Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm

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In German usage, B; see Pitch nomenclature.

Haack [Haacke, Haak, Haake], Friedrich Wilhelm

(b Potsdam, 1760; d Stettin [now Szczecin, Poland], 1827). German violinist, organist and composer. Apparently a violin student of Franz Benda, he also studied composition (with Carl Fasch) and the organ. He began his professional career as a youth in the private orchestra of the crown prince of Prussia at Potsdam, and later held posts as organist at Stargard (from 1779) and Stettin (from 1790). At Stettin in 1793 he became the leader of a layman’s musical group which gained a reputation comparable to that of the Berlin Sing-Akademie (founded two years earlier by Fasch). After 1800 Haack was a theatre Kapellmeister and the Kantor of the Marienkirche at Stettin; J.A.P. Schulz knew him there and left him his music collection. Haack published six piano trios (Berlin, 1793), a keyboard concerto (Berlin, 1793), a violin concerto (Berlin, 1801), three string quartets (Berlin, n.d.) and a Caprice for piano (Leipzig, n.d.). A concerto for two harpsichords also survives in manuscript (in D-Dl). His opera Die Geisterinsel (written 1798, after Shakespeare’s The Tempest) was the fourth to use Gotter’s libretto. The Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung (ii, 1799–1800, col.135) remarks that ‘the richness, fullness and elaboration of the harmony, especially in solemn and sublime passages, are supposed to distinguish this composition greatly’. Haack’s other vocal works and symphonies are lost. His brother Karl [Charles] (b Potsdam, 18 Feb 1751; d Potsdam 28 Sept 1819), a violinist and composer, studied the violin under Benda and also joined the private orchestra of the crown prince of Prussia at Potsdam. In 1796 he became leader of the royal chamber of musicians; he was pensioned in 1811. Widely appreciated in Potsdam and Berlin, his pupils included Karl Möser, F.A. Seidler and L.W. Maurer. He published at least five violin concertos (the first two in Paris, c1779) and about six flute sonatas. (EitnerQ; GerberL; GerberNL)


Haag, Den


See Hague, The.

Haapanen, Toivo (Elias)

(b Karvia, 15 May 1889; d Asikkala, 22 July 1950). Finnish musicologist and conductor. He studied the violin and music theory in Helsinki (1907–11), Berlin (1921) and Paris (1924) and musicology with Ilmari Krohn at the University of Helsinki (MA 1918), where he took the doctorate in 1925 with a dissertation on the manuscripts in neumatic notation in the university library. After a period as a violinist, violist and conductor of various orchestras in Helsinki and Turku, he was head of the music department of the Finnish Broadcasting Company (1929–46) and chief conductor of the Finnish RO (1929–50). He was also a lecturer (1925–46) and professor extra ordinis of musicology (1946–50) at the University of Helsinki. As a conductor, broadcast programme planner, lecturer, administrator, music critic and writer he did much to promote Finnish music in Finland and abroad. His research was mainly concerned with early Finnish music history; his major work, Suomen säveltaide, was the first critical history of Finnish music and remained for a long time the only work of its kind.


Verzeichniss der mittelalterlichen Handschriftenfragmente in der Universitätsbibliothek zu Helsingfors (Helsinki, 1922–32)

‘La musique finlandaise’, RMI, xxxi (1924), 106–17

Die Neumenfragmente der Universitätsbibliothek Helsingfors (diss., U. of Helsinki, 1925; Helsinki, 1924)

‘Agricolan messu’ [The Agricolean mass], Suomen kirkkohistoriallisen seuran vuosikirja, xv–xviii (Helsinki, 1925–8), 223–42

Suomalaiset runomittateoriat 1800-luvulla [Finnish 19th-century theories of poetic metre] (Helsinki, 1926)

‘Uskonpuhdistusajan muunnoksia katolisista kirkkolauluista’ [Reformation variations of Catholic church songs], J. Gummeruksen ja M. Ruuthin juhlakirja (Helsinki, 1930), 93–103

‘Kyrkomusiken i Finland under medeltiden’, Nordisk kultur, xxv (1934), 41–9

Suomen säveltaide [The art of music in Finland] (Helsinki, 1940; Swed. trans., 1956 as Finlands musikhistoria)

ed.: Musiikin tietokirja [Dictionary of music] (Helsinki, 1948)


T. Pylkkänen: ‘Toivo Haapanen’, Suomalaisia musiikin taitajia [Finnish masters of music], ed. M. Pulkkinen (Helsinki, 1958), 518–23

T. Kuusisto: ‘Toivo Haapanen’, Musiikkimme eilispäivää (Porvoo, 1965), 273–94


Haar, James

(b St Louis, 4 July 1929). American musicologist. After graduating from Harvard (BA 1950) he began graduate work at the University of North Carolina, where he worked with Glen Haydon (MA 1954). He then returned to Harvard, where he studied musicology under John Ward and Nino Pirrotta and received his PhD (1961) with a dissertation on musica mundana. He taught at Harvard (1960–67) and at the University of Pennsylvania (1967–9). In 1969 he was appointed professor at New York University, and in 1978 became professor at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

Haar has written widely on the 16th-century madrigal, the history of music theory in the 16th and 17th centuries and manifestations of humanist thought in the music of that period. His work on the madrigal has focussed on the early cinquecento, stressing its independence from the frottola and its relationship to the French chanson. In addition to his activities as teacher and scholar Haar served as general editor of the Journal of the American Musicological Society (1966–9) and president of the AMS (1976–8). In 1987 he became a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.


Musica mundana: Variations on a Pythagorean Theme (diss., Harvard U., 1961)

‘On Musical Games in the 16th Century’, JAMS, xv (1962), 22–34

ed.: Chanson and Madrigal 1480–1530: Cambridge, MA 1961 (Cambridge, MA, 1964)

‘The note nere Madrigal’, JAMS, xviii (1965), 22–41

The Tugendsterne of Harsdörffer and Staden, MSD, xiv (1965)

‘A Gift of Madrigals to Cosimo I: the Ms. Florence, Bibl. Naz. Centrale, Magl. XIX, 130’, RIM, i (1966), 167–89

‘Notes on the “Dialogo della musica” of Antonfrancesco Doni’, ML, xlvii (1966), 198–224

Pace non trovo: a Study in Literary and Musical Parody’, MD, xx (1966), 95–149

‘The Libraria of Antonfrancesco Doni’, MD, xxiv (1970), 101–23

‘Zarlino’s Definition of Fugue and Imitation’, JAMS, xxiv (1971), 226–54

‘Altro non è il mio amor’, Words and Music: the Scholar’s View … in Honor of A. Tillman Merritt, ed. L. Berman (Cambridge, MA, 1972), 93–114

‘The Frontispiece of Gafori’s Practica musicae (1496)’, Renaissance Quarterly, xxvii (1974), 7–22

‘Madrigals from Three Generations: the MS Brussels, Bibl. du Conservatoire Royal, 27.731’, RIM, x (1975), 242–64

‘A Sixteenth-Century Hexachord Composition’, JMT, xii (1975), 32–45

‘False Relations and Chromaticism in Sixteenth-Century Music’, JAMS, xxx (1977), 391–418

‘Madrigals from the Last Florentine Republic’, Essays Presented to Myron P. Gilmore, ed. S. Bertelli and G. Ramakus, ii (Florence, 1978), 383–403

‘Berlioz and the “First Opera”’, 19CM, iii (1979–80), 32–41

‘The Libro primo of Constanzo Festa’, AcM, lii (1980), 147–55

‘Arie per cantar stanze ariostesche’, L’Ariosto: la musica, i musicisti: quattro studii e steet madrigali ariosteschi, ed. M.A. Balsano (Florence, 1981), 31–46

‘The Early Madrigal: a Re-appraisal of its Sources and its Character’, Music in Medieval and Early Modern Europe: Patronage, Sources and Texts, ed. I. Fenlon (Cambridge, 1981), 163–92

‘The “Madrigal Arioso”: a Mid-Century Development in the Cinquecento Madrigal’, Studi musicali, xii (1983), 203–19

‘A Sixteenth-Century Attempt at Music Criticism’, JAMS, xxxvi (1983), 191–209

‘Music of the Renaissance as Viewed by the Romantics’, Music and Context: Essays for John M. Ward, ed. A.D. Shapiro and P. Benjamin (Cambridge, MA, 1985), 126–44

‘The Early Madrigals of Lassus’, RBM, xlix–l (1985–6), 17–32

Essays on Italian Poetry and Music in the Renaissance, 1350–1600 (Berkeley, 1986)

‘Towards a Chronology of the Madrigals of Arcadelt’, JM, v (1987), 28–54

‘The Capriccio of Giachet Berchem: a Study in Modal Organization’, MD, xlii (1988), 129–56

‘Cosimo Bartoli on Music’, EMH, viii (1988), 37–79

with I. Fenlon: The Italian Madrigal in the Early Sixteenth Century: Sources and Interpretation (Cambridge, 1988)

‘Lessons in Theory from a Sixteenth-Century Composer’, Altro-Polo: Essays on Italian Music in the Cinquecento, ed. R. Charteris (Sydney, 1990), 51–81

‘Popularity in the Sixteenth-Century Madrigal: a Study of Two Instances’, Studies in Musical Sources and Style: Essays in Honor of Jan LaRue, ed. E.K. Wolf and E.H. Roesner (Madison, WI, 1990), 191–212

‘Rore's Settings of Ariosto’, Essays in Musicology: a Tribute to Alvin Johnson, ed. L. Lockwood and E.H. Roesner (Philadelphia, 1990), 101–25

‘Cipriano de Rore and the seconda practica: some Ferrarese Testimonials’, Glazba, ideje i drustvo: svecani zbornik za Ivana Supičića, ed. S. Tuksar (Zagreb, 1993), 69–87

‘Giovanthomaso Cimello as Madrigalist’, Studi musicali, xxii (1993), 23–59

‘Josquin as Interpreted by a Mid-Sixteenth-Century German Musician’, Festschrift für Horst Leuchtmann zum 65. Geburtstag, ed. S. Horner and B. Schmid (Tutzing, 1993), 179–205

‘Lasso as Historicist: the Cantus Firmus Motets’, Hearing the Motet: St Louis 1994, 265–85

‘Palestrina as Historicist: the two L'homme armé Masses’, JRMA, cxxi (1996), 191–205

‘The Florentine Madrigal, 1540–60’, Music in Renaissance Cities and Courts: Studies in Honor of Lewis Lockwood, ed. J.A. Owens and A. Cummings (Warren, MI, 1997), 141–51

The Science and Art of Renaissance Music, ed. P. Corneilson (Princeton, NJ, 1998)


with L. Bernstein: Ihan Gero: Il Primo Libro de’ Madrigali Italiani et Canzoni Francese a Due Voci (New York, 1980)


Aspects of Musical Language and Culture in the Renaissance: a Birthday Tribute to James Haar (Berkeley, 1994)


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