Children Assessment Record (CCE Record)
This is also called as Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT) record. Under each methodology, the teacher trainee has to teach 1 or 2 entire unit which includes exercise part also. Both Formative and Summative test has to be conducted based on the unit that he/ she taught. The test may be conducted for 100 marks i.e. 50 marks for Formative and 50 marks for Summative.
The Formative marks distribution as given hereunder;
Children participation and reflection 10 marks
Written works of the children 10 marks
Project works 10 marks
Slip test 20 marks
Slip test may be conducted during the teaching practice and Summative may be conducted after completion of entire unit and at the end of teaching practice. The Summative paper should be based on the Academic Standards. The student teacher shall write the CCE Record and Cumulative Record i.e. the cumulative sheets must be enclosed to Children Assessment Record.
The co-curricular activities shall also be conducted and grades may be awarded and to be shown in one of the Children Assessment Record. This has to be done only through observation and there is no formal written test.
20 marks has been allotted for final lesson. The student teacher shall develop period plan and conduct teaching and accordingly marks may be awarded.
Computer Education/ ICT: In this area, the trainee teacher shall develop of multimedia lessons i.e. two (2) multimedia lessons under each methodology paper. (first year- classes I and II; second year- classes III, IV & V or optional paper).
The trainee teacher has to prepare multimedia lesson and teach. In each methodology, 15marks are allotted for planning and teaching. The remaining 5 marks for Reflective Journal.
Yoga, Physical & Health Education: Under this area, 10 marks each are allotted for Yoga, Physical & Health Education in first and second year. The practice in Yoga includes activities related to yoga. This includes writing the period plan and practice. Under Physical & Health Education, 10 marks shall allotted for writing the plan and undertaking the practice of games and sports. This include 15 marks for planning and teaching. The remaining 5 marks for Reflective Journal writing.
Creative Art, Drama & Cultural Education in First Year: Under this, development of plan and undertaking teaching practice is given 15 marks and writing the reflective journal 5 marks.
Value Education & Life Skills in Second Year: Under this, development of plan and undertaking teaching practice is given 15 marks and writing the reflective journal 5 marks.
Ist Year D.El.Ed. Paper 1
Childhood, Child Development and Learning
Maximum Marks: 100
External: 60 Marks
Internal: 40 Marks
Rationale and Aim
The elementary school teachers need to have a complete and deep understanding about the children they are expected to teach. This course is visualized as the first systematic introduction of the student teacher to the study of childhood and development of children. It is necessarily the foundation up on which subsequent courses and practicum related to school internship is based. The purpose of this course is to equip the student teacher with the background knowledge that he/she needs to have about the elementary school child and his/her socio-cultural contexts. This background includes a critical engagement with theories, as well as socio-cultural issues in the world of children and childhood. Building upon the above, the aim is to build sensitivity towards children’s developmental needs and capabilities, within their socio-cultural context.
The course encompasses various aspects of development in the light of changing notions of child, childhood and learning. As a discipline of study it provides ample scope for a teacher to strengthen her understanding of children, various aspects of their development and the processes underlying development and learning of various types of skills and concepts/ ideas. Being an adult especially as a teacher one tends to take decisions on behalf of children. These are, more or less, based on our own experiences, which are gained from observation. Therefore all of us, and especially teachers have some intuitive sense of child development. The introduction to child development would aim to equip teachers to delve deeper into theoretically sound and nuanced understanding of children and their intellectual and social-emotional development. It hopes to give teachers the ability to take appropriate decisions while organizing spaces, curriculum, knowledge and learning; which earlier might have been purely based on popular beliefs about children and at times might have been contrary to a theorized and grounded understanding of children.
This is more so the case as the discipline has seen significant shifts and changes over the last few decades in understanding children: moving from heredity accounts to behaviorism to constructivism and social constructivism. From a very universal biologically driven account of children’s development, we have come to realize the importance of understanding children in their specific contexts. This has been possible largely due to the influence of various other disciplines like sociology, anthropology, and linguistics on psychology. One of the aims of this paper will be to try and help student teachers in understanding children as growing in their socio-economic contexts. Thus this course will provide an opportunity to understand and appreciate diversities among children and help the student teacher to structure their classroom accordingly.
To introduce general conceptions about child and childhood (specifically with reference to the Indian social context)
To develop an understanding of different aspects of a child’s physical, motor, social, emotional, language and moral development up to the age of early adolescence.
To understand the developmental processes of children with diverse abilities
To understand the process of thinking and learning in children through different perspectives
Units of Study
Unit 1: Childhood
Constructs of childhood: Commonalities and diversities within the notion of childhood and how multiple childhoods are constructed in the Indian Context; Constructs of childhood in the context of globalization; Child labour, Child abuse; childhood in the context of poverty.
Home & Socialization: Social, economic and cultural differences in socialization; Parenting, family and adult-child relationships, child rearing practices.
Schooling as a context of socialization: peer influences, school culture, relationships with teachers, teacher expectations and school achievement; being out of school, over-age learner.
Gathering data about children from different contexts using different methods, techniques and approaches: naturalistic observations; interviews; reflective journals about children; anecdotal records and narratives; Experimental method, Questionnaire, Case Study, Rating Scales, Longitudinal and Cross-Cultural Approaches.
Unit 2: Perspectives in Development
Introduction to Development: Concept of Growth, Development and Maturation; Development as multidimensional and plural; Development as continuing through the life span; ways in which development is continuous/discontinuous; Heredity & Environment (socio-cultural contexts) influencing development. Developmental Milestones & Hazards.
Physical - Motor Development; Growth and maturation
Social Development: Role of family, peers, school, mass media and culture. Role of competition, cooperation, discipline, reward and punishment and conflict, aggression and bullying in Social Development.
Concept and processes of socialization, Social, economic and cultural differences in socialization, Relationships with peers: friendships and gender; competition and cooperation, competition and conflict; aggression and bullying during childhood.
Emotional Development: Basic understanding of emotions and their development, Emotional maturity, Role of family and school in Emotional Development.
Language development: Development of speech and language, Perspectives in Language Development – Skinner, Bandura and Chomsky.
Moral Development: Perspective of Kohlberg; cultural variations in moral reasoning.
Play and development: Meaning of Play and its functions: linkages with the physical, social, emotional, cognitive, language, moral and motor development of children; Types and kinds of play; Games and group dynamics: rules of games and how children learn to negotiate differences and resolve conflict
A sense of self: self-description, self-recognition, self-concept; self-esteem; social comparison; internalization and self-control
Culture and Gender Development
Unit 3: Cognition and Cognitive Development
Perception, Conception, Thinking, Reasoning, Meta-cognition, Creativity, Intelligence – Multiple intelligences
Cognitive Development: Social Contexts; Individual differences in the context of learning
Perspectives on Cognitive Development – Piaget and Vygotsky.
Facilitating concept formation: Building on children’s existing ideas, making connections, meaning making, relationships, big ideas; Using graphic organizers and concept maps; Experiential learning
Unit 4: Learning
Contexts of learning: Home, School, Environment
Factors influencing learning: Maturation, Emotions, Learning environment, Motivation, Interests, Aptitude, Attitude, Memory and Forgetting, Personality.
Perspectives of learning and their implications for classroom teaching: Brief introduction to current theories of learning; Role of repetition &practice, Guided Inquiry, Integrated projects, Collaborative & Cooperative learning – diverse resources for learning, Group work, Classroom discussions, Learner autonomy, Role of teacher as facilitator
Learning disabilities; Children with Special Needs (disabilities):Importance of early intervention, IEP, Differentiated learning
Creating inclusive learner friendly environment: Importance, Need for multiple resources, Ways and means of adapting to diverse needs, Flexible planning, Classroom management, Inclusive schools
Suggested Mode of Transaction
Classroom discussions and dialogues
Scaffolding reading of suggested readings
Integrated projects, Guided inquiries and Field based projects
Close and critical reading, as well as analysis of various articles, policy documents, texts, documentaries, movies
Use of narratives and case studies
Integrating ICT (videos, films, documentaries, audio recordings, web based resources etc)
Group work, Pair work
Seminars, Panel discussions, Workshops
Individual and group presentations of issues and concerns raised in classroom/assignments; theoretical and practical activities/exercises/investigations/projects; analysis and interpretation of collated observations and data
Suggested Practicum Tasks
Student teachers collate about ten newspaper articles that involve parenting and childhood, analyze these and hold discussions.
Hands-on Experience of Methods of Studying Children and Varying Contexts in Childhood.
The student teachers can identify any child to understand 5-14 year old children in diverse contexts and use case profile approach* to study him/ her. The teacher educator could organize the class in such a manner that different students’ profile children from varied socio- economic backgrounds. This would allow for a wide range of data which could be subsequently analyzed in groups. The task could be helpful in understanding and supporting developmental and educational needs of the marginalized learners; first- generation school goers, street children and children living in slums; children with special needs.
*Case Profile Approach may include observations and interview as tools to study socio-cultural contexts, child-rearing practices, expectations from school, dreams and fantasies of the child.
Students watch a movie to be identified collectively by teacher educators and student teachers, and reflect on portrayal of children in the same (for instance Salaam Bombay, Blue Umbrella, Tare Zameen Par or other regional language movies). Discussion could be held around depiction of children from varying backgrounds, constructs of childhood.
Student teachers conduct interviews with 4 to 5 parents from different socio-cultural and economic background with regard to the child rearing practices and parenting styles and present their reports in class
Student teachers can take data from an elementary school with regard to the growth of height and weight of children and analyze this data and present their report.
The student teachers ask four children in the age group 4-7 years to draw on different themes they choose. The children are then encouraged to talk about their drawing. The students try and understand what the drawing communicates by talking to the child and looking for aspects of symbolic thought as expressed in the drawing. Also, the student-teacher arrives at the patterns that emerge across the various drawings that children have made. Student teachers could also organize other such simple activities for children. They conduct these activities with children and maintain records of children’s responses.
Student teachers observe children at play and maintain records. Observations can be carried out in playgrounds in the neighborhood or schools. Student teachers could identify different games that children play; Individual and group behaviour in play; friendships and social relationships. The analysis could include the following aspects: motor skills, language used during play, group structure and interactions, arriving at rules and following them, gender behaviour, patterns of negotiation and resolving conflict, folk songs and games, popular culture. This assignment is to be followed by post-assignment discussions during contact hours to arrive at linkages between play social, emotional, cognitive, language and motor development of children.
Student teachers identify a movie or a cartoon that is popular among children. They construct an interview schedule (to interview children) and observation checklist to look at the finer nuances of the movie or cartoon (what attracts children to the same) and critically analyze the varying aspects. Other methods of looking at TV viewing habits, child’s ability to distinguish fantasy from reality could also be explored by the student teachers.
Student teachers identify a video game that is popular among children. They construct an interview schedule and observation checklist to “Understand aggression in a video game that is popular among children and also critically look at aspects of the game itself.”
Suggested Mode of Assessment (Continuous and Comprehensive Assessment)
Participation in classroom discussions
Preparation, Planning, Participation and Presentation of practicum tasks/ Field work/ Case studies/Learning resources
Worksheets (on reading assignments, field work etc.)
Paper pencil tests
Portfolios of student teachers
Tasks are to be assessed in terms of both products (Reports, Resources and so on) and Processes (Participation, Team work, Reading and so on).
Brooks & Brooks. 1999. The case for constructivism. Virginia: ASCD
NCERT. (2005). National Curriculum Framework. Chapter 2
Balagopalan, S. (2002): Constructing indigenous childhoods: colonialism, vocational education and the working child. Childhood, Vol. 9.
Mukunda, Kamala, V. (2009). What Did You Ask in School Today? A Handbook on Child Learning. Noida: Harper Collins.
Budheka, G. (1990). Divasvapna. New Delhi: National Book Trust India.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2005). Thoughts about Education. www.newhorizons.org
Danger school. (1996). Mapusa, Goa, India: Other India Press.
Dewey, J. (1952). The School and the Child. New York: The Macmillan Company.
Erikson, E. H. (1972). Play and Development. New York: W.W. Norton.
Holt, J. (1995). How Children Fail. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.
Kuranyangi, T. (1993). Totochan. New Delhi, India: National Book Trust.
Neill, A S. (1992). Summerhill School – A new view of childhood. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin.
Sahi, J. and Sahi, R. (2009). Learning Through Art. Eklavya. Chapter 1: Introduction.
Holt, J. (1967). How Children Learn. London: Penguin.
Antoine de Saint-Exupery. (1995): The Little Prince. UK: Wordsworth Edition. Translated by Irene Testot-ferry (available in Hindi)
Ginsburg, H. (1997): Entering the Child's Mind: the clinical interview in psychological research and practice. Cambridge University Press. Chapter 1: The need to move beyond standardized methods, Chapter 2: What is the clinical interview? Chapter 3: What happens in the clinical interview? And Appendix.
Aries, P. (1965): Centuries of Childhood-A social history of the family life.Random House Inc: New York. Chapter 1: The Ages of Life, Chapter 2: The Discovery of Childhood, and Conclusion - The two concepts of childhood.
Harris, M. and Butterworth, G. (2002) Developmental Psychology: a student’s handbook. Taylor & Francis: New York. Chapter 1: A Brief History of Developmental Psychology.
Kauffman et al (1993), Exceptional Children. Allyn & Bacon: Boston, USA. 6thEdition.
Kakkar, Sudhir (1978). Indian Childhood: Cultural Ideas, And Social Reality.Oxford: New Delhi.
Nambissan, Geetha (2010) Exclusion and Discrimination in Schools: Experiences of Dalit Children; Working paper series vol. 01, (01), Indian Institute of Dalit Studies and UNICEF: Delhi.
Kakkar Sudhir (1991) The Inner World: A Psycho-analytic Study of Childhood and Society in India. Oxford University Press: Delhi.
Sandra, L. Bem (1987).Gender Schema Theory and its Implications for Child Development: raising gender a schematic children in a gender schematic society, in M.R. Walsh, (Ed). The Psychology of Women.Harvard University Press: Cambridge. pp 206-226.
Weiner, Myron. (1991) the State and the Child in India: Child Labour and Education Policy in Comparative Perspective. Princeton University Press: Princeton.
Balagopalan Sarda (2008) Memories of Tomorrow: Children, Labor and ThePanacea of Formal Schooling. Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth.Johns Hopkins University Press.
Crain, W. (1992). Theories of Development: Concepts and Applications. (3rd Edition). New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Chapter 7: Kohlberg's Stages of Moral and Development, Chapter 8: Learning Theory: Pavlov, Watson, and Skinner, Chapter 9: Bandura's Social Learning Theory, Chapter 11: Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory, Chapter 12: Erikson and the Eight Stages of Life.
Elkind, D. (1976). Child Development and Education. Oxford University Press.
Harris, M. and Butterworth, G. (2002). Developmental Psychology: a student’s handbook. New York: Taylor & Francis. Chapter 7: The beginnings of Language Development, Chapter 10: Social Development in Pre-school Years, Chapter 14: Social Development in the School Years.
Lefrancois, G. (1991). Psychology for Teaching. Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 1: Psychology for teaching, Chapter 5: Thinking and remembering, Chapter 8: Intelligence and creativity.
Snowman, B. R. and Snowman, J. (1996). Psychology Applied to Teaching. 8th edition. Boston: USA: Houghton Mifflin. Chapter 2: Stage theories of Development, Chapter 7: Behavioural and Social learning theories, Chapter 8: Information Processing Theories, Chapter 9: Constructivist Learning Theory
Bodrova, E. and Leong, D. (1996). Tools of the Mind.New Jersey: Merrill. Chapter 1: Introduction to the Vygotskian Approach. Chapter 2: Acquiring Mental Tools and Higher Mental Functions, Chapter 3: The Vygotskian Framework and Other Theories of Development and Learning, Chapter 4: The Zone of Proximal Development.
Gilligan, C. (1977). In a Different Voice: Women's Conception of Self and Morality. Harvard Educational Review, 47 (4), 481-517.
Piaget J. (1997). Development and Learning. In Gauvian, M. and M. Cole. (eds.) Readings on the Development of Children. New York: W. H. Freeman.
Siegler, R. and Alibali, M.W. (2005). Children’s Thinking. (4th edition). New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. Chapter 1: An introduction to children's thinking, Chapter 3: Information-processing theories of development, Chapter 5: Sociocultural theories of development, Chapter 9: The development of social cognition.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1997). Interaction between Learning and Development in Gauvian,
M. and M. Cole. (eds.) Readings on the Development of Children. New York: W. H. Freeman.
Ist Year D.El.Ed. Paper 2
Society, Education and Curriculum
Maximum Marks: 100
External: 60 Marks
Internal: 40 Marks
Rationale and Aim
Future teachers need to have a sound knowledge of the core concepts and principles of education. This course introduces student teachers to the philosophical perspectives of education. This would enable them to inquire and discuss on significant questions pertaining to education in India. The course provides student teachers with an understanding of educational aims, processes and practices and linkages between policies, education and individuals.
Teachers also need to understand the interface between education and society to deal with the issues of prevalent societal inequality and conflict, and address the demands for equity, justice, freedom, dignity and diversity. The philosophical, sociological and historical understanding of educational aims, processes and practices fulfills this need by critically looking the linkages that exists between education, knowledge and power. Such an understanding will help student teachers understand the basic assumptions about human nature, learning, knowledge and curriculum.