Gim Kr., prof. Gračnar



Download 152,51 Kb.
Date conversion27.05.2018
Size152,51 Kb.
Gim Kr., prof. Gračnar
1. JOBS
Women in a man's world

  • not easy to get your foot in the door

  • certain professions are thought to be male/masculine (the example of the woman – bullfighter; it remains a tough world for a woman)

  • women in the western world have won the legal right to fight on equal terms with men

Jobs (kinds of jobs)


The difference between these couples:

  • mechanic/engineer

  • publisher/editor

  • lifeguard/bodyguard

  • librarian/bookseller

  • journalist/newsreader

  • astrologer/astronomer

  • weather presenter/meteorologist

  • fisherman/fishmonger


Social and health professions: doctor, surgeon, nurse, social worker, psychologist, psychiatrist; specialized doctors such as neurologist, hematologist, cardiologist...

Economy: shopping assistant, salesman, business executive, manager, real-estate manager (trgovec z nepremičninami)...

Services: plumber, electrician, mechanic, carpenter, cleaner, cook, deliverer, gardener, stable man...
Qualities and qualifications needed: (!!! mind the word formation, e.g. to be brave – bravery, to be (in)efficient – efficience, (im)patient – impatience, (im)polite – politeness, (un)imaginative – imagination etc.)



brave = courageous

helpful


original, inventive, imaginative, creative

cheerful


fit

efficient

reliable

trained


experienced = skilled

caring, sympathetic

persuasive

persistent

cheerful

accurate


fair

polite


friendly

intelligent

self-confident

uncompromising

hard-working

careful


calm
You apply for a job (you write an application letter). You may have a full-time or a part-time job. You earn money, they pay you either weekly (wage) or monthly/a year (salary). A company hires you, if you do not fulfill your ditues, you get fired.


cooperative

A person's description


HEIGHT: short, tall, of medium height

BUILD: muscular, skinny, slim, slender, fat, chubby, thin, well-built

AGE: teenager, in his/her early/mid/late fifties..., elderly people ~over 60 or something;), young, old, aged

COMPLEXION: tanned, pale; colour of skin (white/caucasian, black, asiatic, mestizo, mulatto)...

FACE: round, egg-shaped, oval, square, with high cheekbones; dimples (jamice), freckles (pege), moles (znamenja)

EYES: almond-shaped, slanting, blue, brown, grey, green etc.

NOSE: crooked, curved, hooked, straight, small, big

LIPS: full, thin, tempting (vabljive;))

SPECIAL FEATURES: to walk with a limp (šepati), scars, tatoos, wooden leg...

HAIR: straight, short, long, shoulder-length, wavy, curled, blond, permed, died (to dye), pigtail (čop)...


Character – adjectives
reserved

pleasant


bossy

rude


shy

spoilt


sensible

sensitive

sociable

abusive


friendly

helpful


loving

caring


dotting

amusing


funny

possessive

worried

optimistic



pesimistic

generous


selfish

reliable


persistent

stubborn


insulting

cooperative



2. PLACES
A town description
(Might be London or any other, here's some useful vocabulary)


  • landmark = a sight which can be observed from a distance

  • double-decker buses

  • to revitalise – prenoviti

  • hictoric sites

  • a building of historical importance

  • antique shops

  • a place was inhabited by ancient civilisations (Rome, Pompei...)

  • sights = things to see in a place

  • to explore a place on foot (peš)

  • theme parks = entertainment area

  • chainstore clothing (e. g. Benetton, S. Oliver) and unique boutiques – from famous designers

  • bohemian area

  • financial district

  • transform sth into sth (=change)

  • explore (=look around)

  • sophisticated – only for wealthy people who have full wallets (to have a sophisticated taste; a sophisticated club etc.)

  • a luxurious residence

  • reasonably priced – available to all kinds of visitors (compare Ritz Carlton Hotel and Hotel Creina )

  • a metropolis – a large capital city

  • a cosmopolitan city

  • a restauration is highly recommended – is worth visiting

  • pavement cafés (like Kavka, Magma...) pavement = pločnik

  • a pint of beer (a pint = 0,568 l)

  • to walk along the river

  • to elbow your way through the crowds (s komolci si izboriti pot)

  • colourful nightlife

  • spicy/delicious/tasty cuisine

Travel for a(n): excursion, expedition, sightseeing, holiday

You find some useful information about the place: on leaflets (letaki), in a prospectus, a handout, a brochure (zloženke, brošure)

You go:


  • on holiday

  • to the seaside

  • on a two-day trip to Vienna

  • on a tour around the World

  • on a journey/voyage to South Africa

Things you'll need (equipment):

mosquito repelent, camera, swimming costume, portable gas stove (plinski kuhalnik), sleeping bag, suntan lotion, sandals, sun hat, tent, first-aid kit...

Organizing your holiday:



  • dates of holiday

  • number of people

  • price

  • type of transport (by bus, by plane, by car, by bicycle, on foot)

  • weather details (check the weather forecast)

  • method of payment (cash: coins, bills, bank notes; credit cards)

  • clothes and other equipment

  • food (tins, cans...)

Your dream/favourite destination... make it up yourself



3. BOOKS AND READING
Fiction (leposlovje):

  • romance/love stories

  • detective stories; murder, mystery

  • horror

  • historic novels

  • fairytales

  • actions

  • adventure

Non-fiction:

  • documentary

  • scientific books

  • (auto)biography

  • travel books

epic and liric litterature

first person / third person narration

realistic = true-to-life

flashback technique – analytical structure: you start the story at a specified time, then go back in time and set the previous scene

roman – ne obstaja!!! a novel (roman)


The one who writes: an author / a writer (in general)

  • a novelist (or a penman/...woman) writes novels, short stories, fables (basni)

  • dramatist / playwright writes dramas, comedies, tragedies, farces...

  • a poet writes poetry

  • an essayist writes essays

an issue/a copy – izvod

first/special/omnibus (več del skupaj, ciklus) edition – izdaja

tale – pripovedka, zgodba



at the end of the book : at the beginning of the book

an autograph = a signature

persons in the book – characters

a book is devided to chapters


What kind of books do you like best? (to like sth best)

Why/what/when/how often etc. you read – these are your reading habits.


How is the book:

  • full of suspense (našest)

  • convincing/believable

  • unpredictable,unexpected

  • exciting

  • shocking

  • frightening

  • realistic, true-to-life

  • you can identify with the characters

  • sad

  • boring (it's boring, therefore I'm bored)

  • you get into it and cannot stop reading or put it down

Your favourite author/book – po smislu



4. DISASTERS/ACCIDENTS
Most frequent natural disasters


  • volcano erruption (lava threatens the area nearby)

  • earthquake

  • avalanche/slide (snow/rocks/soil slides down the slope and may sweep away people or bulidings)

  • acid rain (because of the gas emissions)

  • flood (poplave)

  • whirl winds

  • derailment

  • nuclear explosion

  • famine (lakota)

  • drought (suša)

  • typhoon (storms, high winds, waves...)

  • plane crash

  • shipwreck (due to bad weather, rocks in the sea, icebergs – Titanic)


Earthquake (citiram svoj zvezk, ne se na pamet učit However, there's some useful vocabulary in it...)

An earthquake is caused by movement of two giant pieces of the Earth's crust and occurs in bursts. Everything starts shaking, tremors violently rock buildings of which many crash down and trap people inside or under the ruins (=debris). Beside the damage on the infrastructure many victims of the disaster may suffer from earthquake trauma and often need an expert to overcome their fear. In order to minimize the consequences during the quake, it is of an utmost importance to stay calm and, if possible, take shelter under a bed or a table. Scientists observe the movements in the crust and can predict some earthquakes; the authorities invest in strengthening the frames of buildings and other endangered structures.


Shipwreck

  • oil spill

  • crew members; staff

  • to float : to sink(irregular verb: sink-sank-sunk) (plavati, lebdeti : potopiti se)

  • to be on board

  • be bound to – namenjen; e.g. London-bound ship = a ship bound to London – v London namenjena ladja

  • lifeboat crew; rescue team

  • to hit = to drive into = collide

  • to swim ashore

  • survivors


Plane crash

  • to nosedive (a plane nosedives into the sea)

  • to shatter into pieces (razleteti se)

  • a plane takes off from the runway

  • malfunction < disfunction of the engine

  • to catch fire (vneti se) : to put out / distinguish the fire

  • a wing (krilo)

  • a sabotage

  • the wreckage = remainings of the vehicle (plane, car, ship...)

  • fuel tank

  • air-traffic control

Idioms connected with the disasters:



  • like a bolt from the blue (kot strela z jasnega)

  • it never rains but it pours (hudič na kup serje)

  • to play with fire (igrati se z ognjem)

  • a storm in a teacup (iz muhe slon)

  • the tip of the iceberg (vrh ledene gore...)

Precautions, preventive measures:


fire: keep matches out fo children's reach, never leave the gas cooker unattended; don't drop lit cigarettes in forests, extinguish camp fires

poisoning: keep chemicals such as bleach an acids locked away safely, keep medicine out of children's reach

car crash: drive slowly; take into account your experiences, visibility, weather, your physical and psychical condition; drive sober

trapped in debris: use a whistle to signal your position, provide yourself free way to fresh air if possible
A report on a latest disaster; personal experience

One is supposed to bring an up-to-date article about this bullshit and be able to tell sth with regard to it... Personal experience??? po smislu...



5. FESTIVALS / CELEBRATIONS
Most famous world festivals

(a to je mišlen tistih 5 iz knige vretn???)


The Rio Carnival in Brazil:

  • by far the largest in the world

  • starts before the lent (=a fasting period) – post

  • takes place at a huge stadium

  • competitions, costumes, dancing, decorations, mobile floats

  • nowadays high entrance fee (vstopnina)

  • streamers and confetti

Oktoberfest:



  • the world's largest beer festival

  • begins in September

  • each brewery makes a special beer, a large variety of types available

  • takes place in Munich [mjunik]

The Fallas Festival:



  • in Spain, they celebrate the end of the Winter

  • starts with deafening (oglušujoč) explosions of fireworks

  • paella contests

  • papier maché sculptures of fallas are burnt in the midnight – fireworks symbolically force out the winter

The Tibetan Butter Lamp Festival:



  • buddhism – a buddhist festival

  • they celebrate the belief that nothing is permanent

  • monks (menihi) organize the festivities

  • sculptures of iced butter supported by wooden frames are then thrown into a river

The Chinese New Year:



  • festivities are held at the end of January

  • last for a month

  • streets and shops are filled with people, full of crowds

  • families gather, friendly atmosphere

  • strips of paper the doors are covered with are meant to keep out evil spirits

  • the Lantern Festival – a parade that winds through the streets

  • cheering crowds, people set off firecrackers



A word or two more about the celebrations:
to look forward to a festival = to be in anticipation of a festival

to mark the occasion by doing sth

to honour the memory of sb

to make preparations

to greet with cheers

fireworks – rakete

firecrackers – petarde

party hats

tooters (tist k pihneš pa zapiska pol se pa še papirnata kača odvije, nevem kuko se reče...)

lively music (NE live music)

party-goers – those who participate to a party

popping corks of champagne bottles

Personal celebrations
Marriage – most important vocabulary (in case you got married in an english-speaking country)


  • wedding dress

  • best man; bridesmaids

  • groom; bride

  • wedding reception

  • invitations

  • bouquet [buké] of flowers; also bunch of flowers

  • »Something old, something new, something borrowed and something blue«

  • to propose sb; to ask for sb's hand

  • a fiancé(e) – zaročenec/ka [fioncej]

  • to go to honeymoon




  • to divorce; to split up



others:

  • Birthday

  • Anniversary

  • Graduation

  • Birth

  • Funeral (might as well be a celebration... )

  • etc.

Slovenian celebrations

Nč ne vem od zelenga Jurija, pirhov in ostalih jajc...


6. EATING HABITS
Junk Food vs healthy diet
Junk food:


  • because of today's fast-moving world

  • little time for eating, let alone cooking

  • the amount of junk food eaten among teenagers has increased

  • it's popular because it's quickly available everywhere

  • nevertheless, it's not cheap at all

  • couch potato lifestyle

  • high in calories and energy yet low in nutrition

  • greasy and salty

  • high in saturated fats (nasičene)

  • lacking vitamins and minerals

  • it's less satisfying so you eat more of it

  • may cause heart or liver disease

  • increases risks of cancer and diabetes

  • a reason for high blood pressure

Healthy diet:



  • regular meals

  • cooked food

  • balanced diet

  • keeps you fit and healthy

  • lots of vegetables, fruits

  • polyunsaturated fats such as olive oil

  • fish

  • contains a lot of nutritients

  • eat slowly, take your time

Healthy lifestyle includes apart from balanced and nutritive diet also enough physical exercise and rest

Eating habits: how, what, when, where, how often you eat.

A meal: starters, main course, dessert, beverage (pijača)




TYPES OF FOOD:

fruit


vegetables

pulses (stročnice)

cereals

diary products (mlečni izdelki)



meat

poultry (perutnina)

fish (one fish, three fish, more fish)

shellfish and sea fruits


Other vocabulary:

gourmet dishes (in fine restaurants)

to order a pizza (delivery)

to grab a snack

to gain/lose weight

to be on a diet = to fast (postiti se)


a box of chocolates, cookies

a packet of crisps, cookies, candies

a jar of jam, marmelade, pickles (kumarice)

a bowl of soup, cereals

a carton of milk, juice

a bottle of ketchup, wine

a can of tuna, beans

a tin of coke

a pinch of salt (ščepec)

a clove of garlic (strok)

a loaf of bread

a bar of chocolate

a pint of beer

a lump of sugar

a slice of ham

a rash of bacon


to chop onions, parsley (peteršilj)

to stir sauce, soup (premešati)

to scramble eggs

to slice cooked meat, ham

to grate carrots, cheese

to peel apples, bananas

to bake

to boil


to roast

to steam


to grill

to fry


Teenage problems

Eating disorders



  • lacking self-confidence, not satisfied with your appearance

  • may start in early teenage

  • anorexia, bulimia, compulsive overeating

  • most common among girls, especially ballet dancers, athletes, models

  • need medical help, therapy

  • learn them how to eat properly


7. CRIME
Types of criminal offence
major or minor offence

to commit a crime / an offence


Types:

  • murder – a murderer/murderess – to murder

  • assassination – to assassinate

  • theft – a thief – to steal

  • robbery – a robber – to rob

  • burglary – a burglar – to burgle

  • blackmail – a blackmailer – to blackmail

  • terrorism – a terrorist

  • arson – an arsonisst – to set fire

  • vandalism – a vandal

  • mugging – a mugger

  • shoplifting – a shoplifter

  • pickpocketing – a pickpocket

  • kidnapping – a kidnapper – to kidnap

  • hijacking – a hijacker

  • smuggling – a smuggler – to smuggle

  • fraud

  • joyriding

  • drug trafficking

  • man-slaughter

Law court trial




  • judge – represents the state in court

  • witness – sb who has seen the crime happen

  • jury – a group of people in court who decide whether the accused is guilty of innocent

  • prosecutor – a professional who decides about the punishment and has to prove the guilt of the defendant

  • defence lawyer – a professional who speaks for the accused and advises him/her

  • the accused/the defendant – sb who has been charged with committing a crime

  • policeman – his role is to deter people from committing offence and to arrest those who break the law

  • court reporter – sb who notes down what is said in court

First you're suspected of breaking the law; when they gather evidence, they can arrest you. You're accused of doing sth (or accused of a crime) and then tried. After the jury has reached the verdict, you may be found guilty, and you're convicted of the crime and sentenced to jail (to ... years in prison). You're put behind bars.


to be accused of sth (of doing sth)

to be caught red-handed = to be caught in the act = in flagrante (lat.)

to be at large (na prostosti)

to murder sb in cold blood – a cold-blooded murder

to be doing time = to be in jail = to be behind bars

to be on the alert = to take care = to be on your toes


Punishments:

to be sentenced to life imprisonment

to be sent to prison

to be fines a large/small amount of money

to be given a suspended sentence

to do community service

to be given a warning

to be sentenced to death (by hanging, like a pirate)

death penalty
Precautions, preventive measures – burglar-friendly houses


  • very private houses are less safe – you're more at risk

  • if you show off what you have, you invite criminals

  • burglars are attracted by signs of absence

  • lock up and turn the lights on

  • high wall or a tall hedge provides privacy to a burglar

  • install an alarm

Death penalty (should be in your folders, the essay we had to write...)



8. SPORTS AND HOBBIES
Most popular sports – če kej manjka, poglejte v slovarje; ponavad je na sredini tist dodatk, k so vsi športi, oprema, igrišča... enkrat nam je to tut skopirala pomoje
Benefits: relaxation, keeping fit, healthy lifestyle, socializing, filling batteries, organisation & discipline, you're on fresh air, build muscles, obtain team spirit, learn to be co-operative...

Dangers/weak points: injuries, overpowering, expenses, risks...


SPORT

EQUIPMENT

VERB (Play, Go, Do)

LOCATION

Skiing

Skis, ski poles, ski boots

G skiing, to ski

Ski resort, tracks

Motor racing

Helmet, motor-bike

G

Track

Snorkelling & scuba diving

Snorkel, mask, wet suit, flippers

G




Golf

Golf clubs, balls

P

Links

Weightlifing

Weights

D

Gym

Cricket

Bats, balls

P

Pitch

Archery (lokostrelstvo)

Bow, arrows, target

D




Snooker/pool billiards

Cue, cue balls, object b.

P

Table

Box

Bandage, gloves, mouthpiece

To box

Ring

Fencing (mečevanje)

Foil/épée/saber

D

Piste

Riding

Spurs, saddle, bridle

G

Arena, hypodrome

Skating

Figure/hockey skater

To skate

Skating rink

Badminton

B. racquet, shuttlecock

P

Court

Tennis

Racquet, balls

P

Court

Hockey

Puck, stick

P

Rink

Baseball

Bat, glove (mitt), ball

P

Field

Basketball

Ball, basket

P

Court

Surfing

Surf

G

Waves

Athletics




D

Arena/stadium

Hammer throw

Hammer







Discus throw

Discus







Javelin throw

Javelin







Parallel, horizontal bars

Bars







Jumping (high-jump, long-jump, pole-vault)










Running










Cycling

Bycicle, helmet

G, to cycle

Track

Jogging




G




Karate

Kimono

D

Ring

Surfing (according to the article in the book – Surf's up)

to ride the waves

the waves crash onto sandy beaches

a wet suit

to catch a wave

to learn the technique

to be in search of (good waves, nice weather...)

stamina = endurance (vzdržljivost)


Qualities required: surfers must be brave, love adventure, have lots of energy, they travel around the world to find the perfect waves, must be good swimmers with enough balance on the surfboard, need strength so have to do some exercises with weights...

Two essentials: strength and fearlessness
Hobbies

(po smislu)

painting

photography

stamp collecting

knitting


pottery

gardening

cards

music


etc.
Drug abuse, steroids

(to sm mel v drugmu letnku projektno pa vsi ste spal)




  • a growing problem among young and competitive athletes, cyclists...

  • sudden strength and speed gain

  • do not increase skill & agility

  • in powders, pills or injectable

  • leaves traces in blood and urine

  • may lead to self-destruction

Side effects:



  • hair loss

  • increased acne

  • decreased sperm count

  • sterility

  • risk of heart disease (elevated cholesterol and blood pressure levels)

  • impaired liver function


9. EARTH SOS
Major problems of our planet


PROBLEMS

SOLUTIONS

Destruction of habitat, deforestation, urban sprawl

Financial supports to poor countries

Planting more trees

Protection of jungles, rainforests


Pollution

Decrease the use of motor vehicles

Encourage cleaner methods of production

Educate people of the importance of recycling


Illegal hunting (=poaching)

More national parks

Harsher punishments for poachers

Raise public awareness about endangered species


Water contamination

Limit on emissions of poisonous substances into rivers

Set purifying plants on sewage systems (čistilne naprave na kanalizacijske sisteme)



Acid rain

Factories should count down on releasing poisonous chemicals into the air

Litter/rubbish

Encourage recycling, use litter bins

Endangered species


Reasons:

  • illegal hunting

  • exclusive products: tusks (ivory - elephants), furs, grease (whales)...

  • destruction of habitat

  • pesticides

  • fishing

Animals in captivity (zoos etc)


Pro et contra
they have food

they get medical care

they are protected from hunters

they aren't free

they don't live very happy lives in captivity

they aren't in their natural habitat

they are lonely

they are not protected from extinction – breeding isn't necessarily successful

10. EDUCATION
nursery school – the year before you enter the primary school

primary school

secondary school – finished by either GCSE (General Certificate of Education) or A (Advanced) levels

post-school education:



  • polytechnics (colleges of technology, art etc.) – work-orientated courses

  • universities (government-funded) – entrance depends on the results of the student's A levels

  • Red-Brick universities (common, available to more students)

  • Ivy-League universities (for the posh and the most talented)

  • to graduate – you obtain Bachelor degree

  • post-graduate courses (podiplomski)

  • master's degree: MA or MSc (master of arts/science)

  • doctorate: Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

obligatory=compulsory

state schools – free

public schools – private, need to be paid

tuition fees (šolnine)

grants, loans


to aquire, to obtain knowledge

education consultants – tutors

teacher (secondary&primary school) – pupils

lecturer (university) – students

grades (ocene)

degree (diploma)

term (semester)

course (tečaj, celoleten predmet)

the dean (dekan) of the arts faculty

the headmaster of a high school

boarding school – a school where you also live during the term
skills=abilities to learn

different approaches/methods/techniques of teaching and learning

motivation/willingness

to share ideas

to work in pairs

to solve problems together

to coach weaker pupils
A good teacher (you bet) should:


  • speak clearly

  • establish a friendly relationship with students

  • have a lot of confidence in front of large groups

  • understand students' individual needs

  • encourage creativity

  • give praise and support to students

  • attend refresher courses regularly

  • prepare lessons thoroughly


How can computers help us?

  • teach grammatical structures

  • print out information or compostitions

  • help to revise for tests ir exams (to revise – to make a revision)

  • enable us to contact students around the world

  • have information available when you need it

  • help with pronunciation (izgovorjava)

  • teach new vocabulary

But they cannot



  • help students with their personal problems

  • help them develp their social skills

  • encourage students

  • teach them co-operative work

Exams: for and against

They encourage students to try harder

Exam results may depend on how you feel on a particular day

They force us to even READ the subject

The results are not always objective

Give us a sort of feedback

An enormous pressure on students

The easiest way for the teacher to obtain marks

Everything depends merely on the points and the results

Prodigies


especially gifted (=talented) children (usually sport/maths/languages/music)

they hit the headlines


Ways of schooling them:

  • personal teacher/tutor/trainer

  • special schools with other prodigies

  • normal schools but among older children

Problems:



  • they obtain knowledge but do not develop social skills

  • separating them from their collegues may be a traumatic experience

  • may become frustrated, withdrawn or rebellious (uporniški)

  • parents often push them too hard – children should decide themselves what they want to do with their talents

  • too much pressure



11. ENTERTAINMENT
(nevem, kaj nej bi še tuki pršlo – tko splošna stvar čist)

Popular types:

theme parks (Disneyland, Universal Studios, The Sentosa in Singapore...)

funfairs

cinema


disco

theatre


concerts

parades


musicals

etc.
VOCABULARY to describe it:


entrance fee = admission

destination = final stop

fireworks

dance floor

scene

stage; the curtain call (ko se dvigne zavesa)



orchestra, band

conductor, orchestra leader

lead singer

dodgers (sleparji, ki izvajajo trike s kartami, vžigalicami in ti praznijo žepe)

haunted house (hiša strahov)

the audience, the spectators (huge audience, hundreds of spectators)

fizzy drinks
FILMS
director

producer


author (of a book)

screenwriter transforms a book into a script

cast&crew (vsi sodelujoči, ekipa&igralci)

stunts (statisti)

setting (okvir zgodbe, ozadje, okolje v filmu, knjigi)

plot (zgodba, zaplet)

main characters

actor – actress

One may find the plot gripping (zanimiv, pretresljiv), boring, involving (ki te vplete), dramatic, dull (medel, površen, dolgočasen), moving (ganljiv), entertaining, informative, confusing, exciting.

The characters can be convincing, predictable, well-developed, realistic, true-to-life, weak, original.


A film review/your favourite film... po smislu

12. TRANSPORT&TRAVEL
(lol, tega nam pa sploh ni uspel vzet)
Ways of...

  • car

  • train

  • ship

  • airplane

  • helicopter

  • hot-air baloon

  • bicycle (o yeah)

  • motorcycle

  • raft

  • canoe

  • ferry (trajekt)

  • lorry/truck

  • bus, double-decker

  • hovercraft (vozilo na zračni blazini)

  • taxi/cab

  • carriage, coach (kočija), tudi spalni vagon

  • submarine

  • steamboat (parnik)

  • hang-glider

  • rickshaw (rikša)

  • mopeds

  • etc.

Verbs:


  • to steer (krmariti)

  • to drive

  • to ride

  • to fly

  • to paddle (veslati)

  • to navigate

  • to travel

trip, route, voage, tour, flight, journey, travel

driving licence

speeding (an offence)

pedistrian area – traffic is not allowed
In a car: gear (prestave), brake, seatbelt, accelerator pedal (gas), rear view mirror (vzvratno ogledalo), clutch pedal (sklopka), ignition (vžig), dashboard (armaturna plošča)

Traffic in large cities:
LONDON, U.K.

black cabs, double deckers

green badge (taxi drivers have to get it) – special exams of knowing the streets of London

MEXICO CITI, MEXICO

the cheap way of taking a cab: VW Beetle, yellow-painted

cab's meters don't work, cabbies (=taxi drivers) make their own mental calculations to work out the price

MAHAJANGA, MAGADASCAR

»pousse-pousse« (french for push-push) – rickshaw drivers demand the passers-by to help them push the vehicle, they shout »push-push« – that's why the ride is so cheap (lol, tole razlož ti na ustnmu hahaha)

HONG KONG

riskshaw boys are very old (more than 60), as city has decided to stop using rickshaws

the last rickshaw licence issued in 1975

people ignore red lights

FEZ, MOROCCO

grand-taxis – large mercedes limousines for journeys between cities

for shorter rides, you can rely on little cabs which are cheaper

cabs are typically coloured in red and black no to be strayed

SURAKARTA, INDONESIA

known for bicycle rickshaws called becaks, passengers sit in the front – they are forbidden now for being dangerous

the city is tourist-conscious, so transport is developing very quickly

VENICE, ITALY

gondolas have been in use since 16th century

gondolier is a traditional profession and was reserved only for certain families

nowadays anyone can become a gondolier, but training is difficult, knowledge of culture, history and singing is requires

a journey in gondola is now the most expensive way to travel through the Venetian canals



13. RELATIONSHIPS
Divorce (let's start with some funnier issues)


  • the institution of marriage is no longer ultimate, it's status has changed also in Britain

  • people are ignoring the promise of increased life expectancy (...to love and honour till death do us part – seen Four Marriages and a Funeral? J)

  • they reject the idea of eternal marriage

  • both partners can seek a divorce on the grounds of (na osnovi) »irretrievable breakdown« of their marriage

  • in Britain, there is no longer a stigma attached to divorce

  • the law that enables divorces came out in 1970s – the rate of divorces doubled in a few years

  • women found other means of economic independence and security and are not bound to marriage anymore

  • now many people (esp. young couples) merely live together

  • cohabitation is regarded as an accetable stage between being boyfriend and girlfriend and being a married couple

  • what used to be referred to as »living in sin« (živeti v grehu oz. na koruziJ) is becoming everyday phenomenon (vsakdanji pojav), because of young couples being reluctant to define the nature of their relationship

Arranged marriage




  • still present in traditional cultures (India, Asian world, African tribes...)

  • in high society (royal families) – read Lady, Obrazi, Lisa etc. for further informationJ

  • more common (or even custom) in the past

  • daughters had no right to choose their love ones

  • father had the main role in deciding and looking for the appropriate husband for his daughter

  • if daughter didn't respect the decision, she was banished (izobčen)

  • many had to run away from the parents' will

Reasons:


  • money

  • land property (posestvo)

  • political influence and interests

  • influence in the community

  • ensurance for the daughter's of son's future (a well situated husband/wife)

  • camels (Arab world) J

Children&teenage

(what am I supposed to say here??? K)


14. THE MEDIA

(a smo to jemal???)

(singular: a meduim, plural: media)
Their role in our society and lives
15. MONEY MATTERS

(tuki je bla ena prosojnca, mene pa ne K... po smisluJ)
16. SOCIAL ISSUES
Charities

(povzetki Marušinih povzetkovJ)


Problems of the developing world – high technological and scientific develpment, yet too little attention, energy and support go to people in need. Luckily, we're becoming conscious of the importance of helping the others.
Charity is an organization or organizations that give money or any other kind of help and support to people who need it.

Third World – countries that are still behindhand with the development and welfare to their people


  • children suffer from malnutrition (starvation, hunger)

  • lack of drinking water...

  • also protection of the environment, animals, plants, rainforests (something that models swear they will do if they are elected as Miss Universe J)


Volunteers are people who help others or work for an organization that helps those in need, but are not paid. Their work is to advertise their actions and ask for donations, collect contribution (prispevki), organize local or international events and look for sponsors, make charity appeals to inform the public and make people aware of the problems.
Most known British charity organizations:

  • National Society for the prevention of Cruelty to Children




  • Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to animals




  • Amnesty International (they focus on the release of prisoners of conscience; people who are imprisoned for their beliefs, colour of skin, sex orientation, religion etc.)




  • Greenpeace (focused on the worldwide threats to our planet's biodiversity: their campaign is to stop climate change, whaling, nuclear threats, genetic engineering, to save the oceans, the endangered species etc.)




  • Chatolic Charities – they tend to strengthen their communities by enpowering the people within them; they help individuals overcome tragedies, loss, poverty etc.

Class and status consciousness (Posh & all that jazzJ)


Britain and many other old and traditional yet democratic (parlamentary) monarchies are class-conscious. It means that money is not essential for being upper class – it is of a much greater importance to come from an influental family with certain tradition. These families are often tied up in properties or funds but have the origin that has a significance in the society – especially those with titles (earl, lord/lady, sir/dame, duke/duchess). Huge amount of money may buy you the title but not the reputation.
What do posh do, wear, where do they go to?

  • public schools (fee-paying schools with tradition)

  • Ivy-league universities

  • powerful jobs, gain power and money

  • wear Barbour jackets and Wellington boots

  • affected pronunciation (spakujejo se, po domač povedan)

  • calling their parents Mummy or Daddy

  • attend to some typical social events (Royal Ascott – horse-racing; Henley – rowing; The Glorious Twelfth – the start of shooting season; Queen Charlotte's Ball – a ball in aid of a hospital, known as a debutantes' ball)

  • they are active in charities – more or less to show off J

to flaunt=to show off=to boast about sth



a snob – so. who finds people pf a lower class inferior
Status consciousness is typical for materialistic world – the more you've got, the more important, respected and influent you are. America and other superpowers' societies are status-conscious and judge by money and capital of an individual.




The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2016
send message

    Main page