Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm

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Holter, Iver (Paul Fredrik)

(b Gausdal, 13 Dec 1850; d Oslo, 27 Jan 1941). Norwegian conductor and composer. He studied the violin with F.W. Rojahn in Skien and, after 1868, harmony with Svendsen in Christiania (now Oslo), where from 1869 to 1873 he was also enrolled as a medical student. His studies were continued during the years 1876–8 in Leipzig with Jadassohn, Richter and Reinecke and in Berlin alone. In 1881 he returned to Norway and succeeded Grieg as conductor of the Bergen Harmoniske Selskab until 1886, with a further break for study in Leipzig (1884–5). He conducted the Oslo Musikforeningen from 1886 to 1911, during which time the orchestra gave many premières of Norwegian and foreign works. Holter was also the conductor of several male choirs, including those of the Artisans’ Association (1890–1904) and the Oslo Mercantile Association (1904–18). In 1897 he founded the Holter Choral Society, a mixed ensemble for oratorio performances. With his choirs he made several tours abroad; together with Svendsen he conducted the Norwegian concerts at the world exhibition in Paris (1900). Holter edited the Nordisk musikrevue from 1900 to 1906, and also had many composition students, among them Sigurd Lie and Alnaes. Conventional in form, his well crafted music owes much to German Romanticism, particularly Schumann. Holter’s Symphony, begun in 1876, suggests that he may also have been familiar with the music of Dvořák, and the slow movement contains a hint of the Norwegian folk idiom, not normally a prominent characteristic of his music. Given Holter’s lack of experience at the time of its composition, the Symphony shows considerable flair and confidence, and might well deserve occasional modern revival. He received the Norwegian state artist’s award in 1919. (N. Grinde: Norsk musikkhistorie, Oslo, 1971, 3/1991; Eng. trans., 1991, pp.240–43)


(selective list)

Orch: Sym., F, op.3, 1876–9; St Hans Kveld, op.4, str, 1881; Goetz von Berlichungen, suite, op.10; Romance, op.12, vn, orch; Vn Conc., a, op.22

Chbr: Str Qt no.1, E, op.1; Str Qt no.2, G, op.18

Stage: Don Ole Cologne (operetta); Donna Julia (op), unperf.

Choral: 6 cants. incl. Til faedrelandet, op.14, 1887

Principal publishers: Hansen, Norsk Musikverlag, Reinecke, Warmuth, Zapffe


Holthusius, Joannes

(b Kempen, nr Düsseldorf; fl mid-16th century). German music teacher. He has been confused with the theorist Johannes Holtheuser. He was rector of the cathedral school in Augsburg in the mid-16th century and is known exclusively for his Compendium cantionum ecclesiasticarum, continens praecipua responsoria, versus, antiphonas, hymnos, introitus, sequentias, ac nonnulla alia pulcherrima ecclesiae catholicae cantica (Augsburg, 1567); it is a printed anthology of Gregorian chant intended to promote the use of the repertory in Germany. The collection, which is notated in the conventional German Gothic neumes (Hufnagelschrift), contains a selection of responsories, antiphons, introits, vesper hymns, sequences, chants for the Kyrie, tones for the Gloria Patri and processional antiphons. The versions given frequently differ from those in the Editio Vaticana. (R. Eitner: ‘Johannes A. Holtheuser and Joannes Holthusius’, MMg, xviii (1886), 13–14)


Holtkamp Organ Co.

American firm of organ builders. It was founded in 1855 in Cleveland by Gottlieb Ferdinand Votteler (b Reutlingen, Württemberg, 14 Sept 1817; d Cleveland, 30 May 1894), who had previously worked in New York and Baltimore. On Gottlieb’s death, his son Henry B. Votteler (b 1849) formed a partnership with J.H. Hettche, and from 1903 the firm was known as the Votteler-Hettche Organ Co. In 1900 Henry H. Holtkamp (b New Knoxville, OH, 1858; d Minot, ND, 16 March 1931) joined the company, becoming sole manager on the retirement of the partners in 1905. Allen G. Sparling, a Canadian, arrived in 1911, and in 1914 the firm became the Votteler-Holtkamp-Sparling Co. On Henry Holtkamp’s death, his son Walter Henry Holtkamp (b St Mary’s, OH, 1 July 1894; d Cleveland, 11 Feb 1962) assumed direction, and under him the firm rose to prominence. Walter H. Holtkamp jr (b 1929) joined the firm in 1956 and became president on his father’s death. He was succeeded in turn by his son F. Christian Holtkamp (b 1955).

The elder W.H. Holtkamp was, with G. Donald Harrison, among the first builders to recognize and return to classical tonal principles, but his distinctive contribution to organ building was his use of exposed, rather than encased pipework. This innovation, soon widely copied, began with the Rückpositiv of the organ for the Cleveland Museum of Art (1933), which was followed by a completely uncased three-manual organ for St John’s Catholic Church, Covington, Kentucky (1934). Although the company’s earliest organs had mechanical action, electro-pneumatic action (often with slider chests) was adopted early in the 20th century. In 1969, however, Holtkamp began building organs with both kinds of action. Later Holtkamp organs of note are in the Crouse Auditorium, Syracuse, New York (1950), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1957), the Church of the Ascension, New York (1967), University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (1967; for illustration see Organ, fig.49), Union Theological Seminary, New York (1980), Plymouth Church, Minneapolis (1981), and St Joseph’s Church, Jaspar, Indiana (1995).


E.M. Nye: ‘Walter Holtkamp: a Master Organ Builder’, The Organ, li (1971–2), 66–77

O. Ochse: The History of the Organ in the United States (Bloomington, IN, 1975)

J.A. Ferguson: Walter Holtkamp: American Organ Builder (Kent, OH, 1979)


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