Forces and Motion psc 1 Understand motion in terms of speed, velocity, acceleration, and momentum

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NCCCS College and Career Readiness Adult Education Standards for ASE SC 3: Physical Science

Forces and Motion

PSc.1.1 Understand motion in terms of speed, velocity, acceleration, and momentum.


What Learner Should Know, Understand, and Be Able to Do

Teaching Notes and Resources

PSc.1.1.1 Explain motion in terms of frame of reference, distance, and displacement.

Interpret all motion as relative to a selected reference point. Identify distance and displacement as a scalar-vector pair.

1.Force and Motion: Newton’s Three Laws video clip (2 minutes):

2. Distance and Displacement Activity:

3. Explanation of Distance and Displacement:

Describe motion qualitatively and quantitatively in terms of an object’s change of position, distance traveled, and displacement.

1. Vectors:

PSc.1.1.2 Compare speed, velocity, acceleration, and momentum using investigations, graphing, scalar quantities, and vector quantities.

Compare speed and velocity as a scalar-vector pair. Velocity is a relationship between displacement and time:

1. Speed/Velocity Definition:

2. Speed/Velocity Education Video:

3. Speed/Velocity Comparison Video:

Apply concepts of average speed and average velocity to solve conceptual and quantitative problems.

1. Khan Academy Problem Video:

Explain acceleration as a relationship between velocity and time:

1. Khan Academy Definition Video for Acceleration:

2. Acceleration Video:

Using graphical analysis, solve for displacement, time, and average velocity. Analyze conceptual trends in the displacement vs. time graphs such as constant velocity and acceleration.

1. Khan Academy Definition Video Graphs:

Using graphical analysis, solve for velocity, time, and average acceleration. Analyze conceptual trends in the velocity vs. time graphs such as constant velocity and acceleration.

1. Khan Academy Definition Video Graphs:

Infer how momentum is a relationship between mass and velocity of an object p=mv . The focus should be on the conceptual understanding that the same momentum could be associated with a slow-moving massive object and an object moving at high velocity with a very small mass (e.g.- 100 kg object moving 1 m/s has the same momentum as a 1-kg object moving 100m/s)

1. Khan Academy Introduction to Momentum:

2.Youtube Momentum Video:

Explain change in momentum in terms of the magnitude of the applied force and the time interval that the force is applied to the object. Everyday examples of the impulse/momentum relationship include: the use of airbags in cars; time of contact and “follow-through” in throwing, catching, kicking, and hitting objects in sports; bending your knees when you jump from a height to the ground to prevent injury.

1. Khan Academy Momentum Continued:

Forces and Motion

PSc.1.2 Understand the relationship between forces and motion.


What Learner Should Know, Understand, and Be Able to Do

Teaching Notes and Resources

PSc.1.2.1 Explain how gravitational force affects the weight of an object and the velocity of an object in free fall.

Recognize that the weight of an object is a measure of the force of gravity and is the product of its mass and the acceleration due to gravity: Fg = mg

1. Introduction to gravity:

2. Easy Weight Comparison Activity:

3. Quiz:

4. Comparison Between Mass and Weight:

4. Simulator:

With negligible air resistance, explain acceleration due to gravity as an example of uniformly changing velocity: g= 9.8 m/s2

1. Acceleration Due to Gravity:

Relate the presence of air resistance to the concept of terminal velocity of an object in free fall.

1. Air resistance example:

2. Program/Video of Air Resistance Explanation:

PSc.1.2.2 Classify frictional forces into one of four types: static, sliding, rolling, and fluid.

Identify friction as a force that opposes motion of an object. (Review from middle school.)

1. Friction Lesson Plan w/ Sim:

2. Friction Lab:

Classify the frictional forces present in a situation such as a book resting on a table (static), a box pushed across the floor (sliding), a ball rolling across the floor (rolling), a boat moving through a river (fluid), or an object in free-fall (air resistance).

1. Friction Wiki:

2. Rolling Friction:

3. Sliding Friction Lab:

4.Friction Lab:

PSc.1.2.3 Explain forces using Newton’s three laws of motion.

Explain the property of inertia as related to mass - the motion of an object will remain the same (either at rest or moving at a constant speed in a straight line) in the absence of unbalanced forces; if a change in motion of an object is observed, there must have been a net force on the object.

1.Intro to Newton’s Laws of Motion:

2. First Law Explanation Video:

Explain balanced and unbalanced forces mathematically and graphically with respect to acceleration to establish the relationship between net force, acceleration, and mass: a α F and a α 1/m (no trigonometry). Note: α is symbol for angular acceleration.

1. Balanced and Unbalanced Forces:

2. Balanced/Unbalanced Lab:

Explain qualitatively and quantitatively the relationship between force, mass and acceleration– the greater the force on an object, the greater its change in motion; however, the same amount of force applied to an object with less mass results in a greater acceleration.

1. NFL Learning:

2. Second Law of Motion Video:

3. Physics Classroom:

4. Motion Simulation:

While the second law describes a single object, forces always come in equal and opposite pairs due to interaction between objects. Give examples of interaction between objects describing Newton’s third law – whenever one object exerts a force on another, an equal and opposite force is exerted by the second on the first. The third law can be written mathematically as FA→B = -F B→A. Students should explain why these forces do not “cancel each other out”.

1. Third Law of Motion:

2. Third Law of Motion Test:

3. Newton’s Laws Summary:

Matter: Properties and Change

PSc.2.1 Understand types, properties, and structure of matter.


What Learner Should Know, Understand, and Be Able to Do

Teaching Notes and Resources

PSc.2.1.1 Classify matter as: homogeneous or heterogeneous; pure substance or mixture; element or compound; metals, nonmetals, or metalloids; solution, colloid, or suspension.

Classify a sample of matter as homogeneous or heterogeneous based on uniformity of the material.

1. Homo/Hetero Exercise:

2. Foundations of Chemistry:

3.Slide Show for Mixtures: - slide=1

Classify a sample of matter as a pure substance or mixture based on the number of elements or compounds in the sample.

1. Pure Substance Vs. Mixture Worksheet:

2. Mixtures Vs. Pure Substances Explanation:

Classify an element as a metal, nonmetal, or metalloid based on its location on the periodic table.

1. Metalloid Explanation:

2: Metal Explanation:

3. Nonmetal Explanation:

4. Periodic Table Explanation:

5. Metals/Nonmetals/Metalloids:

Classify a substance as an element or compound using its chemical formula.

1. Element Vs. Compound Explanation:

2. Element Vs. Compound Example: - element

Classify samples and sets of matter as a solution, colloid or suspension based on the application of characteristic properties: particle size, “settling out” of one or more components, and interaction with light (Tyndall Effect).

1. Solution, Colloid or Suspension:

2. Solution, Colloid or Suspension Video:

3. Tyndall Effect Video:

4. Khan Academy Video:

PSc.2.1.2 Explain the phases of matter and the physical changes that matter undergoes.

Develop a conceptual cause-and-effect model for the phase change process that shows the relationship among particle attraction, particle motion, and gain or loss of heat - when a solid melts it has absorbed heat that increased the potential energy of its particles (space between particles) thus reducing the attraction between particles so that they can flow in a liquid phase. (Consider conditions of normal atmospheric pressure as well as the qualitative affects of changes in pressure involving gases.)

1. Explanation:

2. Activity:

3. Simulation:

4. Khan Video:

The focus should be on the following phase changes: solid to liquid (melting), liquid to gas (vaporization), gas to liquid (condensation), and liquid to solid (freezing).

1. Phase Change Video:

Compare the process of evaporation to vaporization – materials that evaporate versus those which do not; attraction between surface particles and colliding air molecules.

1. Evap/Vap Video:

2. Evap/Vap Explanation:

Recognize that the formation of solutions is a physical change forming a homogenous mixture. (Review from middle school).

1. Solutions Wiki:

2. Solution Activity:

Develop a conceptual model for the solution process with a cause and effect relationship involving forces of attraction between solute and solvent particles. A material is insoluble due to a lack of attraction between particles.

1. Khan Video:

2. Solution Explanation: 13.pdf

3. Solution Lab:

4. Solution Simulation:

Interpret solubility curves to determine the amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent (typically water) at a given temperature.

1. Solubility Curve Video:

2. Understanding Solubility Curves

Qualitatively explain concentration of solutions as saturated, unsaturated or supersaturated; dilute or concentrated.

1. Solubility Video: (0 min to 2min 10sec)

2. Different Saturations Presentation:

3. Dilute Vs. Concentrated Explanation (See Pages 1-2):

4. Dilute VS. Concentrated Prezi:

PSc.2.1.3 Compare physical and chemical properties of various types of matter.

Calculate the density of different substances using the relationship. D=M/V

1. Density Simulation:

2. Density Explanation Video:

Compare physical properties of a mixture that could be used to separate its components such as solubility, density, boiling point, magnetic property, etc.

1. Physical Property:

2.Density Clarification – Physical Property:

3. Solubility Clarification Physical Property:

4. Boiling Point Clarification – Physical Property:

5. Magnetic Properties – Physical Property:

Compare various physical and chemical properties of metals, nonmetals and metalloids such as state of matter at a given temperature, density, melting point, boiling point, luster, conductivity, ductility, malleability, color, reactivity, etc.

1. Physical and Chemical Properties of METALS flash cards:

2.Physical and Chemical Properties of Metals/nonmetals and metalloids quiz:

3. Metalloids About Page:

4. Metals About Page:

5. Nonmetals About Page:

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