On behalf of all our fellow devotees, SVBF offers their anantakoti namaskarams at the lotus feet of His Holiness Sri Sri Bharati Teertha Mahaswamigal. May the grace of Sri Sharadamba and the blessings of His Holiness be with us always and guide us in the right direction.
Since Mr. Ravi Subramanian moved to Canada, he relinquished his position as Chairman of SVBF, USA. Subsequently, His Holiness appointed Dr. Yegnasubramanian as the Chairman and Dr. S. S. Iyer as the President of SVBF. In addition, His Holiness also inducted Mr. Shridhar Chitryala of Long Island as a Trustee of SVBF. Mr. Ravi Subramanian will continue to be a Trustee of the Board. The reconstituted Board of Trustees seek your continued support and cooperation in taking SVBF to new heights in terms of its contributions to the community.
SVBF celebrated several events during the last several months, such as the Bhumi Puja for the new temple, Diwali function, annual Gayatri Yajna, Navaratri festival etc. Details of the events are captured under the News and Events column of this issue of the Journal.
We are glad to inform you that we have obtained the environmental clearance from the State of PA. The architectural and land development plans are also approved by the Township of Jackson and we will start construction activities by end of March.
Support from our devotees towards the construction of the new temple has been very encouraging so far. We request all our devotees to continue to support and participate as a temple-builder and bring the temple to reality. You may find a sponsorship form elsewhere in this Journal, and any donation is extremely well appreciated.
S. Yegnasubramanian Ravi Subramanian
President, SVBF Chairman, SVBF
From the Editorial Board….
We are happy to bring to you this issue of Paramaartha Tattvam – Volume 7, Nos.3 & 4. As was noted in previous issues, with the global economy being as it is now, the cost of printing and shipping are significant factors in the choice of merging the issues.
This issue features a book-condensation article on Bhagavan Ramana from Tattvaloka.
The series of articles on Dakshinamurti Stotram is concluded with this issue of the Journal. A new series on Soundaryalahari will be started from the next Volume ( No. 8. )
We also invite contributions from children on a topic of their choice related to our religion, culture and values. Selected contributions will be published in the Journal.
As was mentioned several times earlier, we would like to maintain free subscription to Paramaartha Tattvam and still bring you hard-copies. However, as you can appreciate, this is becoming an increasingly difficult challenge, over time!!!
Jaya Jaya Shankara.
Opinions expressed by the authors are not necessarily ofParamaartha Tattvam
Lectures by Dr. S. Yegnasubramanian Saturdays: KaThopanishad
2:30 PM to 3:30 PM Srimad Bhagavad Gita
3:45 PM to 4:45 PM Venue:
Arsha Bodha Center
84 Cortelyou Lane,
Somerset, NJ 08873 (732-940-4008) Directions from US 287
sakalam manasA kriyayA janite samavekshya vinASitayA tu jagat |
nirvidyata kaScidato nikhilAdavinASi kritena na labhyamiti ||1||
Having examined clearly that the entire world, created as it is by the mind and action, is by nature destructible, a certain person was then disgusted with everything, concluding that the indestructible can never be attained by deeds.
Yearning to attain the indestructible state, this person intent on an ascetic’s life, approaching and prostrating before a Guru - who was himself an ascetic, a knower of the true nature of the Self, and a farsighted seer - disclosed his feeling to him.
kripayA SaranAgatamuddhara mAm anuSAdhyupasannamananyagatim ||3||
O Bhagavan! I have fallen into the ocean (of Samsara) -- whose waters are death and birth, and has sharks in the form of pleasure and pain. Pray lift me up and then instruct me who is afflicted and has approached you. I have taken refuge in you and have no other shelter.
(The Guru now instructs the student.) Welcome to you whose mind is focused on the Self! Withdrawing the treacherous interest in objects of sense and completely giving up identification with the body, always take delight in the subject of the Supreme Self. Abandon delusion-ridden misapprehension.
Constantly get rid of the idea that “I am this” or “this is mine” with regard to the five material sheaths – food etc. Always identify with the infinite, unborn and unqualified witness seated in the heart.
matibhedakritA tu tathA bahudhA tava buddh driSo(a)vikritasya sadA ||6||
Just as the plurality of the Sun is fabricated by the difference in the waters (in which it is reflected) alone, and just as the plurality of the sky is a due to the pots etc. (that contain space), so also the plurality attributed to you – who is always the unchanging witness of the intellect – is simply a product of the variety of thoughts.
dinakrit prabhayA sadriSena sadA janacittagatam sakalam svacitA |
viditam bhavatA(a)vikritena sadA yata evamato(a)sitaeva sadA ||7|| 7. By thy own consciousness which is like the luster of the Sun (day-maker), everything that transpires in the minds of people is always known by thee who art always unchanging. Since this is the case, therefore you are always one with them.
Golden Words of
H. H. Sri Chnadrasekhara Bharati Mahaswamigal
The Sastras are emphatic that absolute freedom from bondage is possible only to those who have given up all sense of I and mine in the body, the senses and the mind and have realized that their inner self transcends all these. While so, if a man is particular about nourishing them and yet expects to get liberated, he is verily like a man desirous of crossing a river in flood by getting up on a crocodile thinking that it is a raft. So says Sankara Bhagavatpada in his “Vivekachudamani”.
In the last two issues we have taken a brief look at the teaching of Samartha Ramadasa as reflected in his “Manache Sloka.” Now we’ll turn our attention back to the “Jnaneshwari” of Jnaneshwara Maharaj that brought about the spiritual awakening in Maharashtra more than seven hundred years ago.
As was mentioned before, the Jnaneshwari is a Marathi commentary on the Srimad Bhagawad Geeta. It was written with the objective of making the Geeta available to the common man who did not have easy access to the Sanskrit commentaries.
Jnaneshwara Maharaj chose the Geeta because it contains the essence of the Vedas in a format that can be comprehended by everybody. Taking the 700 verses of the Geeta, he elaborated them into more than 9000 verses in Marathi so that the meaning can be clearly understood.
Unlike other scriptures that contain an elaborate “PhalaSruti” – that is a glorification of the fruit of studying that text – the Geeta contains only a few verses at the end of Chapter Eighteen that promise a reward to those who recite or teach it. Presently we will briefly see how Jnaneshwara Maharaj further expounds the glory of the Geeta. We hope that the reader will be enthused to take up the study of the Geeta after reading these verses.
Firstly, Jnaneshwara Maharaj makes the point that one who recites the Geeta with devotion even without grasping its meaning will also get the highest result.
“Whatever benefit (purity of mind, etc.) could be attained by the learned and the wise, by research of the Geeta to understand its teachings, the very same benefit would be secured by those that simply chant the Geeta or praise the glory of the Lord and of the Geeta (Sankirtana).”
“Thus, by simply reciting the Geeta one will secure the same fruit, as does one knowing its interpretations. Geeta, like a mother, makes no distinction between a knowing child and an infant.”
“In the case of the Geeta, what is achieved by understanding its meaning is identical with that achieved by its verbal recital. This scripture thus brings about a complete identity between the sense (meaning) and the corresponding word used therein.”
To get the full benefit of reciting the Geeta, Jnaneshwara Maharaj advises that one should avoid criticizing others. That only distracts the mind and weakens its focus:
“When a person, without condemning other approaches by devotees of Geeta, places full faith in listening to the Geeta, with earnest piety -- all his sins flee away from him in haste, as soon as the words from Geeta fall upon his ears.”
For the true devotee of the Geeta there is no fear from past wrongdoings. As the Lord Himself has given the promise:
“Even if a person be of very vile conduct, if he would worship Me with exclusive devotion, then he should be considered to be a saint since he has correctly resolved.”
Jnaneshwara Maharaj clarifies this point with some wonderful similes:
“As the animals and birds etc., living in a forest escape at once in all directions, with the entry into the forest of wild fire.
When the sun rises over Eastern hilltops, the darkness in the sky disappears by itself.
Similarly, when the resounding words of Geeta enter the gateway of the ears of a person, all his past sins, accumulated since the beginning of the universe, get destroyed.”
“In this way, the person’s creeper of life, gets purified, its righteousness increases and ultimately bears copious good fruit.”
The same result that is obtained by performing very elaborate rituals is also secured by reciting the Geeta:
“On hearing Geeta, a person secures the merit of as many ‘Ashwamedha’ sacrifices, as the number of letters of Geeta enter into his heart through his ears.”
Not only does a person get final salvation, but he also enjoys the comforts of worldly life along the way:
“Thus, listening to Geeta destroys all sins of a person, his righteousness immensely increases and he ultimately secures the Kingdom of Heaven.”
“During such a person’s journey to reach Me, his first halt is heaven, where he enjoys the pleasures thereof as much as he wishes and thereafter reaches Me directly.”
In another simile Jnaneshwara Maharaj describes the Geeta as the very pillar of Self-knowledge:
“It appears to me that these verses are the very pillars of the court hall of the King, ‘Supreme Self’, in the form of Geeta.”
There is another scripture – also consisting of 700 verses – from the Sri Markandeya Puranam, that describes the glory of the Goddess Durga. Jnaneshwara Maharaj compares the two scriptures in their ability to destroy delusion:
“Or, Geeta is the Goddess Bhagawati, described in seven hundred verses, who is gladdened by liberating the demon of delusion by slaying him and thus may be compared to the Goddess Durga described in the SatpaSati scripture, who was gladdened by liberating the demon of infatuation, Mahisasura, by slaying him.”
Jnaneshwara Maharaj advises those who long to experience the joy of the Self to take to the Geeta with all their being:
“Therefore, one who would become devoted to the Geeta by mind, body as well as by speech would become the sovereign king of the empire of Self-bliss.”
Jnaneshwara Maharaj gives another simile to highlight the attraction that the devotees have for the Geeta:
“Or in the lake called Krishna the Geeta verses are like lotuses, attracting bees in the form of fortunate Saints, who are swarming the lake to feast on the nectar in these lotuses.”
After reading the Geeta, one naturally develops a special liking for some particular verses that are appealing. But actually Jnaneshwara Maharaj says that all the verses of the Geeta are equally wonderful and they all point to a single objective:
“What is the need of my maintaining that in the Geeta no one verse is better or inferior than any other verse? There is not even a distinction between a word therein and its sense (meaning.)”
In fact the Geeta is the very incarnation of Lord Krishna in literary form:
“Therefore, now there is nothing more for me to explain or argue for. Know that the Geeta is the glorious literary manifestation of the Lord (Krishna) Himself.”
Jnaneshwara Maharaj explains that though the advice in the Geeta was originally intended to remove the despondency of Arjuna, it is equally capable of bringing happiness to anyone who would recite it:
“Just see how the Lord has bestowed His Grace to the entire universe by making easily available to all, the bliss of the Self, making Arjuna an excuse.”
The following simile further brings out this point:
“Or, as the full moon cools down all the three scorched worlds, making the Chakora bird only an excuse.
In that way the cow in the form of Lord Krishna has provided this milk in the form of the Geeta, in sufficient quantity, to the entire universe, making Arjuna the calf.”
Since the Geeta grants the highest result without discrimination to everyone who recites it, therefore Jnaneshwara Maharaj advises us to put aside other pursuits and devote ourselves to the Lord’s Song.
“Just as a generous donor refuses nothing to anybody, the Geeta gives nothing less than final liberation to anyone, either by listening, reading or by understanding the full meaning of it.”
“Therefore a wise man should resort to the Geeta alone, in the company of a learned man (for his guidance.) What more will you achieve thru all other scriptures?”
Golden Words of
Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa
The Absolute and the Relative
The Divine Mother is the same as God the Absolute. When thought of as inactive, he is called the Absolute. When again, he is thought of as active- as creating, preserving and destroying- then the Being is called the Divine Energy or the Divine Mother. The Absolute expressed in terms of the relative is the same as the Divine Mother – the same as God the Father.
Our purpose in writing this article will be fulfilled if it encourages the readers to recite and study the Geeta. May the Grace of Jnaneshwara Maharaj and Lord Sri Krishna help us in this regard.
As always, we would like to end this write-up with our humble prostration to the Saints as well to all the devotees. We pray for their forgiveness in whatever may be incorrect or deficient in this article.
“Sartha Sri Jnaneshwari”, by Sri NanaMaharaj Sakhrey published by Sarathi Prakashan, Pune.
“Sri Jnaneshari” translated by Ramchandra Kesahav Bhagwat published by Samata Books, Madras.
Stories from Skanda-Puranam – Part II
Translation by Satish Karandikar
The reader may recall that we started this series on the Stories from the Skanda Puranam in the previous issue. These are wonderful narratives that immediately kindle devotion in the mind of the reader. Those who have difficulty following the Sanskrit can also enjoy them with the help of the English translation.
In the present episode we see how even simple worship of the Lord, if done with a one-pointed mind can yield the highest result.
Sri Suta said, “Lord Siva is the preceptor, Lord Siva is the deity, Lord Siva is the friend, Lord Siva is the very self and life of embodied beings. There is nothing other than Lord Siva.”
Whatever is offered or chanted or given as oblation or done for Lord Siva that is said to give unlimited fruit. This is the conclusion of all the Sastras.
One who would worship Lord Siva alone is surely relieved of all bondage.
The affection which one has for one’s son or wife or even wealth, if that is directed towards the worship of Lord Siva, it protects (one’s self.) What is the surprise in this?
Hence, some great souls give up the lure of all sense objects and also their own body, which is hard to forsake, for the sake of the worship of Lord Siva.
That is the (real) tongue which praises Lord Siva, that is the (real) mind which contemplates on Lord Siva, that is the (real) pair of ears which is anxious to hear the Lord’s stories and that is the (real) pair of hands which worships the Lord. That is the (real) pair of eyes that observes the worship of the Lord, that is the (real) head that bows to Lord Siva, and that is the (real) pair of legs that always goes on pilgrimage with devotion to Lord Siva’s shrines.
The one whose all senses function for the sake of Lord Siva’s work, he crosses Samsara (transmigration) and gets worldly pleasures as well as liberation. A person who is endowed with devotion to Lord Siva, whether man, woman, or eunuch, whether he be a Chandala (a person of low birth) or a Pulkasa (person of mixed tribe), is immediately free from Samsara.
A person who has even a little devotion to Lord Siva is worthy of honor by all embodied beings.
In the city of Ujjayini there was a king by name Chandrasena. In that city, this great king Chandrasena would worship with devotion the Lord in the form of Mahakala.
The king became friendly with Manibhadra who was foremost among Lord Siva’s attendants, who had conquered all evil, and who was adored by all the worlds.
Once, Manibhadra, who was a very wise follower of Lord Siva, was pleased with the king and gave him a divine Chintamani (wish-fulfilling gem).
That gem was like the Kaustubha gem (ornament of Lord Vishnu) and was shining like the Sun. When it was either seen or heard of or contemplated on it would grant men’s desire.
Wearing that wish-fulfilling gem around his neck the king shone on the throne like the Sun Himself in the midst of the gods.
Having heard about the excellent king who always had the gem around his neck, all the other kings became very jealous and their minds were agitated.
When Chandrasena turned down the request (for the gem) by all the kings, then the kings of all the states adopted hostile measures.
And now, all of them, very enraged, along with many soldiers charged on Ujjayini shaking the earth and blocked its four gates.
Having seen the city come under siege by the haughty kings, Chandrasana took refuge in that Lord Mahakala alone.
The king, remaining undisturbed and of firm resolve worshiped day and night Lord Siva (Consort of Goddess Gauri). He abstained from food and gave exclusive attention.
In the meanwhile, a certain cowherdess, who was a resident of that town, witnessed along with her five-year-old son the worship of Lord Siva (Consort of Goddess Girija) performed by the king. She was widowed and had only one son and was living there for a long time.
Having seen that great wonder in the form of the glory of Lord Siva’s worship she prostrated and then went back to her dwelling. Having witnessed all this completely the son of the cowherdess, out of curiosity, performed Lord Siva’s worship which gives dispassion.
Having brought a nice stone to an empty but excellent tent not too far away from his home, he prepared a Siva Lingam.
Having brought whatever flowers he could get with his own hands he performed worship with devotion bathing that Lingam.
Having prepared sandal paste, ornaments, clothes, incense, a lamp and Akshatas (unbroken rice) etc he also prepared the food offering with wonderful artificial materials.
Having well worshipped repeatedly with leaves and delightful flowers and having danced in many ways he prostrated (before the Lord) again and again.
That cowherdess lovingly called for food her son who was thus performing the worship of Lord Siva with exclusive attention.
Even though he was just a boy, he whose mind was fully engrossed in the worship did not want to eat despite being called by his mother many times. Then the mother herself went (to get him.)
Seeing him seated in front of Lord Siva with closed eyes she pulled his hand and taking hold of him struck him angrily.
When her son did not come even after being pulled and beaten, she threw the Lingam far away and destroyed his worship.
Then the cowherdess who was filled with anger, returned to her house having admonished her son who was crying “Oh no! Oh no!”
Having seen the worship of Lord Siva (who bears a trident), destroyed by his mother the boy screamed “Oh Lord! Oh Lord!” and suddenly fell down unconscious, his eyes filled with tears. In a little while he regained his senses and opened his eyes.
He then saw the same tent had become a temple of Lord Siva. It was shining with pillars of pearls and golden doors, panels and arches and platforms of precious sapphires and spotless diamonds. His mind was struck with wonder. Getting up with a start he was as if immersed in an ocean of supreme joy, on account of great delight.
Having known that this had happened due to magnanimity of Lord Siva, and understanding the greatness of His worship, he prostrated like a staff on the ground for redressing his mother’s wrong doing.
“Oh Lord, the Consort of Goddess Uma, please forgive the offense of my mother who is foolish and ignorant of you. Oh Sankara, please be gracious. If there is any little merit in me arising out of devotion to you, even as a result of that may my mother obtain your mercy, O Lord Siva.” Having thus appeased Lord Siva (who resides on Mount Kailasa) and having prostrated repeatedly the boy came out of Lord Siva’s temple when the Sun had set.
Now he beheld his own home that had become like the city of Indra. Suddenly it had turned golden and was shining with a wonderful luster. As the night fell, he entered inside the house and rejoiced.
There he saw his own mother sleeping peacefully. She was resting on a white mattress on a bed made of precious gems. His eyes were wide open with excitement and he quickly woke up his mother, saying, “O mother! Wake up! May God bless you! Look at this great wonder!”
She woke up in a flurry and observed all that had happened. Seeing herself, her son and her home as never before, she was excited with joy.
Having heard about all the grace of Lord Siva (Consort of Goddess Girija) from her son’s mouth, she informed the king who was in continuous worship of the Lord.
The king came at once, after finishing his chores at night, and witnessed the glory of the cowherdess’ son, that was as a result of Lord Siva’s pleasure.
When the king, along with his ministers and priests, saw all that - the golden temple of Lord Siva with a Linga made of precious stones as well as the cowherdess’ home brilliant with excellent rubies - his mind was for a while wonder-struck and he was filled with great joy.
Shedding tears of joy he lovingly hugged that boy.
The night passed in a moment as a result of the chanting of Lord Siva’s wonderful glory as well as due to the excitement of the citizens.
Then, in the morning, the kings who were positioned for war in siege of the city, heard from their spies about this great wonder.
They were greatly astonished and immediately abandoned hostility. They laid down their arms and entered (the town) with the approval of Chandrasena. Having entered the charming city, all the kings prostrated before Lord Mahakala and came to the home of that cowherdess.
Chandrasena came and greeted them there. The kings were seated on precious seats and were all struck with wonder and were rejoicing out of love.
Having seen the temple of Lord Siva and the very great Lingam that had manifested as a blessing for the cowherd boy, their minds were filled with great devotion to Lord Siva.
Just by his arrival the kings were filled with excitement and having got up saluted Lord Hanuman, their selves being humble with devotion.
Lord Hanuman (the Lord of monkeys) was worshipped and seated in their midst. Embracing the cowherd boy and looking at the kings, He said as follows: “There is no other way (to happiness) for embodied beings other than the worship of Lord Siva. This cowherd boy obtained (the favor of) Lord Siva having worshipped Him, as a matter of good fate, even without mantras on a Saturday at the time of Pradosha (the evening of the 13th day of the moon).”
“This Pradosha time on a Saturday is difficult to obtain for all embodied beings. Even more difficult is the one in the dark half of the moon.”
“This most meritorious boy will spread the fame of the cowherds in the world. In the eighth generation of his lineage, will be born a very famous cowherd by the name of Nanda. Lord Krishna, who is Lord Narayana Himself, will become his son.”
“In this world, from this moment on, this cowherd boy, will be called by the name Srikara and attain great universal fame.”
Sri Suta said: Having thus addressed the cowherd boy and instructed him in the service of Lord Siva, Lord Hanuman (the son of Anjani) disappeared right there.
Then all those kings who were very happy and honored, taking leave of Chandrasena, went back just as they had come.
And the very illustrious Srikara, who was instructed by Lord Hanuman, performed the proper worship of Lord Siva along with Brahmanas who were well versed in Dharma.
By the passage of time Srikara, as well as that king Chandrasena, obtained the highest state having worshipped Lord Siva with devotion.
This narrative, which is highly secret and meritorious and conducive to glory, has thus been told. It shall spread merit and great prosperity. It is the destroyer of the flood of sin and increases devotion to the lotus feet of Lord Siva (Consort of Goddess Gauri.)
We will continue with the translation of the 1st sentence of Bana’s description of the city of Ujjayini in his Kadambari, from where we left off at the end of Unit XIX.
(The city is inhabited [f,N,s] by sportive people [m,I,s] ) who know and discern all the sciences, [m,I,s] who are generous, [m,I,s] who are skilled at any task, [m,I,s] who are smiling even as they initiate conversation, [m,I,s] who are charmingly witty, [m,I,s] who don bright clean clothes, [m,I,s] who are instructed in the languages of all nations, [m,I,s] who are skilled in double entendres, [m,I,s]
who areskilled in the subtleties of rhetoric, (familiarity in communicating certain works of prose) [m,I,s] who are knowledgeable about various scripts, [m,I,s] who are passionate about Mahabharata and Ramayana epics, [m,I,s] who are skilled in fantastic tales, [m,I,s] who excel at all arts including gambling, [m,I,s] who love the scriptures, [m,I,s] who are addicted to sweet talk, [m,I,s] and who are ever calm [m,I,s]
(The city is inhabited [f,N,s] by sportive people [m,I,s] ) who are always generous [m,I,s] (pun on ) like [I] the breeze of spring [m,I,s]
(The city is inhabited [f,N,s] by sportive people [m,I,s] ) who are inwardly honest and upright [m,I,s] like [I] ( the straight trees of the Himalaya forest [m,I,s]
(The city is inhabited [f,N,s] by sportive people [m,I,s] ) who are adept in worship of Rama [m,I,s] like[I] Lakshmana [m,I,s]
(The city is inhabited [f,N,s] by sportive people [m,I,s] ) who exhibit prowess in Bharatanatya [m,I,s] like [I] Shatrughna [m,I,s]Here the reference is to Shatrughna’s intimate familiarity with his brother Bharata as well as the dance form of Bharata.
(The city is inhabited [f,N,s] by sportive people [m,I,s] ) who follow their friends [m,I,s] like [I] the day follows the sun [m,I,s]Here, the play is on the word which can mean the sun or friend!
(The city is inhabited [f,N,s] by sportive people [m,I,s] ) who are adept at arguing that everything exists [m,I,s] like [I] the Buddhists [m,I,s]
(The city is inhabited [f,N,s] by sportive people [m,I,s] ) who are associated with important people [m,I,s] like [I] the Sankhya philosophy (pun on ) [m,I,s]
(The city is inhabited [f,N,s] by sportive people [m,I,s] ) who fear for all forms of life [m,I,s] like [I] the Jains [m,I,s] In these statements, personal philosophies of materialism, compassion etc. are compared to the religious philosophies.
Now we depart from the description of the inhabitants of Ujjayini to the description of other features in the city.
(It was) as if [I] The city [f,N,s] by name [I] Ujjayini [f,N,s] in the province of Avanti [f,L,pl] surpassed the splendor of the abode of gods [f,N,s] Such a city …
With palaces [m,I,pl] like[I] mountains with peaks [f,N,s]
With mansions [n,I,pl] like [I] a city with suburbs [f,N,s] With noble people [m,I,pl] like [I] the tree of paradise, Parijata [f,N,s]With walls decorated [f,I,pl] like [I] the revelation of the cosmic form [f,N,s]
Now we see aspects of the city in direct similes.
Resembling a red ruby [f,N,s] like[I] the dusk [f,N,s] Purified by the smoke of the fires of numerous sacrifices [f,N,s] like[I] the visage of Indra [f,N,s] The laughter emanating from beautiful whitewashed mansions [f,N,s] like [I] the dance of Shiva [f,N,s] The golden houses [f,N,s] like [I] a elderly (bejeweled) lady [f,N,s] Beguiling as the seat of Vishnu [f,N,s] like [I] the visage of Garuda [f,N,s]All the enlightened subjects [f,N,s] like [I] at the time of waking (enlightenment) [f,N,s] Houses whitened by ivory and bedecked with beautiful hanging fans [m,N,pl] like [I] the residence of aborigines [f,N,s] The mountains always situated near by [f,N,s] like [I] the (resting) body of the serpent Shesha [f,N,s] Great sounds filling in all directions [f,N,s] like [I] at the time of the churning of the ocean [f,N,s] Thousands of golden pots placed [f,N,s] as if [I] (it was) the land set for a coronation [f,N,s] Figures deserving of great thrones [f,N,s] like [I] Gowri (who rides a lion – pun on ) [f,N,s] (Ujjayini’s populace) in service of a multitude of lineages of gods [f,N,s] like [I] Aditi (who was worshipped by her many children, the gods) [f,N,s] (Ujjayini’s populace) have displayed the play of golden dice [f,N,s] like [I] the play of the great incarnation Varaha [f,N,s] – pun on (Ujjayini’s populace) made the realms of paramours happy [f,N,s] like [I] the body of the sage Astika (who foiled the great serpent sacrifice) [f,N,s] – pun on (Ujjayini) is fascinating with many children at play [f,N,s] like [I] the story of Harivamsa [f,N,s]
In the following, the author paints a picture of Ujjayini in contrasts. How the same place can look very different when viewed differently.
Although [I] the women folk are enjoying themselves vividly [f,N,s] their behavior is not censured [f,N,s]Although [I] red in color [f,N,s] the (houses) are white washed [f,N,s] Although [I] pearl necklaces abound [f,N,s] it seems undecorated [f,N,s] Although [I] variegated by nature (fickle minded) [f,N,s] it is stable [f,N,s] Such was the city of Ujjayini.
: Declension (Contd.)
We will continue where we left off in unit XVIII to gain a general familiarity with Torecap, the terminations are added to the This process is most straightforward when either the ends in a consonant or the affix begins with one.
12. Instrumental singular takes the affix However, are best memorized. and ending nominals behave familiarly
Some of the ending nominals where the orbelongs to a verbal root may be treated as ++ Neuter nouns take an additional
13. Dative singular takes the affix are again, best memorized. ending nominals behave the same as in instrumental singular.
Either the final vowel or the affix is strengthened by Neuter nouns take on the additional However,
14. Ablative and possessive singular take the affix These two cases have identical forms except for ending nouns and most pronouns. Notice below how the two vowels appear to change positions and an occasional strengthening of the vowel : However, Neuter nouns once again take
15.Possessive and locative dual take the affix These two cases have identical forms. For ending nouns and most pronouns is added . ending nominals behave familiarly. Neuter nouns once again take
16. Locative singular takes the affix Sometimes, the final vowel is replaced by
But is strengthened Neuter nouns once again take
17. We will now briefly touch on the 5 highlighted boxes in Unit XVIII.
A. The neuter nouns have identical forms in the nominative and accusative. Typical forms are:
Notice the consistency of the short and long vowels patterns.
B. Masculine and feminine nouns have identical duals in nominative and accusative. Also Accusative singular always ends in Thus, we need again to look at only the nominative patterns. A few common types are as follows:
We conclude this section on declension by again noting that the foregoing is to be taken strictly as rules-of-thumb.
Influence of Sanskrit on Indo-European languages:
It is well known that words like father, mother, sister, daughter, you, me and some numbers have their origin in Sanskrit. This similarity becomes more apparent when we look, not just at English, but include Latin, Greek and German. It seemed fun to compile a few not so familiar words.
With this unit, we conclude these Sanskrit lessons. I am deeply indebted to SVBF for giving me the rare opportunity to write these articles for this esteemed journal, although baring my ignorance in the process. I am hugely indebted to Sri Satish Karandikar who has painstakingly corrected many, many errors in proof. However, the left over errors are entirely mine and mine alone.