Ch 8 – Learning – A relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience.
Watson and Behaviorism – Psychology should be observable. “Observe these behaviors, Watson!” (Think Sherlock Holmes)
Classical Conditioning – What goes with what – Pavlov and his puppies
UCS – Stimulus that unconditionally and naturallytriggers a response (food in mouth of doggy).
UCR – Unlearned, naturally occurring response to the UCS (Salivation to food)
CS – Originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with UCS, comes to trigger a conditioned response (Tone of tuning fork).
CR – Learned response to previously neutral stimulus (salivation to tone of tuning fork)
Acquisition – 1st stage in classical conditioning – associating a neutral stimulus (tuning fork) with an unconditioned stimulus (food) so the neutral stimulus can become the conditioned stimulus. Pavlov’s dog is acquiring the association/conditioning we desire.
Pairing of two must, in most cases, be within ½ second of each other (neutral stimulus first, then UCS).
Spontaneous Recovery – Recovering the Conditioned Response (salivating to the tuning fork) after giving the subject a little break…the break being, of course, extinction. Spontaneous = Instantaneous REAPPEARANCE of the response after it is thought to have been extinct.
Discrimination – Having the dog salivate to a specific sound…the tuning fork. The dog is an elitist and will only salivate to an exclusive sound the tuning fork. “Any other sound is not worthy of my saliva.”
Operant Conditioning – How to get what you want – Skinner and his pigeons
Respondent Behavior – A natural, automatic response/behavior to a stimulus.
Operant Behavior – Every operation/behavior has a consequence. “Every action in this world will bear a consequence.”
Law of Effect – Thorndike’s Law – If I give you some chocolate, you’ll do it more often. If I prick you with a thorn, you’ll do it less often.
Operant Chamber/Skinner Box – Animal presses a bar or key to get food/rewards.
Shaping – Reinforcing behavior to become more and more in line with an end-goal behavior.
A bit like the Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon…if you want to teach your dog to make you breakfast, you first reward him for opening the fridge, then only reward him if he opens the fridge and gets out the eggs, then only if he opens the fridge, gets out the eggs, and cooks them, and so on and so on until finally he makes you an entire breakfast! Put together little requests/tasks until you’ve shaped the subject’s behavior to what you desire in its entirety.
Reinforcer – Anything that makes someone/thing want to do something more. A pleasurable consequence.
Primary reinforcer – Food (some biological need)
Conditioned/Secondary reinforcer – Good grades, encouragement, money (G for grades, E for encouragement, M for money spells GEMs, which are things that are desired but not necessary for survival)
Continuous Reinforcement vs. Partial/Intermittent Reinforcement
Continuous = Faster acquisition, much weaker response/easier extinction
Partial = Slower acquisition of response, but much stronger response/tougher extinction
Fixed-ratio schedules – Getting a paycheck every time you sell 10 cars.
Variable-ratio schedules – Getting a paycheck whenever the lazy payroll director feels like writing one, regardless of how many cars you’ve sold.
KEY TO “RATIO” SCHEDULES – # OF RESPONSES
Fixed-interval schedules – Getting a paycheck every 2 weeks…constantly checking the mail to see if the check has come yet.
Variable-interval schedules – Having a pop quiz every now and then to make sure students are studying.
KEY TO “INTERVAL” SCHEDULES – AMOUNT OF TIME
Punishment – a consequence the decreases the behavior it follows = swearing and getting slapped.
Dangers of Punishment:
Punishment not forgotten
Increase subject/child aggressiveness by experimenter/parent modeling that aggression is OK.
Punishment sometimes teaches subjects/children only how to get away with an act/how to avoid punishment.
Punishment tells you what not to do, while reinforcement tells you what to do. Need a mix of both to be effective.
Cognitive Maps = Mental Representations
Latent Learning – Someone has learned how to run through the corn field maze through walking aimlessly, but will only be motivated to run through it and prove he/she’s learned if there’s money at the end of the maze.
Latent Learning has the word Late in it…learning that only shows up later when proving what’s been learned will bring on reinforcement.
Overjustification Effect = Over-rewarding someone/something for something they already like doing.
If a student intrinsically pushes him/herself to get all A’s, paying him/her $1000 for every A may cause the student to lose intrinsic motivation and do it “only for the money”.
Alex Rodriguez going to play for the Texas Rangers for $252 million and saying, “It’s not about the money.” Yeah, ok Alex, you realize you are now playing baseball for the Texas Rangers, right? (Playing baseball for $ rather than for love).
Observational Learning – Watching others and imitating them.
Modeling –Watching others and imitating a specific behavior.
Bandura and the BoBo doll – Children modeling aggressive behavior towards a blow-up doll.
We imitate those around us based on whether we see them as rewarded or punished for the behavior in question.
Ch. 9 – Memory: Any indication that learning has persisted over time.
Flashbulb Memories = Clarity of memories of surprising, significant events.
Clarity of memory of where you were on 9/11; Princess Diana’s death, etc.
Encoding: Information going into our brains. Encoding = Enter.
Storage: Retaining that information. Storage = Information Stays.
Retrieval: Getting information back out.
Three-Stage Processing model of memory:
Record to-be remembered information as sensory memory.
Process sensory memory into short-term memory, where it’s encoded for…
Long-term memory, from where memories are later retrieved.
Working Memory: Limited. Similar to short-term memory. Includes visual and verbal components.
Automatic Processing: Unconscious encoding of familiar information, such as your route while driving home.
Effortful Processing: Conscious effort, such as studying these concepts and terms! In order to do it, you need to focus and pay attention.
Rehearsal: Method used to boost our ability to recall different information, such as people’s names. Rehearsal = Repetition = Remembering.
The Next-in-Line Effect: In a line or circle of people, we remember the information presented by the person immediately before us because we’re so focused on our own performance.
Spacing Effect: We retain information better if it is presented over time…so don’t cram!!
Serial position effect: In memorizing a list, we remember the first and last items easiest.
Three Ways of Encoding:
Meaning: We remember stuff so much better if it relates to us…self-reference effect.
Semantic Encoding: Encoding of meaning, including meaning of words.
Acoustic Encoding: Encoding of sounds, like words.
Visual Encoding: Encoding of picture images.
Visualization/Imagery: mental pictures
Often recall the times of most enjoyment far better than the mundane moments = Rosy Retrospection (It’s all roses)
IE = Remembering a past relationship as far more enjoyable than it actually was.
Mnemonic Devices: Imagery that aids recall, such as HOMES for the Great Lakes, or peg-words, such as one-bun, two-shoe, three-tree, etc. (See notes on other types).
Mentally organizing information for encoding
Chunking: Chunk information into meaningful units/parts/chunks.
Hierarchies: Organizing information by groups based on divisions and subdivisions of narrower concepts and facts. IE = Taking notes in outline form…the organization of this review sheet!
Iconic Memory: Momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli, such as a slide of a tub of popcorn being “subliminally” placed in the middle of a film at the movies.
Echoic Memory: Momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli.
Sometimes you ask, “What did you say?” just as you hear in your mind the echo of what was said.
Short-Term Memory = can remember seven, plus or minus two.
Long-Term Memory = Unlimited
Memories are not stored in single, specific spots.
Long-term potentiation = prolonged strengthening of neural firing provides neural basis for memory…as you become more and more familiar with things/information, it takes less and less to have an action potential and process the information, which means you learn/remember easier.
Arousal = Increased learning and retention.
It sears events into the brain.
Implicit Memory: retention without conscious recollection…also called procedural memory.
Learning how to do something.
Explicit Memory: memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare”…also called declarative memory.
Declaring/knowing that you know how to do something.
Hippocampus = in limbic system = helps process explicit memories for storage.
“A hippo never forgets.”
Recall = a fill in the blank question on a test
Recognition = a multiple choice question on a test
Priming = activation of associations in memory.
Hearing the word rabbit and spelling the word hair/hare as h-a-r-e.
What is the role of context in memory?
It’s easier to remember things when you are in an identical or similar mood to the mood you were in when you first learned.
Proactive Interference = prior learning interferes with recall of new information.
Retroactive Interference = new learning gets in the way of old information.
Misinformation Effect = our tendency to include false information in our memory of events.
Source amnesia = attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard, read, or imagined.
Austin saying, “Ben said _____,” when really it was Tim who said _____.
Are memories brought out through hypnosis reliable?
Ch. 10 – Thinking (Cognition) and Language
Concepts: Mental groupings of similar objects, events, and people.
Chair can be a high chair, car chair, reclining chair, etc.
Prototypes = A mental image or best example that incorporates all the features we associate with a category.
Which is the birdier bird, a goose or a robin (which comes to mind as a bird first)?
Algorithms and Heuristics
Insight = “It all makes sense now!” The light bulb flashes on.
Confirmation Bias = Search for information that will confirm my perceptions.
Mental Set = Solve a problem using a method that has used before. Then you start to approach all similar problems the same way.
Functional Fixedness = Needing to turn a screw, an individual ransacks a house when using a dime to turn the screw would’ve worked fine.
Representative Heuristic = Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent certain prototypes.
A person is short, slim, and likes reading poetry…is this person a truck driver or Ivy League professor?
Availability Heuristic = Plane crashes seem far more frequent, as do terrorist attacks, because the memory of them is far more available than the memory of successful flights and foiled terrorist attacks.
Overconfidence = Eagerness to confirm beliefs we have + knack for explaining away our failures.
Framing = How we present an issue…we frame it to fit.
Belief Perseverance = Cling to our beliefs even in the face of contradictory evidence.
Phoneme = In spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound.
Morpheme = In a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or part of a word (such as a prefix).
Pre-, un-, bat
Grammar = system of rules (called semantics and syntax) that enables us to communicate with and understand others.
Semantics = Rules that tell how to get meaning out of morphemes, words, and sentences, such as adding –ed to laugh means it happened in the past.
Syntax = Rules used to put words in sentences in the correct orders.
Babbling Stage = 4 months of age, babies babble, and babbling resembles no specific language. Babbling is babbling.
One-word stage = 1-2 years, child speaks mostly in single words.
Two-word stage = Beginning around 2 years old, child speaks mostly two-word statements.
Called Telegraphic Speech = Send Money. Me Hungry. (like a telegram).
Thinking affects our language, which then affects our thought = two-way street/interaction between thinking and language.
Ch. 11 – Intelligence
Intelligence Tests = Tests for assessing a person’s mental abilities and comparing them to others’ abilities using numerical scores.
Ch. 12 – Motivation – A need or desire that serves to energize behavior and to direct it toward a goal.
Instinct = Complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species, and is unlearned.
Drive-Reduction Theory = Physiological need creates aroused tension state (drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.