug 1921). German trumpeter. After studying with Karl Burmeister at the Osnabrück Conservatory, he played in orchestras in Herford (1945), Bielefeld (1945–50), Frankfurt (1950–51) and Hanover (1951–6). He was a member of the Cologne RO from 1956 to 1983, and from 1968 to 1974 taught the trumpet at the Folkwang Hochschule, Essen. Holy was the first trumpeter in the 20th century to play successfully on valveless Baroque trumpets, from which he also learnt the advantage of playing valve trumpets with as little mouthpiece pressure as possible. From 1960 to 1981, as principal trumpet of the Cappella Coloniensis, he made recordings and demonstrated Baroque instruments in travels throughout the world.
EDWARD H. TARR
(fl late 15th century). English composer. His four-voice Gaude virgo salutata, incomplete in the unique source, the Eton Choirbook (ed. in MB, xii, 1961, no.55), displays a characteristically English florid contrapuntal style. The composer may probably be identified with Dr Robert Holyngborne, D.Th. (Oxon.), who was born at Hollingbourne, Kent, about 1470, and was professed as a monk of Canterbury Cathedral priory in 1490. He spent most of his career after 1493 at its dependent priory Canterbury College in Oxford, where he was warden from 1501 to 1504 and from 1506 until his death in Oxford on 18 August 1508. His inventories of college goods display a deft and learned ordering of the liturgical books, and in his time as warden the singing of polyphony was introduced in the college chapel.
J.Greatrex: Biographical Register of the English Cathedral Priories of the Province of Canterbury, c1066 to 1540 (Oxford, 1997), 202–3
Holyoke, Samuel (Adams)
(b Boxford, MA, 15 Oct 1762; d East Concord, NH, 7 Feb 1820). American composer, tune book compiler and singing master. He was descended from two noteworthy New England families, the Holyokes and the Peabodys. He studied at Harvard College (BA, 1789; MA, 1792), during which time he contributed several secular songs to The Massachusetts Magazine, and published his first book of psalmody, Harmonia Americana (Boston, 1791). With Hans Gram and Oliver Holden he brought out The Massachusetts Compiler of Theoretical and Practical Elements of Sacred Vocal Music (Boston, 1795), a collection of mostly European music prefaced by the lengthiest exposition of music theory printed in America during the century. Holyoke was one of the most prolific American composers of his generation. He published almost 700 of his own pieces, mainly in his monumental book The Columbian Repository of Sacred Harmony (Exeter, NH, 1803) and in his collection designed for Baptist worshippers, The Christian Harmonist (Salem, MA, 1804); he also left more than 150 compositions in manuscript (in US-NH and Boxford Historic Document Center). He taught singing schools in New England throughout his life, founded the Essex Musical Association in 1797 and published two collections of instrumental music (The Instrumental Assistant, i–ii, Exeter, NH, 1800–07) as well as numerous occasional sacred works. Holyoke, whose melodic gift was slight, allied himself with the forces of musical reform in turn-of-the-century New England, and attempted to make music his primary profession. He lacked the musical training of some of his European-emigrant contemporaries, however, and died in poverty. Some of his music has been edited by H. Eskew and K. Kroeger in Selected Works of Samuel Holyoke (1762–1820) and Jacob Kimball (1761–1826) (New York and London, 1998).
J.L.Willhide: Samuel Holyoke: American Music Educator (diss., U. of Southern California, 1954)
See alsoPsalmody (ii), §II
RICHARD CRAWFORD/NYM COOKE
Holywell Music Room.
Concert hall built in Oxford in 1748; seeOxford, §4.
Holzblasinstrumente, or simply Holz, are woodwind instruments, Holzfiedel, Holzharmonika, Holz- und Strohinstrument and Holzstabspiel are all terms for Xylophone.
(b Vienna 1798; d Vienna, 9 Nov 1858). Austrian amateur violinist, conductor and government official. He was an officer in the Lower Austrian States’ Chancellery and to supplement his meagre government salary he gave music lessons. Holz studied music with F.X. Glöggl in Linz. He was a member of Josef Böhm’s string quartet and by 1823 had joined the quartet of Ignaz Schuppanzigh, in which he played second violin. He appears to have met Beethoven in 1824: this led to a friendship which developed to such a degree that in 1825, for over a year, Holz supplanted Anton Schindler as Beethoven’s secretary. He greatly influenced Beethoven and assisted him in the copying of his works and in overseeing the welfare of Beethoven’s nephew Karl, as well as in general correspondence and financial matters. He was good at figures, well read, clever, cheerful, convivial, and of a strong independent nature, which Beethoven liked. (That Holz means ‘wood’ also gave Beethoven opportunities for outrageous puns in his correspondence.) Holz married in 1826; his friendship with Beethoven continued - Beethoven wrote two canons (Woo 197 and 198) for him in that year - but Schindler re-entered Beethoven’s inner circle. Nevertheless, Holz oversaw the correction and publication of Beethoven’s last compositions and continued to champion his friend's works, particularly at the concerts spirituelsin Vienna, where he advanced from an occasional to a regular conductor in 1829.
W.Nohl: ‘Karl Holz in seinem Verhältnis zu Ludwig van Beethoven’, Neue Musik-Zeitung, xlvi (1925), 180–84
T.von Frimmel: Beethoven-Handbuch, i (Leipzig, 1926/R), 224–6
S.Ley: ‘Karl Holz’, Musica, vii (1953), 222–4
E.Forbes, ed.: Thayer’s Life of Beethoven (Princeton, NJ, 1964, 2/1967)
D.W.MacArdle: ‘Beethoven und Karl Holz’, Mf, xx (1967), 19–29