|General Scoring Considerations
Answers must be presented in sentences, and sentences must be cogent enough for the student’s meaning to be apparent. Spelling and grammatical mistakes do not reduce a student’s score, but spelling must be close enough so that the reader is convinced of the word intended.
Within a point, students are not penalized for misinformation unless it directly contradicts correct information that would otherwise have scored a point.
Students can only score points if information is presented in context. This means that they must clearly convey which part of the question is being answered before a point may be scored.
The lists of terms in these guidelines are not meant to be exhaustive but rather to represent the principal psychological terms and concepts that earn a point.
Whenever possible, identify terms, ideas, processes, methods and people.
Chapter 1 (EO 1)
Pretend you are interested in studying the relationship between emotion and memory. Your hypothesis is that happiness enhances memory performance. Create an example of an experiment that can test your hypothesis. Include a description of how you will operationally define the variables, and be sure to label the independent and dependent variable.
What terms should you use?
Operational definition of the dependent variable
My hypothesis would be questioning if happiness enhances memory performance. To create my experiment I would need confederates, participants will will participate in the study. I will set up two groups, the experimental group on whom all of the tests are done, and the control group who does everything like the experimental group does except for the main test being done. I can also choose a population or just simply a smaller group of people, a sample of people who is going to be tested. I can choose whether the experiment is going to have a random selection of the confederates or its going to assign a random assignment that the confederates will not know what they are going to be assigned to do in the experiment.
Next we will have to define our operational definition, what we are actually trying to measure in this experiment. Would it be how our mental state of happiness improves our memory skills? Then, to identify the independent variable we can ask the question what are the effects of the variables. Can we get better at memorizing things just by being happier? Anyhow the dependent variable would be the outcome of the manipulated independent variable.
If I were making an experiment to see the relationship between emotion and memory to find out if happiness enhances memory performance, I would use the scientific method.
The first thing I would do is make the goal and what I am trying to find out. And then I will make a hypothesis and predict what I think is going to happen. The next thing I would do is make the experiment and I would also identify the independent and dependent variable. After doing the experiment I would find and make a conclusion of what I found out. And last, I would analyze my conclusion (could mean replicate, publish)
Those are the steps which would help with making an experiment to see the relationship between emotion and memory, first find the goal, make a hypothesis, do the experiment, make a conclusion, and last I would analyze the conclusion and data.
I would get two people that are happy if given money or any kind of gift. I would also get two people that are very depressed and fed up of life. I would then show them pictures of random common animals. As the experiment goes on I would ask them to tell me the chronological order of the animals they just seen. The dependent variable are the pictures and the independent is the emotion and the memory of the people present.
Chapter 2 (EO 2)
Identify the major functions of the hypothalamus, cerebellum, and the reticular formation. Give examples of their functions in terms of real behaviors.
The brain is divided into three different parts, the hindbrain, the midbrain and the forebrain.
All three parts of the brain have their own particular function.
The hindbrain is made up of the brainstem, medulla, pons, and the cerebellum. The cerebellum is in charge of legs and arm movement (voluntary movement). In between the pons, the reticular formation is located which regulates sleeping and walking. As we go up from the reticular formation we enter the most complex part of the brain, the forebrain. In the forebrain the thalamus relays information. It works like a large server in a vast computer network. The hippocampus is involved in learning and memory, following the function of the hypothalamus is to control the eating, drinking, sex drive, also including to regulate body temperature, emotional states, coping with stress.
In terms of real behaviors, whenever you make your left leg or arm or whether it is the right leg and arm, these voluntary movements are processed in the cerebellum. To add on, sleeping and walking activities are undergone in the reticular formation.
Finally the cerebellum would be functioning whenever a student is stressed about their teacher giving them too many essays to write, or whether they are dealing with their adolescent emotions or even changing body temperature.
All of the brain parts, the hypothalamus, cerebellum, and the reticular formation have different functions. The hypothalamus is the part of the brain which tells you when you are thirsty, hungry, or any other desires that your body has. The reticular formation is the part of the brain which helps with voluntary muscles, this part of the brain helps you walk. The cerebellum is the part of the brain which controls the motor coordination. All of these brain parts have different functions and they all help our body with learning, walking, thinking and other things.
The hypothalamus, cerebellum and the reticular formation are all parts of the human brain. Each specific for its purpose and effect on daily life. The hypothalamus regulates eating and drinking habits as well as pleasure, such as sex and emotions. The cerebellum involves our motor coordination - movement. The reticular formation is very similar to the cerebellum because it involves walking and automatic movement. These major functions are all part of the behavior approach to psychology. The limbic system is involved in memory and emotion, which makes a connection to the cerebellum and the reticular formation. The frontal lobes, too are connecting to the reticular formation formation because they are in charge of moving voluntary muscles.
Chapter 3 (EO 3)
You are listening to Mozart on your iPod as you are reading your psychology textbook. Describe/Explain what is happening.
When I'm listening to music on my ipod what is really going on is sound from my earphones travel to my ear and finally alert my brain of the music. The ear is split into three different parts: the outer ear, the middle ear and the inner ear.
Sound enters the outer ear where the pinna is found and these signals travel to my middle ear. In the middle ear the eardrum vibrates and sends these signals further to the 3 smallest bones in our body: the hammer, anvil and stirrup. Next the sound enters the inner ear where the cochlea and the basiler membrane are located. The cochlea is a snail-shaped tube that sends these impulses and converts them to neurotransmitters that go directly in our brain where the temporal lobe is - the hearing lobe.
To describe what is happening when I am reading my school work material has to do with my vision located in the back of the brain - called the occipital lobe. The white part of the eye that gives its shape is the sclera. The iris is the colored part of the eye that can be brown, blue, or green or gray. The pupil is the black coloring in the center of the eye that can contract or dilate depending on the amount of light entering the eye. As light enters the eye, eventually it reaches the light sensitive retina at the back of the eye. Here the rods and cones are located. Rods react to dim light while cones react to color. The cornea plays the most crucial task for vision. The image we see is criss-crossed in the back of the eye and the sight goes through the optic nerve. Then it centers enters the optic driasm (sp) and finally from there it signals the brain the image you are seeing.
First the sound waves enter the outer ear and then the sound waves go through the auditory canal. Next the sound waves go to the eardrum where the vibrations are generated, which then takes the waves to the anvil, stirrup, and hammer. Then the waves go through the snail-like part, the cochlea, which is fluid-filled in the inner ear. Then mechanical vibrations are converted to electro-chemical signals that the brain recognizes as sound. This is how we hear and how the brain recognizes sound that comes through our ears.
That is the process on how we hear vibrations and how they enter our ears and how our brain recognizes sound.
The following process is a part of awareness. Both the visual and auditory systems work on "firing the neurons" to transmit the information to our brains. As we are reading our psychology book for the test on Monday till 6:00 with Mr. Lerch, the light reflects off the pages and hits our light-sensitive spot called the retina. Then the rods that are located in the retina, flip the image so we can recognize it. A person who would suffer from aphasia would indeed recognize the book and the situation but would not know what its used for nor how to explain its existence. On the other hand our auditory system is transmitting the sound from our headphones to our ears. The sound first enters through our ear canal that hits the ear drum which is the "border of the inner and outer ear." The hammer and cochlea then send the vibrations to our brain for recognition. If we have a high amount of dopamine and serotonin neurotransmitters, we might get an A on the test.
Chapter 4 (EO 3)
Compare and contrast the three major theories of dreaming.
Identify two sleep disorders and how those disorders affect consciousness.
Sleep is a crucial part of a person's development. A human being should get at least 8 hours of sleep. Without sleep our biological clocks can become desynchronized, stress levels can increase, obesity and other sleep disorders can appear as a result of unregulated sleep. For example, one sleep disorder such as insomnia is when a person is having trouble falling asleep or when wakes up from their sleeping cycle and can't fall back asleep. Narcolepsy is a disorder when a person can't control their urge to sleep. They can fall asleep talking or standing up. In the sleep cycle, this would appear as a person immediately enters the delta sleeping stage where the sleep is the deepest and therefore people with narcolepsy have a difficult time waking up. Sleep apnea is another disorder where it most affects elderly people over age 65 everywhere around the world. While sleeping their windpipe fails to open, in some cases it can lead to death or coma. Symptoms of sleep apnea are: snoring, high blood pressure, seizures and heart attacks. A person can reduce this disorder by side sleeping, going to programs for weight loss, etc.
All these disorders are a result as well of an uneven sleeping cycle. The sleep cycle is involved in 5 stages. The first is the state of wakefulness that involves the alpha and beta stages. This is the lightest sleeping stage. The second stage is when the body relaxes and the myclavic jerks appear or when sudden joint malents (sp) appear. In the second stage is when a person is no longer conscious of the environment around them. In the third stage the theta waves are active. A person in stage 3 is in their mild stage of sleep. Stage 4 involves the delta waves when a person is in their deepest sleep. In this stage of sleep a person is the most difficult to wake. Stage 5 is also known as REM stage, where dreaming occurs. A person can wake up in the middle of the night because of a nightmare and can go back to sleep restarting their sleep cycle. A sleep cycle can recur several times throughout the night lasting 90-100 minutes.
There are many different sleep disorders, and they all affect consciousness in a way. Sleep apnea and insomnia are both sleep disorders which affect consciousness.
Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder which people suddenly stop breathing in the middle of sleeping. This is caused by the wind pipes that are not opening and closing the way they should. Sleep apnea has an affect on consciousness because they they are sleeping they are not aware of what is happening and this is when they get sleep apnea.
Insomnia is the second sleep disorder which is when a person can't sleep and has problems with falling sleep. Insomnia can be treated by setting an alarm clock, not taking naps or even medication. Insomnia affects consciousness because the body is not getting enough sleep, which is needed for your body in order to function properly.
both of these sleep disorders affect consciousness and a good night sleep is needed for your body to function the way it should.
Consciousness is the state of a person when all of the five human senses are active and working. Sleep apnea and narcolepsy are very major sleep disorders that affect the state of consciousness on a high level. Sleep apnea is the state when a person stops breathing during a nigh sleep in the REM stage - the body is so relaxed that the heart does not pump enough blood to all the organs and the lungs just forget to breathe. It is a terrible disorder which needs constant supervision.
Narcolepsy on the other hand is a disorder which affects our consciouness in a way that we cannot control where we fall asleep and how we do it. A person is very likely to fall asleep anywhere. Consciousness is affected the most in sleep apnea where people would fall unconscious or in a coma.