From Black Codes to Jim Crow



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From Black Codes to Jim Crow

  • The Struggle for African American Equality after the Civil War
  • Grade7/8 Webquest
  • Mrs. Treder
  • Glen Cove School District
  • Teacher Page

Reconstruction

  • After the Civil War ended in 1865 the South was economically devastated and socially transformed . The long institution of slavery with which they relied on for centuries ended, causing joy in some and resentment in others. Regardless of personal feelings the South needed help rebuilding its farms, towns, cities, and people. This time period is known as Reconstruction and lasted from about 1865-1877. Reconstruction addressed how the Southern states would return to the Union. One of the most important issues that needed to be addressed was the Constitutional and legal status of the newly freed slaves. This task would prove to be a tremendous undertaking that would forever change the social and economic character of the United States.

DIRECTIONS

  • Introduction/Historical Context: After the end of the Civil War in 1865 tremendous changes occurred in the now truly United
  • States. One major result of the war was the emancipation of all slaves, thus creating a class of new Americans. The struggle for
  • these freedman to achieve the same status as their fellow citizens would prove to be difficult. Despite efforts to improve the social
  • and economic status of African American after the Civil War they still faced racism and prejudice at the hands of the government
  • and of their compatriots.
  • Step 1: Background Information: Before you begin the WebQuest you must first research background information and
  • answer the questions accordingly on the answer sheet (click here for worksheet).
  • Step 2: WebQuest: You will follow a series of links that will take you to various websites where you will analyze and read t
  • primary resources such as documents, quotes, political cartoons, photographs etc. and answer questions on the
  • answer sheet (click here for worksheet).
  • Step 3: DBQ Essay: After you have completed the WebQuest, you will use the information to write a DBQ essay based on the
  • documents. The essay task is as follows:
  • Discuss the problems that African Americans faced after the Civil War.
  • Discuss ways in which the law conflicted with the reality of life for African Americans after the Civil War.
  • Evaluation: Your work will be graded in two parts.
    • Quiz Grade 100 points:
    • Test Grade:
      • DBQ Essay based on the information found in the webquest using the graded using the NY State Department of Education Rubric for DBQ’s http://www.nyise.org/homsy/dbqrubric.htm
  • Conclusion: At the end of this WebQuest you will be able to explain how the results of Civil War affected the social and economic
  • structure of African Americans living in the United States and then write a well informed DBQ essay.

Step 1: Background Information

  • Using the websites below you will gather background information before you complete the DBQ scaffolding questions to achieve a superior understanding of the content.
  • Click the links below, read the entire page in order to answer the questions below:
  • 1. Sharecropping: http://www.uwec.edu/geography/Ivogeler/w188/planta3.htm
    • Define and explain the purpose of tenant farming and sharecropping
    • Describe the significance of “40 acres and a mule”
    • How would this system of sharecropping benefit both the plantation owner and the working freedman?
    • 2. Black Codes: http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USASblackcodes.htm
    • Explain the purpose of the Black Codes.
    • Name two restrictions placed upon African Americans under the Black Codes.
    • Describe President Andrew Johnson view of African Americans.
  • 3. Jim Crow Laws: http://www.ferris.edu/news/jimcrow/what.htm
    • How did the Jim Crow Laws categorize African Americans?
    • List 2 Jim Crow Etiquette norms that are highly offensive and insulting to African Americans.
    • After reading about these laws, what purpose does the Jim Crow Laws serve?

Document 1: Slavery Statistics

  • Document 1: Slavery Statistics
  • Click the link below and use the chart to answer the questions below:
  • http://www.civil-war.net/pages/1860_census.html
    • What is the total slave population of the United States in 1860?
    • Which state had the highest number of slaves in 1860?
    • Based on the information on the chart, which area of the United
    • States would most greatly be affected by the abolishment of slavery?
    • Why?
  • Document 2: Sharecroppers picking cotton in Georgia, 1898
  • Click the link below, examine the photograph carefully then answer the
  • questions below:
  • http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=78359&rendTypeId=4
  • Explain what is happening in the photograph.
  • Describe the mood of the people in the photograph.
  • Why would some say that this activity is similar to slavery?
  • Step 2: DBQ Scaffolding Questions

Document 3: Working Women

  • Document 3: Working Women
  • Click the links below, read the entire page and analyze the photographs in order to answer the following questions:
    • http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/reconstruction/section3/section3_free.html
    • How did the role of African American women and children change after the Civil War?
    • http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/reconstruction/section3/section3_07.html
    • B. What type of employment did African American women do after the Civil War?
  • Document 4: Robert E. Lee
  • Click the link below, scroll down the page to 4) Robert E. Lee was
  • cross-examined … Read the entire page in order to answer the questions below.
    • http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USASblackcodes.htm
    • What is Robert E. Lee being asked to comment on?
    • What views does Robert E. Lee have on the capacity of African Americans?

Document 5: Worse Than Slavery

  • Document 5: Worse Than Slavery
    • Click the link below and examine the picture in order to answer the questions below.
    • http://wpscms.pearsoncmg.com/wps/media/objects/1693/1733989/images/img_ah3_p123.
    • html
    • A. What tactics did groups such as the Ku Klux Klan use against African Americans?
    •  B. Explain the meaning of the caption, The Union As it Was, located in the cartoon at the very top.
  • Document 6: Civil War Amendments
  • Click the link below. Once you are on the page follow the Roman Numeral Links to the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments as shown below and answer the questions below: http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/amend1.htm
  • A. XIII 13th Amendment:
  • B. XIV 14th Amendment:
    • a. year added to the Constitution
    • b. state the purpose of the 14th Amendment in
    • your own words:
  • C. XV 15th Amendment:
    • a. year added to the Constitution
    • b. State the purpose of the 15th Amendment
    • in your own words:

Document 7: The History of Jim Crow

  • Document 7: The History of Jim Crow
  • Click the link below, go to the first picture and read the caption underneath. Then click on the picture to enlarge it. Use the information to answer the questions below.
  • http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/scripts/jimcrow/gallery.cgi?collection=crow
    • What aspects of the minstrel show could be categorized as racist?
    • Describe 2 ways the Jim Crow image portrays a negative image of African Americans.
  • Document 8: Philadelphia 1889
  • Click the link below; go to the second row, first picture titled Philadelphia, 1889. Read the caption underneath the picture, and then click the picture to enlarge it, use the information to answer the questions below.
  • http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/scripts/jimcrow/gallery.cgi?term=&collection=crow&index=6
  • What is happening to the African American man in the picture?
  • How does this event conflict with the goals of Reconstruction?

Step 3: DBQ ESSAY

  • The answer to the essay question is to be written in the separate essay booklet.
  • DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
  • This question is based on the accompanying documents. It is designed to test your ability to work
  • with historical documents. Some of the documents have been edited for the purposes of the question.
  • As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each document and any point
  • of view that may be presented in the document.
  • Historical Context: After the end of the Civil War in 1865 tremendous changes occurred in the now truly
  • United States. One major result of the war was the emancipation of all slaves, thus creating a class of new Americans. The struggle for these freedman to achieve the same status as their fellow citizens would prove to be difficult. Despite efforts to improve the social and economic status of African American after the Civil War they still faced racism and prejudice at the hands of the government and of their compatriots.
  • To what extent did Reconstruction bring African Americans the equality and freedom that slavery had denied them?
  • Task:
  • Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of social studies, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
  • Discuss the problems that African Americans faced after the Civil War.
  • Discuss ways in which the law conflicted with the reality of life for African Americans after the Civil War.
  • Your essay will be handwritten in class referencing at least 5 of the 8 documents.


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