Government of andhra pradesh school education department diploma in Elementary



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2nd Year D.El.Ed. Paper 4

Pedagogy of English at Primary Level

(Methodology Paper – Classes I to V)

Maximum Marks: 100

External: 60 Marks

Internal: 40 Marks


Rationale and Aim

This course focuses on the teaching of English to learners at the elementary level. The aim is also to expose the student-teacher to contemporary practices in English Language Teaching (ELT). The course also offers the space to critique existing classroom methodology for ELT.

The theoretical perspective of this course is based on a constructivist approach to language learning. This course will enable the student teacher to create a supportive environment, which encourages their learners to experiment with language learning. The course will also focus on developing an understanding of second language learning.

The course aims at exposing the teacher to the contemporary practices in English Language Teaching (ELT). It also offers the space to critique the existing classroom methodology for ELT. The theoretical perspective of this course is based on the constructivist approach to language learning as envisaged in NCF 2005 and SCF 2011. This course will enable the student-teacher to create a supportive environment which encourages the learners to experiment with language learning. The course will also focus on developing an understanding of second language learning.



Specific Objectives

  • Equip student-teachers with a theoretical perspective on English as a „Second Language‟ (ESL)

  • To equip the teachers with theoretical perspective on language and language teaching and ‘English as a Second Language’ (ESL)

  • To develop critical awareness among the teachers about the scenario of contemporary ELT

  • To develop in them a perspective on English language teaching.

  • Enable student-teachers to grasp general principles in language learning and teaching.

  • To help them understand the young learners and their learning context.

  • Grasp the principles and practice of unit and lesson planning for effective teaching of English

  • Develop classroom management skills; procedures and techniques for teaching language.

  • To equip them with competencies which help them in understanding the classroom and classroom processes and to design the class accordingly.

  • To help them examine and develop resources and materials for use with young learners for language teaching.

  • Examine and develop resources and materials for use with young learners for language teaching and testing.

  • Examine issues in language assessment and their impact on classroom teaching.

The course is designed to be very practical in nature and includes equipping the student- teacher with numerous teaching ideas to try out in the classroom. Of course, all practical ideas must be related to current theory and best practice in the teaching of young learners. It is important to make a constant theory-practice connection for the student-teachers.

Units of Study

Unit 1: Issues of Teaching of English at the Elementary Stage

    • Issues of learning English in a multi-lingual/ multi-cultural society: Issues related to teacher proficiency; Acquisition of language Vs Preparing children for examination, English as the language of prestige and power; the politics of teaching English in India; key factors affecting second language acquisition

    • Teaching English as a second language: developmental, socio-economic and psychological factors;

    • The nature f language – learning versus acquisition; the pedagogy of comprehensible input

Unit 2: Teaching Learning Material and Textbooks

    • Nature of the teaching learning material at Primary Level – Classes I and II/ Classes III to V.

    • Role of big books and theme pictures in teaching English.

    • Philosophy and guiding principles for the development of English textbooks - NCF, SCF, RTE, Position of Paper on Teaching of English.

    • Selection of themes and unit structure.

    • Academic Standards and learning indicators.

Unit 3: Approaches to the Teaching of English

    • Approach- Method - Strategies and techniques; Behavioristic and Structural Approaches: grammar-translation method, directive method, communicative approach, suggestopedia.

    • The pedagogy of comprehensible input.

    • Approaches to teaching of English to young learners.

    • Second Language acquisition theories - Stephen Krashen, Steven Pinker, Vivian Cook, Vygotsky.

    • The Cognitive and Constructivist Approach: nature and role of learners, different kinds of learners – young learners, beginners, teaching large classes etc, socio-psychological factors (attitude, aptitude, motivation, needs, level of aspiration, home environment/ community/ peer group)

    • State specific initiatives - Paradigm shift in teaching and learning; Narrative as a pedagogical tool; Discourse oriented pedagogy.

    • Activities: Seminars, presentations, on various topics related to language and language pedagogy, analysis of Primary textbooks (I to V) government and private publications.

Unit 4: Classroom Transaction Process

  • The Modular transaction – Pre-reading, Reading and Discourse construction and editing; Role of interaction in transaction of different modules in a unit; Steps in teaching.

  • Pre-reading – objectives, strategies – theme-related interaction and production of oral discourses

  • Reading – objectives; the micro-process of reading comprising individual, collaborative reading; extrapolating the text; graphic reading for the beginners

  • Post-reading- Objectives, Process of discourse construction; individual writing, refining through collaboration; graphic writing for the beginners

  • Editing the written discourses

  • Publishing children’s products

  • Dealing with textual exercises (vocabulary, grammar, study skills, project work)

  • Strategies for addressing low proficient learners

  • Multi grade and multi level teaching strategies.

  • Activities: Storytelling, team teaching, framing of questions, picture based interaction.

Unit 5: Planning and Material Development

    • Introduction, What is planning; its importance.

    • Year plan, unit plan and period plan; Teacher reflections.

    • Material development; preparation of material for young learners - Picture drawing, cutouts, flash cards.

    • Developing and trying out various resources, techniques, activities and games for learning English

    • Analyzing and reviewing teaching-learning material

    • Activities:

  • Critical examination of lesson plans prepared by teachers

  • Preparation of year, unit and period plans

  • Conducting workshop for preparation of materials for young learners

Unit 6: Assessment

    • Review of current assessment procedures

    • What is assessment, Why, How and When; Continuous and Comprehensive Assessment

    • Formative assessment; assessment “as learning” and assessment “for learning”– tools and strategies; evidences of assessment;

    • Summative Assessment – Tools, assessment of learning; Test items in Summative Assessment.

    • Grading indicators for Formative and Summative Assessment both for oral and written products

    • Recording of children performance - CCE Registers, Cumulative Record.

    • Assessment and feedback.

    • Activities:

  • Formative tools and awarding marks based on certain indicators.

  • Preparation of summative question paper and development of indicators for awarding the marks.

  • Analyzing answer scripts of learners.

  • Critical examination of grading indicators.

Mode of Transaction

  • Use of ICT in classroom transaction

  • Interactions

  • Brainstorming

  • Individual and collaborative learning in reading and writing

  • Group works and presentations

  • Giving feedback

  • Demonstration and discussions

  • Reflections

  • Project work and presentations

  • Reflective journals

Project/ Practicum

  • How teaching learning is being taken up in Primary classes I and II/ classes III to V and what are the gaps that you have identified between theory and practices.

  • Write a report about the material available and its utilization in classrooms for learning English language.

  • Write a report on how far the children are following the textbooks and its various components and how effectively teacher following the suggested the classroom process in delivering them.

  • Nature of errors committed by children in using the language in spoken and written and how can we overcome those errors?

  • Nature of interaction is taking place during the stages of classroom transaction.

  • Prepare a Summative Question Paper basing on the Academic Standards.

  • Collection of children rhymes/ songs and stories for classes I and II/ classes III to V.

  • Develop activities to improve the speaking and writing skills among the students.

Essential Readings

    • Anandan. K.N. (2006) Tuition to Intuition , Transcend , Calicut.

    • Anandan. K.N. (2015) Freedom from Imperial Shakles, Mathrubhumi publications, Kozikode, Kerala.

    • Brewster, E., Girard, D. and Ellis G. (2004). The Primary English Teacher’s Guide. Penguin. (New Edition)

    • Ellis, G. and Brewster, J. (2002), Tell it again! The new Story-telling Handbook for Teachers. Penguin.

    • NCERT, (2005). National Curriculum Framework, 2005. New Delhi: NCERT.

    • NCERT, (2006). Position Paper National Focus Group on Teaching of English. New Delhi: NCERT

    • Scott, W. A. and Ytreberg, L. H. (1990). Teaching English to Children. London: Longman.

    • Slatterly, M. and Willis, J. 2001, English for Primary Teachers: A Handbook of Activities and Classroom Language, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Chard, S. C. (1998).The Project approach: Making curriculum come alive, Practical guide 1. Scholastic.

  • Nagaraj, G. (1996). English language teaching: Approaches, methods, techniques. Calcutta: Orient Longman.

  • NCERT (2005).National curriculum framework. New Delhi: NCERT.

  • NCERT (2006).Position paper on teaching of English (1.4). New Delhi: NCERT.

  • NCERT (2008).Source book on assessment for classes I – V: Language – English. New Delhi: NCERT.

  • Nunan, D. (2004). Task-based language teaching. Cambridge UK : Cambridge University Press.

  • Parrot, M. (1993). Tasks for language teachers: A resource book for training and development. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.

  • Pinker, S. (1997).The language instinct. London: Penguin Books.

  • Prabhu, N.S. (1987). Second language pedagogy.New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

    • Tomlinson, B. (2013). (Ed.), Applied linguistics and materials development. New York: Bloomsbury.

    • Position Paper on English Language Teaching.

Readings for Discussion

For Unit 3



  • Fogarty, R. (2006). Literacy Matters: Strategies Every Teacher Can Use. USA:Corwin Press pp. 59-62.

  • Wyse, D. and Jones, R. (2001). Teaching English, Language and Literacy. NewYork: RoutledgeFalmer, pp. 169-175.

For Unit 5

  • Browne, A. (2007). Teaching and Learning Communication, Language and Literacy.London, UK: Paul Chapman, 175-210.

  • Sahi, J. and Sahi, R. (2008). Learning through Art. Eklavya, Bangalore, 125-137

Advanced Readings

  • Cameron, L. (2001) Teaching Languages to Young Learners, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Curtain, H. A. and Dahlberg, C. A. (2004). Languages and Children: Making the Match. Boston: Pearson.

  • Tomlinson, B. (Eds.) (1998). Materials Development in Language Teaching. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.



2nd Year D.El.Ed. Paper 5

Pedagogy of Environmental Studies at Primary Level

(Methodology Paper – Classes III to V)

Maximum Marks: 100

External: 60 Marks

Internal: 40 Marks
Rationale and Aim

Environmental Studies is concerned with the exploration, investigation and development of an understanding of the natural, human, social and cultural dimensions of local and wider environments. It provides opportunities to engage in active learning, to use a wide range of skills, and to acquire open, critical and responsible attitudes.



The main aim of this course is to prepare student-teachers for the current challenges in elementary education and to equip them with theoretical and practical understanding of the nature and content of the subject. This course provides an opportunity for them to understand the philosophical and epistemological basis of EVS as a composite area of study that draws upon sciences, social sciences and environmental education. It will help them to correlate their theoretical understanding related to child’s learning with classroom processes and interaction, leading to better understanding and effective classroom transactions. This course also provides opportunities to understand and explore children’s ideas which will help them to revisit and challenge their own conceptual understanding, identify preconceptions and advance towards better understanding.

Course Objectives

    • To help student-teachers understand the scope of EVS and internalise different perspectives of curriculum organization.

    • To facilitate student-teachers to probe children’s ideas in science and social science

    • To prepare student-teachers to plan for and carry out classroom at the level of lower primary level( Class I-V)

  • To prepare teachers to practice appropriate methods and approaches of teaching environmental studies emphasizing child centered and child friendly experience based , activity based and competency based approaches to teaching.

  • To prepare student-teachers to assess children’s learning using different pathways.

Unit 1: Understanding EVS/ Concept of EVS

    • Introduction

    • Meaning, Scope and Importance of EVS, its Evolution as a Curricular Area at Primary Level.

    • Different Perspectives on EVS: NCF-2005, SCF-2011, Prashika program (Eklavya's Innovative Experiment in Primary Education)- To see how curricular vision takes the shape of syllabus.

    • EVS as an integrated area of study: Drawing upon Understanding from Science, Social Science and Environmental Education.

    • Objectives/ principles of teaching EVS – NCF-2005.

    • NPE-1986 – 10 core elements (Social).

Unit 2: Understanding Children’s Ideas

    • Introduction.

    • Knowledge that a 5-12 Year Child Has (Ideas and alternative conceptions)

    • How this knowledge is acquired? (How Children Learn?)

    • Relating Cognitive Growth of Children to The Development of Concepts with Reference to EVS (Piaget)

    • Innate abilities.

Unit 3: Teaching of EVS/ Classroom Transaction

    • Process Approach in EVS: Process Skills- simple experiments, observations, classification, proving questions, framing hypothesis, designing experiments, recording results, data analysis, drawing inferences, interpretation of results, giving examples.

    • Map-Picture Differentiation, Map Reading

    • Ways of conducting inquiry: Activities, Discussions, Group work, Field visits, Survey, Experimentations etc.

    • Activity approach (What is activity? Profile of activity, Primary Education Project principles).

    • Using Children’s Ideas as a Tool for Learning.

    • Role of Teacher in Classroom Transaction.

    • Integration of Subjects (Language and Mathematics)

    • Use of ICT in the Classroom.

Unit 4: Understanding of textbooks and pedagogy

    • Philosophy and guiding principles for the development of EVS textbooks.

    • Content, approaches and methods of teaching EVS – Interactive and participatory methods, teacher as facilitator.

    • Themes, structure of the unit, nature of exercises and its implications.

    • Academic standards and indicators of learning.

    • Learning resources for effective transaction of EVS curriculum.

Unit 5: Planning for Teaching EVS

    • Why planning?

    • Some examples of a good EVS class

    • Addressing children’s alternative conceptions: Some experiences

    • Concept map and thematic Web charts

    • Evolving a Unit Plan Framework and Use

    • Resource Pool of Materials

    • Locally available Materials

    • Audio-visuals and Electronic Materials

    • Lab/ Science Kit

    • Library

    • Peer Group Learning (using children’s ideas)

Unit 6: Classroom Planning and Evaluation

    • Teaching Readiness: Planning of Teaching EVS, Year plan, Unit plan and Period plan

    • Planning for multi grade/ multi levels.

    • Evaluation of Planning

    • Understanding Reflective Teaching and Learning

    • Concept and Importance of Evaluation, CCE

    • Preparation and Selection of Reflective Questions

    • Different Ways of Assessment and Reporting of Assessment for Further Learning

  • Assessment and evaluation – Definition, need and importance

  • Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) – Assessment for learning, Assessment of learning, Formative Assessment and tools in EVS-Its examples, Summative Assessments, Weightages to Academic Standards (Blueprint), Model questions, Question papers, feedback and reporting procedures, Records and Registers.

  • Action research.

Mode of Transaction

  • Mind mapping

  • Filled experiments and reporting

  • Demonstrations

  • Discussions and interactions

  • Case studies

  • Classroom observations

  • Group works and presentations

Suggested Practicums

  • Reading of Position Papers of NCF-2005, SCF-2011 pertaining to EVS subject and write a report on the purpose and process of the EVS teaching.

  • List out questions from children of 3 to 8 years age group on environmental concepts, issues based on observations and interactions.

  • Establish that children are naturally curious and possess skills of observation, exploration, question and work collaboratively based on observations of children. Write a report with proper examples.

  • Observe a EVS classroom and write a report to what extent transaction is child centered/ process skills oriented and linking outside school.

  • Analyse the EVS textbooks and write a report on representation of Academic Standards in the lessons.

  • Develop a resource kit for effective transaction of EVS subject with locally available material.

  • Develop a model question paper for class V of EVS subject.

Essential Readings

  • CEE (1987). Joy of Learning: Handbook of Environmental Education Activities:

  • CEE Bhrucha E. (2004). Textbook for Environmental Studies:

  • Harlen, W. and Elstgeest, J. (1998).UNESCO Source Book for Science in the Primary School, New Delhi: NBT

  • NCERT (2005).National Curriculum Framework. New Delhi: NCERT

  • NCERT (2005).Syllabus for Elementary Classes- Volume I. New Delhi: NCERT

  • NCERT (2007/2013).Looking Around Us, EVS Textbooks (3-5), New Delhi: NCERT

  • NCERT (2008).Source Book on Assessment for Classes I – V, Environmental Studies, New Delhi: NCERTL

  • R.K. Agnihotri et al. (1994). PRASHIKA: Eklavya's Innovative Experiment in Primary Education: RatnaSagarPrakashan

  • Sarabhai V. K. et al. (2007). Tbilisi to Ahmadabadthe Journey of Environmental Education–A Source book, Centre for Environment Education, Ahmedabad

  • SCERT (2012/2013).We-Our environment, EVS Textbooks (3-5): Andhra Pradesh

  • Seminar Proceedings (1995-96).Seminar on EVS, organized by Vidya Bhawan, Udaipur

  • Springer (2006).Science Literacy in Primary Schools and Pre-Schools

  • The Green teacher (1997).Ideas, Experiences and Learning in Educating for the environment: Centre for Environment Education

  • UNESCO (1988).Games and Toys in Teaching of Science and Technology: UNESCO

  • UNESCO (1990).An Environmental Education Approach to the Training of Middle Level Teachers: A Prototype Program: UNESCO, UNEP International EE Program

Advanced Readings

  • Ausubel, David P. (1969) Some Psychological and Educational Limitations of Learning by Discovery in Anderson, Hans O. (Ed.), Readings in Science Education for the Secondary School, Macmillan: India pp 97-113.

  • Batra, Poonam (Ed) (2010) Social Science Learning in Schools: Perspectives and Challenges. Sage: New Delhi.

  • Bodrova, E. and D. Leong (1996) Tools of the Mind: The Vygotskyan Approach to Early Childhood and Education. Merrill: New Jersey. Chapter 9.

  • Brophy, J. and J. Alleman (2005) Primary grade students’ knowledge and thinking about families, Journal of Social Science Research, spring 2005.

  • Carey, S. (1985) Conceptual Change in Childhood, MA: Bradford Books, MIT Press: 
Cambridge.

  • Devereux, J. (2000) Primary Science. Paul Champman Publishing: London.

  • Douglas P. Newton (1988). Talking Sense in Primary Science: Helping Children Understand through Talk: RoutledgeFalmer

  • Driver, Rosalind (1981) Pupils’ Alternative Frameworks in Science, European Journal of Science Education 3(1), 93-101.

  • Driver, Rosalind, ET. al. (2006) Making Sense of Secondary Science: Research into Children’s Ideas. Routledge Falmer: London Introduction pp.1-13; Chapter 1, pp.17- 25; Chapter 12, pp.98-103; pp. Chapter 13, pp. 104-111.

  • Fensham Peter J. et. al (eds.) (1994) The content of science; A Constructivist approach to its Teaching and learning. The Falmer Press, Taylor and Francis Inc: London.

  • George, Alex M. (2007). Children’s Perception of Sarkar- A critique of Civics Text books, Eklavya: Bhopal.

  • Gilbert, J. et. al. (1982). Children’s Science and Its Consequences for Teaching. 
Science Education. John Wiley & Sons, Inc: London. 66(4), 623-33.

  • Guesene E. and Tberghiem, A. (1985). Children’s Ideas in Science,

  • Harlan J. McMillan (1995).Science Experience for the Early Childhood Years: New York

  • Howe, A. C. and L. Jones (1998) Engaging children in Science. Prentice Hall: New 
Jersey.

  • J.S. Rajput (1994). Experience and Expectations in Elementary Education: AnamikaPrakashan

  • Jaithirtha, Kabir (2003) Relating with the Earth: an exploration of the possibilities in 
teaching Geography. Journal of the Krishnamurti Schools. 
http://www.journal.kfionline.org/article.asp?issue=7&article=6.

  • Milton Keynes: Open University Press

  • Mintzes, Joel J et.al. (1998) Teaching science for Understanding: A Human Constructivist View. Academic press: California.

  • Mishra, Anupam (2004) Aaj bhi Kharein hai Talaab, Gandhi Peace Foundation: New 
Delhi. 5th Edition.

  • NCERT, (2005) Syllabus for Elementary Classes- Volume I. NCERT: New Delhi.

  • Orr, D.W. (2007) Is Environmental Education an Oxymoron? Journal of the Krishnamurti Schools. 
http://www.journal.kfionline.org/article.asp?issue=11&article=3.

  • Parker, W.C. (ed.) (2010) Social Studies Today: Research and Practice Routledge: 
New York. .

  • Parkinson. J. (2004). Reflective Teaching of Science 11-18. Continuum: London.

  • Phatak, K. (2009) Walks: to nurture the Natural. Journal of the Krishnamurti Schools. 
http://www.journal.kfionline.org/article.asp?issue=13&article=3.

  • Piaget, Jean (1930). The Child’s Conception of Physical Causality. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Ltd: London Chapter. 1 pp. 3-31; Chapter 5. pp.114-132

  • Piaget, Jean (1930). The Child’s Conception of Physical Causality. Kegan Paul, 
Trench, Trubner & Co. Ltd: London.

  • Raina, V. and D. P. Singh (2001) what is Science? Dispatch, October-December.

  • Rieber, Robert W. and Aaron S. Carton (1987) the collected works of L.S. Vygotsky Volume I, Ch. 6-Development of scientific concepts in childhood. pp. 167-242.

  • Sainath, P. (1996) Everybody Loves a Good Drought- Stories from India’s Poorest Districts, Penguin Books: New Delhi.

  • SCERT (2011).paryavaranadhyayanaurvigyanshikshan, D.El.Ed.-ODL Course: Chhattisgarh

  • Shiva, Vandana. (2000) Stolen Harvest: The Hijacking of Global Food Supply. South End Press: Cambridge, UK.

  • UNICEF (2008). Best Practice Guidelines for teaching Environmental Studies in Maldivian Primary Schools: UNICEF
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